Penetrating agent for liquid capillary flaw detection

FIELD: measuring processes and devices.

SUBSTANCE: penetrating agent used for detecting on oleophilic surface flaws with opening until l0.5 micrometers contains "main crimson" dyeing agent of fireproofing compounds with quinoid group and in addition it contains fatty acid and benzyl benzoate. Said ingredients are taken in relation (mass %): dyeing agent, 3.0 - 5.0; non-ionogenic surface active matter, 0.5 -1.0; fatty acid, 10.0 - 15.0; benzyl benzoate, 5.0 -10.0; hydrocarbon base - up to 100.

EFFECT: enhance accuracy and responsibility of measurements.

3 cl, 2 tbl

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the composition of the liquid indicator of penetrants for color liquid penetrant inspection of machine parts, made mostly of oleophilic materials and working in conditions of intensive (often alternating) thermomechanical loads. Such penetrants are used for detection, as a rule, surface microdefects in arbitrary pipelines and tanks, thermal power plants and in important parts of sea and river (especially tankers) vessels, vehicles, aircraft and other engineering products.

The level of technology

The massive need for penetrants due to:

first, the fact that microcracks, deaf pores in massive detail and, especially, through the pores in pipes and tanks, delamination and other surface or facing surface microdefects serve as stress concentrators in the machine parts, and therefore should be proactively identified and addressed;

secondly, the fact that with the development of systems after-sales service and repair of engineering products, especially with the use of welding and surfacing of various types of defects occur more often than less qualified repairmen;

thirdly, the fact that liquid penetrant inspection in comparison with other cf is a funds-surface defect gives the most visible results and therefore available even for low-skilled staff.

Therefore, the penetrants must:

to have a higher penetration ability and sensitivity, which are usually estimated by the minimum transverse dimension (“disclosure”) of detected defects,

to be less prone to fire and toxic for users (and therefore do not require special precautions in their manufacture, packing, storage, transportation and use)

virtually eliminate corrosion of objects NDT

to be practically safe for the natural environment and to provide lower cost of inspection.

Separate implementation of these requirements and combinations of some of them is easy, because the typical composition of penetrants long time defined and includes:

at least one dye, which is provided penetration into the cavity of the surface defect and the subsequent manifestations - contrast highlights this defect on the background of the workpiece surface,

at least one-component liquid basis, which in all cases is a dispersive medium for dye and at least partially “means of transport” for the introduction of a dye into the depth of detected defects, and

at least one surface-active substance (hereinafter SAS) to facilitate dispersion of the dye in the liquid base, the article is stabilizing the solution obtained dispersion and facilitate wetting of the walls of the detected defects of this dispersion even when inspection of products of oleophilic materials.

A classic example of such a structure can serve as a liquid indicator penetrant known from GB 763885 and US 2806959. It contains (wt.%):

approximately 15% of the organic luminescent dyes,

approximately 45% of the purified aromatic components of kerosene as the basis, and

about 40% of organic surfactant.

Kerosene publicly available, cheap, practically non-toxic, perfectly wets the metal surface and easily “drawn” in the cavity of any microdefects, but because for a long time and regularly serves as a basis for many of penetrants for liquid penetrant inspection. However, he does not by itself can provide no contrast between the areas of the defects and the rest of the surface of the controlled product or to provide stable dispersions (suspensions, emulsions and, moreover, the true solution) dye.

Phosphors provide excellent contrast, but the roads are poorly soluble in kerosene and, taken by themselves, are not able to penetrate into the cavity of microdefects.

That is why they entered in the above-described penetrant in very high concentrations in combination with the also expensive surfactants in an even greater concentration.

Attempts to reduce the cost and simplify liquid liquid penetrant testing the creation and application of penetrants water-based application to products of oleophilic materials were Neue is acname.

