Method and apparatus for regulating temperature in greenhouse

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in buildings greenhouses, for example, in the winter block of soil greenhouse for heating and cooling efficiency of the air in the summer and regulation changes of night and day temperatures, spring and autumn periods.

A known method of regulating the temperature of the greenhouse, which consists in the fact that in cold weather in cold areas include heating, and in the warm season at elevated temperature - forced ventilation or natural ventilation through transoms (Greenhouses and greenhouses. Handbook edited Him. Kiev: Vintage, 1993, str).

The disadvantage of this method and the equipment for this method is that expensive heating equipment is used only in winter, and in summer the heat accumulates in the greenhouse from solar radiation, do not use. To reset this heat necessary cost of electricity for ventilation. When opening the same transoms is infected plants from penetrating inside insects.

There is also known a method of heating greenhouses with heat pump. In the evaporator of the heat pump for heating greenhouses evaporation of the refrigerant from the supply of low-grade heat, such as from water or atmospheric in the spirit. Chilled in the evaporator water is returned to the reservoir and the air in the atmosphere. In the compressor of the heat pump working fluid is compressed, which takes energy. After the compressor of the heat pump refrigerant vapors enter the condenser where it condenses, giving up heat to the water circulating in the heating system in the greenhouse Greenhouses and greenhouses. Handbook edited Him. Kiev: Vintage, 1993, str).

The disadvantage of this method is that heat is pumped from the environment (water, air), with winter low temperature. This leads to increased energy consumption due to lower temperature of the used coolant in the winter.

The known method and equipment for its implementation, can be used to reduce overheating of the air and plants in greenhouses by sprinkling the roof. In this case, applying a fixed piping system. The water spray is carried out with special nozzles. Infrared radiation absorb not only water film, and fine water cloud. Under sprinkler irrigation of the roof the air temperature in the greenhouse and plant leaves in the upper tiers is reduced by 5-10° with open transoms (Greenhouses and greenhouses. The Handbook, edited by Gil, Kiev: Vintage, 1993, page 317).

The disadvantage of this method and equipment for implementing the Oia is the increased consumption of water and loss of water through evaporation and entrainment by the wind, the need to have a team capacity of large volume (tank), and also a small decrease in temperature (only 5-10°). In addition, through the open transom possibly infecting plants. When implementing this method and equipment for its implementation does not use thermal energy, greenhouse cultivation.

A prototype of the proposed method is adopted the method of heating the soil in the greenhouse, which consists in the fact that by means of condensing unit (heat pump) heat atmospheric air is pumped into the heating system of the soil (RF Patent No. 2042317, A 01 G 9/24, 1995, BI. No. 24).

The prototype of the proposed device contains soil battery water battery connected to the water distribution and collection manifolds, water pump, heat pump evaporators located outside of the greenhouse, pipelines, liquid and gaseous refrigerants connected to the evaporators.

Soil battery is made with water, and the piping hot water heat pump is connected to the inlet side of the water pump, the outlet of which is connected to the water distribution manifold and the drainage collector is connected to the piping of the cooling water heat pump (Patent RF №2042317, A 01 G 9/24, 1995, BI. No. 24).

The characteristics of the prototype by the way, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed method, is the following.

The method of regulating the temperature of the greenhouse is pumping through the heat pump heat energy from low-grade heat source in the heating system.

The characteristics of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed device, the following.

The device controlling the temperature of the greenhouse contains a heating system with a water pump, the heat pump evaporator and the condenser.

Barriers to obtaining the required technical result of the prototype of the proposed method and device for its implementation lies in the fact that their use does not provide a significant reduction in energy consumption for heating greenhouses, as the heat for heating the greenhouse is from the cold air. The use of this method and device is possible only in the heating period, i.e. the method does not provide year-round optimal temperature conditions for the growth and development of plants. It does not use the excess heat in the warm period. Consequently, yield, productivity and profitability greenhouse production low.

The claimed technical result is increased productivity, performance and profitability of greenhouse production due to a year-round supply of optimalen the x temperature conditions growth and development of plants, the reduction of energy consumption of the greenhouse during the heating season, as well as the ability to capture and use the excess heat in the warm period.

