Indicator penetrating agent for capillary defectoscopy

FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect defects at opening about 1 mcm at coarse surface a penetrating agent contains "the main raspberry" dyestuff of antipyrinic group with quinoid group and non-ionogenic SAS and it, additionally, contains acidic supplement , moreover, these ingredients should be taken at the following ratio (weight%): the main raspberry dyestuff 3.0-5.0, non-ionogenic SAS 0.5-1.0, acid - at the quantity from low acidic to approximately neutral pH, water - the rest.

EFFECT: higher sensitivity.

3 cl, 2 tbl

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the qualitative and quantitative composition of the liquid indicator of penetrants for liquid penetrant inspection, that is, to identify, as a rule, surface microdefects in machine parts, made predominantly of hydrophilic materials and working in conditions of intensive and often alternating (thermo)mechanical loads. Such penetrants can be used for in-process and final quality control of parts in manufacturing plants and in the operation and repair of pipelines, equipment, chemical plants and power plants, the installation, maintenance and repair of water, gas and heat supply arbitrary buildings under construction (manufacturing), maintenance and repair of marine and river (especially tankers) vessels, means of road transport, aircraft and many other engineering products.

The level of technology

The massive need for penetrants due to:

first, the fact that microcracks, deaf pores in massive detail and especially through the pores in pipes and tanks, delamination and other surface or facing surface microdefects serve as stress concentrators in the machine parts, and therefore should be proactively identified and addressed;

in the second place, the fact that, as the development of systems after-sales service and repair of engineering products, especially with the use of welding and surfacing of various types of defects occur more often than less qualified repairmen;

thirdly, the fact that liquid penetrant inspection in comparison with other means of detecting surface defects gives the most visible results and therefore available even for low-skilled staff.

With that said, you need to indicator penetrants:

would be more highly penetrating and, accordingly, the sensitivity, which is usually estimated by the minimum detectivemisa transverse size (“disclosure”) defects

would have been the least prone to fire and toxic for users (and therefore did not require special precautions in their manufacture, packing, storage, transportation and use)

practically excludes corrosion objects NDT

it would have been almost safe for the natural environment and

would how you can lower costs for inspection.

Separate implementation of these requirements and combinations of some of them it is easy, for a typical qualitative composition of penetrants long time defined and includes:

at least Odie the “dye”, which provided that the penetration into the cavity of the surface defect and the subsequent manifestations clearly distinguishes this defect on the background of the workpiece surface,

at least one-component liquid basis, which in all cases is a dispersive medium for dye and at least partially “means of transport” for the introduction of a dye into a detected defect, and

at least one surface-active substance (hereinafter SAS) to facilitate dispersion of the dye in the liquid base, stabilize the resulting dispersion and facilitate wetting of the walls of the detected defects of this dispersion even when inspection of products of oleophilic materials.

A classic example of such a structure can serve as a liquid indicator penetrant, which is known from GB 763885 and US 2806959. It contains (wt.%):

approximately 15% of the organic luminescent dyes,

approximately 45% of the purified aromatic components of kerosene as the basis, and

about 40% of organic surfactant.

Kerosene publicly available, cheap, practically non-toxic, perfectly wets the metal surface and easily “drawn” in the cavity of any microdefects, but because for a long time and regularly serves as a basis for many of penetrants for liquid penetrant inspection. However, he does not by itself can provide no contrast between sonomadiet.com and the rest of the surface of the controlled products no guarantees stable dispersions (suspensions, emulsions and, moreover, the true solution) dye.

Phosphors provide excellent contrast, but the roads and poorly soluble even in kerosene and of themselves are not able to penetrate into the cavity of microdefects.

Therefore, in the above-described structure, when taken in very high concentrations in combination with the also expensive surfactants in an even greater concentration.

Known to many attempts to reduce the cost indicator penetrants use of easily soluble in hydrocarbons, dyes and complete with the exception of the surfactant. As a rule, they used the dye Sudan IV, long removed from production and banned because of toxicity and flammable basis in the form of mixtures of hydrocarbons with a high boiling temperature and volatile even at low (less than 25° C) temperature additives.