For example, SU 1679308 known set of materials for liquid penetrant inspection, comprising a set of reagents (in particular, an aqueous solution of a suitable salt of Nickel with the original light green color and sodium nitrate with the addition of isopropanol and an aqueous solution of ammonia), are able to purchase a bright pink-red color.

However, the penetrants of this type are not widely used due to the corrosive activity necessary to prepare the mixture just before application to the surface of the test object and poor wetting oleophilic materials.

Further known penetrants, water-based using a publicly available practically nontoxic widely known dyes and surfactants do not have the sensitivity required for non-destructive testing of critical parts of machines. So, penetrant according to SU 353945, which includes (wt.%):

dye “With rhodamine 2-3

a mixture of “wetting” (SAS), which includes:

ethanol 20-25

sultanol 2-3

passivator - sodium nitrate 2-3

water to 100

detects defects with opening not less than 5 μm. This is acceptable for nondestructive inspection of welds on products operating at static loads in terrestrial conditions (e.g., construction steel structures). However, for quality control of products in the chemical industry the items, energy and transport machinery such sensitivity is clearly insufficient.

Even the best penetrant such (see SU 539058), which contains (wt.%):

dye fuchsin acid 6,0-7,0

a mixture of “wetting” (SAS), which includes:

tartaric acid 6,0-7,0

reinsulate of 0.5-1.5

water to 100

allows you to detect surface microdefects with opening not less than 3 μm.

However, such sensitivity is insufficient for effective quality control of critical parts. Moreover, the defects with the specified disclosure can be detected only under the condition that the surface roughness Rz20.

Therefore, to detect surface defects in products made oleophilic materials preferred penetrants on the basis of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

Unfortunately, Arsenal is easily soluble in hydrocarbons dyes is small, and their penetration into cavity surface defects usually difficult.

For example, the well-known penetrants, including dye Sudan IV, long removed from production due to the high toxicity and flammable basis in the form of hydrocarbons with a high boiling point and additives, volatile at a temperature of less than 25° C.

One of the penetrants such includes 10-15 g of the dye Sudan IV 1.0 l of a mixture of kerosene and turpentine in the ratio 80/0% wt. (Laboratory work on the quality control of welded joints. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1966, p.69).

More exotic part of the same genus includes (wt.%):

mineral oil 0,5-0,3

fluorocarbons 35,0-40,0

1st dye Sudan IV 0.5 to 1.5

2nd Nigrosine dye 0,05-0,12

the solvent (turpentine and/or xylene), 100

Obviously, all of these penetrants (and especially the last) are flammable and toxic, and for this reason their use is discouraged.

Significantly less flammable and toxic for liquid penetrant liquid penetrant testing according to EN 2136718 C1, which is closest to the proposed next to the penetrant to the technical nature. In known penetrant included (wt.%):

organic dye “Noriel B” 25

petroleum base, which includes:

the working fluid brands RJ-3 65

gasoline B-70 10

at least one nonionic surfactant 3 g/l mixture

Indeed, the working fluid brands RJ-3 represents devoid of aromatic compounds (and therefore practically non-toxic) product deep hydrogenation kerosene fraction of crude oil with a flash point 80-86° C. unfortunately, due to the presence of hydrocarbon-based volatile gasoline B-70 rating known penetrant remains visible.

But more importantly, despite the very high is (25% wt.) the concentration of fluorescent dye “Noriel B”, which is obtained on the basis of the high-boiling fraction Norilsk oil, known penetrant does not allow to detect surface defects with opening less than 3 microns.

Summary of the invention

The basis of the invention is the replacement of the dye, the addition of the composition and refinement ratios of ingredients to create such a penetrant, which would provide identification on the oleophilic surface defects and disclosure to 0.5 μm.