This result can be obtained by carrying out the proposed method and is achieved by the fact that low-grade heat is taken away from water cooling system, cooling the water, then spray it under the roof to absorb heat, collect catchment screen in tank cooling system from which the absorbed water heat is pumped into the tank heating system.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the inventive device is equipped with a cooling system, which consists of a tank with built-in heat pump evaporator, spray piping connected to the tank through the water pump and bred under the roof of the greenhouse. Under these pipelines installed drainage screen. The heating system is supplied by a tank with built-in condenser of the heat pump.

The essential features of the proposed method are as follows.

The method of regulating the temperature of the greenhouse is to pump heat pump heat energy from low-grade heat source in the heating system.

Low-grade heat is taken away from water cooling system, cooling this in the DN. Then sprinkle it under the roof to absorb heat and collect catchment screen in tank cooling system from which the absorbed water heat is pumped into the tank heating system.

Unlike the prototype in the present method of low-grade heat is withdrawn from the water cooling system, cooling the water, then this water spray under the roof to absorb heat and collect its catchment screen in tank cooling system from which the absorbed water heat is pumped into the tank heating system.

Unlike the prototype of a device for implementing this method, equipped with a cooling system consisting of a tank with built-in heat pump evaporator, spray piping connected to the tank through the water pump and bred under the roof of the greenhouse. Under these pipelines installed drainage screen. The heating system is equipped with a tank with built-in condenser of the heat pump.

Upon cooling, water cooling system with heat pump pumping heat from the cooling tank systems tank heating system, thereby heat water heating systems, which heat the greenhouse.

Using the water pump and the spray piping chilled water from the tank, the cooler the second system POPs under the roof of the greenhouse to intercept the upward convective flow of heat, thereby cooling the air under the roof of the greenhouse.

Due to the heat of the sprayed water is heated and by means of catchment screen returns to the tank cooling system from which the absorbed water heat heat pump again served in the tank heating system.

The spray pipes connected to the tank of the cooling system through the water pump and bred under the roof of the greenhouse, and mounted them under the catchment screen allow you not to use bulky and expensive heat exchangers and to collect heat from the large volume of the greenhouse. Furthermore, the presence of the catchment of the screen under the spray pipes allow to cool large volumes of air to the spray water without bulky heat exchangers, while protecting the plants from the spray of the water and separating the warm workspace cooled from outside the area, thereby decreasing the volume of the heated space of the greenhouse, i.e. heating only the surface layer of the soil with plants. Catchment screen also serves as an additional internal barrier, suppressing convection and infiltration heat flow, reduces heat losses of the greenhouse in the atmosphere. As in tank cooling system mounted evaporator of the heat pump, this allows the cooling water, at the same time, otbi the th heat to supply it into the heating system.

The fact that the heating system is supplied by a tank with built-in condenser heat pump can heat water in the heating system due to the trapped heat of the cooling system.

An example of implementation of the proposed method.

In winter, cooled by the evaporator of the heat pump water into the tank of the cooling system. Thus take low-grade heat from the cooling system and submit it through the condenser of this unit in the tank heating system. Water heating system heats up. With the help of water pump the heated water circulates through the entire heating system, warming the soil and air of the greenhouse. Chilled water from the tank for the cooling water pump cooling system POPs under the roof of the greenhouse through the spray pipes for catching thermals and radiation heat fluxes at the same time cooling the air under the roof of the greenhouse and heating the spray water. This water is collected catchment screen and served in tank cooling system, where again the heat pump this water is cooled, and the collected water heat pump this pump in the heating system.

In the summer the same way cooled in the tank for the cooling water spray under the roof of the greenhouse for cooling. At the same time, the and, of course, heated. Heated water catchment screen collect and return to the tank of the cooling system, from which the heat pump absorbed water heat, as well as in winter, served in a tank heating system, from which the heated heat absorbed water serves not already in the heating system and the consumer, for example in a system of communal hot water or for other purposes.

In autumn and spring periods in the daytime when the excess heat is cooled greenhouse in the same way, accumulating heat in the system subsoil heating greenhouses, i.e. in the soil, heating it. At night the ground, slowly cooling down, will heat the air in the greenhouse, adjusting the temperature of the greenhouse and not allowing the big differences between nighttime and daytime temperatures.