One of the penetrants such includes 10-15 g of the dye Sudan IV 1.0 l of a mixture of kerosene and turpentine in the ratio of 80/20% wt. (see Laboratory work on the quality control of welded joints. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1966, p.69).

More exotic part of the same kind (SU 573405) includes (wt.%):

mineral oil 0,5-0,3

fluorocarbons 35,0-40,0

1st dye Sudan IV 0.5 to 1.5

2nd Nigrosine dye 0,05-0,12

the solvent (turpentine and/or xylene) else.

Obviously, in the E. these penetrants (and especially the last one) is toxic and flammable and therefore their use is discouraged.

Known attempts to reduce the rating to a minimum preparation of penetrants, water-based. So, from SU 1679308 known set of materials for liquid penetrant inspection, comprising a set of reagents (in particular, an aqueous solution of a suitable salt of Nickel with the original light green color and sodium nitrate with the addition of isopropanol and an aqueous solution of ammonia), are able to purchase a bright pink-red color.

However, these penetrants are not widely used due to the corrosive activity and the need to prepare the mixture just before application to the surface of the test object.

However, the use of water base enables you to dramatically reduce rating and significantly reduce the penetrants. Therefore, the main problem is the choice of suitable non-toxic dyes and surfactants capable of sensitivity to defects with the disclosure of the order of 1 ám.

Unfortunately, penetrants, water-based, which used public practically nontoxic widely known dyes, do not have the necessary sensitivity. So, penetrant according to SU 353945, which includes (wt.%):

dye “rhodamine” 2-3

a mixture of “wetting” (SAS), which includes:

this is Nol 20-25

sultanol 2-3

passivator-sodium nitrate 2-3 and

water the rest,

detects defects with opening not less than 5 μm. This is acceptable for nondestructive inspection of welds on products operating at static loads in terrestrial conditions (e.g., construction steel structures). However, for quality control of products in the chemical industry, energy and transport machinery such sensitivity is clearly insufficient.

Somewhat better is the closest to the proposed penetrant technical essence indicator penetrant according to SU 539058, which includes (wt.%):

dye fuchsin acid 6,0-7,0

a mixture of “wetting” (SAS), which includes:

tartaric acid 6,0-7,0

reinsulate of 0.5-1.5

water the rest.

It allows to detect the surface microdefects disclosure to 3 microns.

However, as mentioned above, this is not enough for quality control of products in the chemical industry, power engineering and transport engineering. Moreover, even defects with this disclosure can be detected provided that the surface roughness satisfies the hard condition Rz20.

Summary of the invention

The basis of the invention is the replacement of dye and surfactant, the addition of the composition and refinement of zootoxin the I ingredients to create this indicator penetrant, along with the practical security of production, storage and application would be the detection of defects with disclosure about 1 μm on a rough surface.

This problem is solved by the fact that the indicator for liquid penetrant flaw detection, containing water-based, organic dye and at least one surface-active substance (surfactant), according to the invention contains a “main crimson” dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group and nonionic surfactants and optionally contains an additive acid, and these ingredients are taken in such a ratio (wt.%):

basic raspberry 3,0-5,0

nonionic surfactant of 0.5-1.0

acid in an amount of from weakly acidic to neutral pH

water the rest.

As confirmed by the following experiments, the dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group in combination with other ingredients in the specified ratio ensures the detection of surface defects with disclosure about 1 μm in roughness Rzlevel 30-40. Indeed, this dye itself has surface activity and because it is soluble in water in an amount up to 7% wt. and can penetrate into the surface defects and to gain a foothold on the walls even without the use of other surfactants. Further, its extinction coefficient not lower than 40000 already at pH 5-6, dostigao is 50000 with greater acidity. Finally, the maximum in the spectrum transmittance falls on the wavelength of 510 nm. Therefore, even when the concentration of the dye in the penetrant at the level of about 3% wt. in the layer of the developer in the locations of the defects arise bright crimson spots.