This problem is solved by the fact that for liquid penetrant liquid penetrant inspection containing hydrocarbon-based product deep hydrogenation kerosene fraction of crude oil, organic dye and at least one nonionic surface-active agent (surfactant), according to the invention contains a “main crimson” dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group and further comprises a fatty acid and benzyl benzoate, and the ingredients are taken in the following ratio (% wt.):

basic raspberry 3,0-5,0

nonionic surfactant of 0.5-1.0

fatty acid 10,0-15,0

the benzyl benzoate 5,0-10,0

petroleum base 100

As confirmed by the following experiments, the dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group in combination with other ingredients in the specified ratio ensures the detection of surface defects with rscr what events to 0.5 μm in surface roughness R z=20-40. Indeed, this dye itself has surface activity and therefore can be dissolved in the hydrocarbon. In combination with a fatty acid, a nonionic surfactant and, optionally, benzyl benzoate “main crimson” in the amount of up to 5% wt. forms in oil based almost true solution is able to penetrate into the surface defects with the specified disclosure. Further, the extinction coefficient of the specified dye not below 40000 at pH(5-6). Finally, the maximum in the spectrum of its transmission has a wavelength of 510 nm. Therefore, even when the concentration of the dye in the penetrant about 3% wt. in the layer of the developer in the locations of the defects arise bright crimson spots.

The first additional difference is that the fatty acid is selected from the group consisting of n-hexane, oleic and palmitic acids. They are readily available and almost equivalent as donors oleophilic anions, facilitating the dispersion of the colorant main crimson” in the hydrocarbons and contact with the oleophilic surfaces of objects, on which traces of the non-aqueous lubricating and cooling technological environments or other lubricants.

A second difference is that the non-ionic surfactant selected from the group consisting of neonols, cintanya, wetting On the -7, the wetting OP-10, or mixtures thereof. This allows you to choose the best available surfactants at almost the same efficiency liquid penetrant inspection.

It is clear that the choice of specific options of the penetrants possible different combinations of these additional differences from the basic inventive concept that this plan within the limits defined by the claims, may be supplemented and/or updated using the usual knowledge of the specialists and that the following examples in no way limit the scope of rights based on inventions.

The best examples of the implementation of the inventive concept

Next, the essence of the invention is illustrated:

description of the method of manufacturing antivirusoveho dye with quinoid group that has a common name “main crimson” (hereinafter abbreviated as “MD”) and rational name “diantimony-(4-dimethylaminophenyl) carbene”taken in the form of a suitable salt,

examples of specific compounds and description of manufacturing methods and the practical application of the indicator of penetrants and

a description of the methodology and the results of their tests on standard samples of surface and extending to the surface through defects.

The basis of “OM” get taken by a simple mixing in a molar ratio of 2/1 antipyrine and dimethyl-p-aminobenzyl is Egida in an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid density of 1.19 g/cm 3. After about half an hour the mixture is diluted with water (not more than one and a half times by volume) and incubated at room temperature for at least an hour (and mostly up to 12 hours) before rolling the pink crystals. The precipitate was separated by filtration, as a rule, washed with water and at least once recrystallized from aqueous hydrochloric acid density of 1.19 g/cm3obtaining an intermediate in the form of pink crystals desalinating Lamonova diantimony-dimethyl-p-aminophenylamino (no worse than 66.5% of theoretical).

This Lamonova is converted into the carbinol compound under the action of ferric chloride. For this Lamonova usually dissolved in distilled water (in particular, in the ratio of 2.6/16 kg/kg), dissolved ferric chloride also usually distilled water (in particular, in the ratio of 2.4/18 kg/kg), with constant stirring combine these solutions, heat the mixture to a temperature of 80-85° C and maintained at this temperature for about 1.5 hours. Next, while continuing the stirring, the mixture is cooled naturally to room temperature, slow (trickle) add 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to achieve pH=8-8,5, the mixture was kept at room temperature for 20-22 hours prior to the precipitation of iron hydroxide, which which is separated by filtration.