The drawing shows a General view of the proposed device for implementing the method of regulating the temperature of the greenhouse.

The device contains a heating system 1, the tank heating system 2, the water pump 3 heating system 1, the heat pump 4, the capacitor 5 of the heat pump 4, located in the tank 2 heating system 1, the cooling system comprising an evaporator 6 heat pump 4, which is located in the tank 7 cooling system, water pump 8 spray piping 9, the drainage of the screen 10, is the CSO under the spray pipes 9, the drainage collector 11 and roof of the greenhouse 12. To switch the system operation in summer mode with the water supply system hot water supply 13 is used, the switch 14. Cold water in the system is supplied from the water supply 15 through the valve 16.

The device operates as follows.

Heat pump 4 via a built-in tank 7 for the cooling of the evaporator 6 is cooled by the water in the tank 7 cooling system. This water is the water pump 8 cooling system is supplied to the spray pipes 9, where it is sprayed under the roof 12 of the greenhouse to absorb the heat of the greenhouse. Heated absorbed the warmth of the water catchment screen 10 is collected and directed into the tank 7 cooling system where the evaporator 6 heat pump 4 absorbed heat is withdrawn, the cooling in this water, and fed through a capacitor 5 heat pump 4 in the tank 2 heating system 1 for heating of water for this system. From the tank 2 heating system water pump 3 this system, hot water is directed to circulate in the heating system 1.

Thus, cooling water cooling system with heat pump, thereby drawing heat from the cooling system and submit it to the heating system. Reducing the air temperature to the spray of cold water under the roof greenhouses trap heat and returns the t it into the heating system. This is directly proportional to the cooling air reduces the heat loss through the enclosure of the greenhouse, since the heat losses depend on the temperature difference between the inner and outer sides of the fence greenhouse.

In the summer due to solar energy, thus reducing the temperature inside the greenhouse, with each square meter of the greenhouse can be when it is cooled to submit to the system of hot water supply up to 5 kWh captured thermal energy per day or 5000 kWh with 1000 square meters of greenhouses in the day.

In spring and autumn periods in the daytime heat from the upper part of the greenhouse is pumped into the system subsoil heating and accumulate in the soil, which leads to an increase of ground temperature and surface air in the greenhouse at night, i.e. smoothing of day and night temperatures, providing comfortable conditions for the development of plants.

In winter during the heating season, cooling water cooling system using a heat pump drawing heat from the cooling system and submit it to the heating system. Thus each unit of energy spent on the operation of the heat pump serves in 2-2,5 times more heat energy in the heating system, reducing the energy consumption of the greenhouse.

Thus, in the winter heating period using the proposed method and device the VA for its implementation allows to reduce energy consumption due to:

- reduce the temperature difference between the inner and outer sides of the fence greenhouses, respectively, reduce heat loss. For example, for the greenhouse useful area of 1000 square meters at lower temperature under the roof from 20 to 10° reduce heat loss will be:

6 W/m2·°With× (20-10)°× 1000 m2=60000 W=60 kW;

- return of the captured using a heat pump thermal energy in 2-2,5 times in comparison with conventional heating.

In the summer due to solar energy per square meter of greenhouse can be when it is cooled to submit to the system of hot water supply up to 5 kWh captured thermal energy per day or 5000 kWh with 1000 square meters of greenhouses in the day.

Year-round operation of greenhouses in the comfort of plant mode will increase the yield and quality of products and increase the profitability of greenhouse production.

1. The method of regulating the temperature of the greenhouse, which consists in pumping heat pump energy from low-grade heat source in the heating system, characterized in that the low-grade heat is taken away from water cooling system, cooling the water, then spray it under the roof to absorb heat, collect catchment screen in tank cooling system from which p is gewinne heat is pumped into the tank heating system.

2. The device controlling the temperature of the greenhouse, containing the heating system with water pump, the heat pump evaporator and the condenser, characterized in that it is provided with a cooling system consisting of a tank with built-in heat pump evaporator, spray piping connected to the tank through the water pump and bred under the roof of the greenhouse, and assembled under these pipelines catchment of the screen, and the heating system is equipped with a tank with built-in condenser of the heat pump.



 

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