The filtrate is treated with 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution until the disappearance of the red color (usually to a pH of 9.7 to 10.0) and sedimentation carbinol compounds “OM”. For completeness of the precipitation mass incubated at room temperature for 18-20 hours, the precipitate was separated by filtration, at least twice washed on the filter with 5% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to remove traces of chlorine ions, drained, dried to constant mass at a temperature of 75-80° and further used for preparation of penetrants for liquid penetrant testing.

The method of manufacture of penetrants is as follows:

a) in the above in the invention and forth in table 1, the range of proportions of ingredients to choose specific recipes indicator of penetrant;

b) dispense the required quantity determined at the stage (a) ingredients;

C) mixed dose of dye OHMS (in the form of dry carbinol compounds), benzyl benzoate, selected fatty acids and selected surfactants,

g) diluted obtained in stage (b) a mixture of the above hydrocarbon-based and get a working solution “OM”.

To test the feasibility and effectiveness of the invention were made and tested indicator penetrants that contain ingredients in amounts indicated in table 1.

Table 1

The indicator compositions of penetrants for testing
IngredientsThe number ingregienov (% wt.) examples
123456
dye OHMS3,04,55,03,04,55,0
the benzyl benzoate5,06,07,08,09,010,0
nonionic surfactantsneonol0,5-----
sentenal-1,00,5---
OP-7---0,750,250,25
OP-10----0,250,25
acidn-hexane---5,0--
oleic12,515,0---
palmitic----12,515,0
petroleum basethe rest is up to 100

To test the effectiveness of penetrants used:

a) laboratory samples of tin brass, chrome plated thickness of about 50 μm, which had a surface roughness in the range of Rz=30-40 and surface defects with successively smaller opening in the range of 2 μm, 1 μm and 0.5 μm in the form of cracks, obtained by a controlled fracture of the specified coating on a mechanical press, and

b) the control of leakage in the form of tightly fixed in metal washers and calibrated diameter in the range of 1.5 μm to 1.0 μm and 0.5 μm glass capillaries with a length not less than 30 μm, which served as models through defects appearing on the surface of parts.

The tests were carried out in a series of 10 experiments with each sample and each listed in table 1 compositions indicator of penetrants as follows:

every subject penetrant was applied (usually with a brush) on the sample surface, carefully cleaned from mechanical impurities or residues from p is alawites, which was used in every previous experiment;

each covered penetrant sample was kept for 5 minutes, wash off the excess of penetrant water, drained surface with a cotton cloth and put the developer in the form of a 10% suspension of titanium dioxide in a mixture of acetone and diethyl ether with the addition of medical collodion;

the defects were determined by the appearance of crimson spots in the layer of the developer.

The results recorded in the form of a ratio of the number of experiments in each series and the number of successful experiments on the detection of defects with known disclosure. These data are shown in table 2.

Table 2

The test results indicator of penetrants
The number of samplesType and size (in microns) of detected defects
crackscontrol leakage
2,01,00,51,51,00,5
110/1010/1010/910/1010/1010/10
210/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/10
310/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/10
410/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/8
510/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/9
610/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/10

Industrial applicability

Analysis of the data from table 2 indicates the high efficiency of penetrants according to the invention.

Such indicator penetrants can be made arbitrary parties on request. They are almost safe in the production, storage and application and can be used for reliable color liquid penetrant inspection with minimum level of training of personnel.

For cleaning parts from the remnants of penetrant can use public water and/or ethanol and/or ethylene glycol, and removal of the developer - acetone.

1. For liquid penetrant liquid penetrant inspection containing hydrocarbon-based product deep hydrogenation kerosene fraction of crude oil, organic dye and at least one nonionic surface-active the second substance (surfactant), characterized in that it contains a "main crimson" dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group and further comprises a fatty acid and benzyl benzoate, and the ingredients are taken in such a ratio, wt.%:

Basic raspberry 3,0-5,0

Nonionic surfactant of 0.5-1.0

Fatty acid 10,0-15,0

The benzyl benzoate 5,0-10,0

Petroleum base 100

2. Penetrant according to claim 1, characterized in that the fatty acid is selected from the group consisting of n-hexane, oleic and palmitic acids.

3. Penetrant according to claim 1, characterized in that the nonionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of neonols, cintanya, wetting OP-7, wetting OP-10, or mixtures thereof.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect defects at opening about 1 mcm at coarse surface a penetrating agent contains "the main raspberry" dyestuff of antipyrinic group with quinoid group and non-ionogenic SAS and it, additionally, contains acidic supplement , moreover, these ingredients should be taken at the following ratio (weight%): the main raspberry dyestuff 3.0-5.0, non-ionogenic SAS 0.5-1.0, acid - at the quantity from low acidic to approximately neutral pH, water - the rest.

EFFECT: higher sensitivity.

3 cl, 2 tbl

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FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect defects at opening about 1 mcm at coarse surface a penetrating agent contains "the main raspberry" dyestuff of antipyrinic group with quinoid group and non-ionogenic SAS and it, additionally, contains acidic supplement , moreover, these ingredients should be taken at the following ratio (weight%): the main raspberry dyestuff 3.0-5.0, non-ionogenic SAS 0.5-1.0, acid - at the quantity from low acidic to approximately neutral pH, water - the rest.

EFFECT: higher sensitivity.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: measuring processes and devices.

SUBSTANCE: penetrating agent used for detecting on oleophilic surface flaws with opening until l0.5 micrometers contains "main crimson" dyeing agent of fireproofing compounds with quinoid group and in addition it contains fatty acid and benzyl benzoate. Said ingredients are taken in relation (mass %): dyeing agent, 3.0 - 5.0; non-ionogenic surface active matter, 0.5 -1.0; fatty acid, 10.0 - 15.0; benzyl benzoate, 5.0 -10.0; hydrocarbon base - up to 100.

EFFECT: enhance accuracy and responsibility of measurements.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: nondestructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: color chemical reaction between penetrant and developer is used for defect indication. Penetrant has surface-active substance (SAS), ethyl alcohol, water, boric acid. Developer has glycerin, kaolin, SAS, ethyl alcohol, bromine-thymol blue indicator and PH regulator for achieving initial blue-green color.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

FIELD: analyzing and investigating materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises processing the surface with a water-soluble penetrating agent, applying developer, recording defects, and washing the surface with water. Each of the washings is carried out in two baths arranged in series, with fresh water being supplied to the second bath in amount that is determined by the permissible concentration of contaminant and overflowing the water from the second bath to the first one in the direction opposite to the movement of the article.

EFFECT: improved method and reduced cost of control.

1 dwg

FIELD: capillary defectoscopy; compositions of the color penetrants.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the color capillary defectoscopy, in particular, to the compositions of the color penetrants applied to the color control over the items of the high-duty. The penetrant contains the mixture of the following composition: xanthene dyes of the yellow-orange fluoresceine and red-dark blue rhodamine of 3-6 %, the surfactant of 10-40 %, the rest - the dissolvent. The ratio of the mixture of the yellow-orange and the dark blue - red dyes compounds 1:2, as the surfactant use neonol or syntanol. The technical result of the invention is creation of the color penetrant of the lowered volatility, the reduced flammability, the extra-high sensitivity ensuring detection of the minimal flaw with the opening width of 0.5-1 microns and the improved reliability and stability of the monitoring of the items in conditions of repairs and operation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures detection of the minimal flaw with the opening width of about 1 micron, improved reliability and stability of the monitoring of the items in conditions of repairs and operation.

1 tbl

FIELD: flaw detection technologies, non-destructive control methods.

SUBSTANCE: method for controlling products by means of luminescent magneto-powder or capillary flaw detection includes observing images of defects in products produced during flaw detection and following analysis of these images. In accordance to method, product surface being controlled is irradiated firstly with light, causing luminescence of agent used during magneto-powder or capillary flaw detection, and light, not causing luminescence of aforementioned agent. To detect flaws, comparison of produced images is performed using computing device. Received images are recorded by means of at least one video camera. As computing device, computer connected to video camera is used.

EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical means, used for flaw detection, creation of method for non-destructive control of products of any configuration, providing for automatic finding and analysis of defects in products.

3 cl

FIELD: analysis of materials.

SUBSTANCE: dependence of weight and diameter of particles is determined on diameter of the particles' prints onto substrate. Fixing indicator substrate is scanned together with particles of applied aerosol to get contrast image and computer system is used to process of video images of fixing indicator substrates with particles of aerosol applied onto it. To register video images, digital cameras are used with variable discrete resolution which allows widening of range of sizes of aerosol particles.

EFFECT: improved precision; improved truth of results.

2 cl, 5 tbl

FIELD: capillary luminescent flaw detection, possible use in aviation, automobile, shipbuilding and other branches of mechanical engineering, and also power engineering, chemical and nuclear industries for detection of surface defects, cracks, pores, foliating, abscesses, inter-crystallite corrosion and other defects of material discontinuity flaw type, primarily with small dimensions, in case of especially precise control of products.

SUBSTANCE: penetration agent includes organic phosphor, non-ionic surfactant and solvent, while as organic phosphor a mixture of phosphors from the class of coumarin colorants is used - mixture of donor-coumarin and acceptor-coumarin, as nonionic surfactant a specially defined substance is used, and as solvent a mixture of dibutyl phthalate and propylene carbonate is used with mass ratio ranging from 1:1,5 to 1:0,8. As donor-coumarin, 4-methyl-7-dethyl amine coumarin (K-47) may be used, and as coumarin-acceptor, at least one coumarin of yellow-green luminescence, with mass ratio ranging from 1,1:1 to 1,8:1.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity and reliability of flaw detection, while simultaneously reducing fire hazard and toxicity of used composition.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of an indestructible control.

SUBSTANCE: the magneto-luminescent method is in that the controlled article is magnetized, suspension with magneto-luminescent powder or dried powder is put on its surface. The controlled surface is irradiated with ultra-violet light and on points of luminescence of the powder availability of defects in the article is defined. An optical spectrometer whose entrance slit receives light information about its condition with the aid of light pipe is used in quality of automatic arrangement for registration of the indicative image of defects on the controlled surface. Scanning the area of the controlled surface is executed by displacement of an entrance face of the light pipe or by displacement of the object itself relatively to the light pipe.

EFFECT: increases reliability of the results of control.

FIELD: printing industry; other industries; method and the device used for marking and control of the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of printing industry and may be used for control over the length of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll. The special feature of the method of the marking and control over the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll is that in the capacity of the controlled parameter select the length of the paper sheet strip(1) of the output paper roll (2). In the capacity of the control marks (3) use the digital code with the element indicating the direction of reading-out. The spacing (4) between the control marks (3) take of the preset value. The received data are stored in the memory unit of the computer (8). The special feature of the system used for marking and control over the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output roll is that it additionally contains in series located between the marking tool (10) and the unit of the optical-electronic devices of the control and registration(5) there is the speed sensor (11) and the cutting apparatus (13). The speed sensor (11) and the marking tools are switch-connected with the computer (8). The software the computer (8) is formed with the capability of application by tools of marking (10) of the control marks (3) by the method of printing on the field of the paper sheet strip (1) along the whole length of the roll (2) with the spacing (4) of the preset value, registration of the spacing value (4) between the control marks (3), memorizing of the observed and transformed readings in the memory unit of the computer (8) with provision of saving of the information and the capability of its delivery to the appropriate information carriers. The invention ensures the increased accuracy of the control over the paper sheet strip length.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased accuracy of the control over the paper sheet strip length.

7 cl, 5 dwg

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