The first additional difference is that the acid is selected from the group of mineral acids consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids. They are public, while nitric acid is most effective when testing of steel products, aluminum, and alloys on its basis.

A second difference is that the acid is selected from the group of monocarboxylic organic acids consisting of formic and acetic acids. They are all publicly available, and their use helps to reduce the corrosivity of penetrants even upon acidification to a pH of less than 5.

The third additional difference is that the non-ionic surfactant selected from the group consisting of neonols, cintanya, wetting OP-7, wetting OP-10, or mixtures thereof. This allows you to choose the best available surfactants at almost the same efficiency liquid penetrant inspection.

It is clear that the choice of specific options of the penetrants possible different combinations of these additional differences from the basic inventive concept that this plan within the limits defined by the following formula is bretania, can be supplemented and/or updated using the usual knowledge of the specialists and that the following examples in no way limit the scope of rights based on inventions.

The best examples of the implementation of the inventive concept

Next, the essence of the invention is illustrated:

description of the method of manufacturing antivirusoveho dye with quinoid group that has a common name “main crimson and rational name “diantimony-(4-dimethylaminophenyl) carbene” (hereinafter abbreviated as “MD”), taken in the form of a suitable salt,

examples of specific compounds and description of manufacturing methods and the practical application of the indicator of penetrants and

a description of the methodology and the results of their tests on standard samples of surface and extending to the surface through defects.

The basis of “OM” get taken by a simple mixing in a molar ratio of 2/1 antipyrine and dimethyl-p-aminobenzaldehyde in an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid density of 1.19 g/cm3. After about half an hour the mixture is diluted with water (not more than one and a half times by volume) and incubated at room temperature for at least an hour (and mostly up to 12 hours) before rolling the pink crystals. The precipitate was separated by filtration, as a rule, washed with water and at least once to precrystallization the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid density of 1.19 g/cm 3obtaining an intermediate in the form of pink crystals desalinating Lamonova diantimony-dimethyl-p-aminophenylamino (no worse than 66.5% of theoretical).

This Lamonova is converted into the carbinol compound under the action of ferric chloride. For this Lamonova usually dissolved in distilled water (in particular, in the ratio of 2.6/16 kg/kg), dissolved ferric chloride also usually distilled water (in particular, in the ratio of 2.4/18 kg/kg), with constant stirring combine these solutions, heat the mixture to a temperature of 80-85° C and maintained at this temperature for about 1.5 hours. Next, while continuing the stirring, the mixture is cooled naturally to room temperature, slow (trickle) add 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to achieve a pH of 8 to 8.5, the mixture was kept at room temperature for 20-22 hours prior to the precipitation of iron hydroxide, which is separated by filtration.

The filtrate is treated with 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution until the disappearance of the red color (usually to a pH of 9.7 to 10.0) and sedimentation carbinol compounds “OM”. For completeness of the precipitation mass incubated at room temperature for 18-20 hours, the precipitate was separated by filtration, at least twice washed on the filter with 5% aqueous solution u is th hydroxide to remove traces of chlorine ions, wring out, dried to constant mass at a temperature of 75-80° and further used for preparation of penetrants for liquid penetrant testing.

A method of manufacturing an indicator of penetrants is as follows:

a) specified in the invention and forth in table 1, the range of proportions of ingredients to choose specific recipes indicator of penetrant;

b) dispense the required quantity determined at the stage (a) ingredients;

C) dissolve dose dye OHMS (in the form of dry carbinol compounds) and selected surfactants in a significant portion of water, acidified with selected acid to pH 5-6 and add the remainder of water, get a working solution “OM”.

To test the feasibility and effectiveness of the invention were fabricated and tested indicator penetrants that contain ingredients in amounts indicated in table 1.

To test the effectiveness of penetrants used:

a) laboratory samples of tin brass, chrome plated thickness of about 50 μm, which had a surface roughness in the range of Rz=30-40 and surface defects with successively smaller opening in the range of 3 μm, 2 μm and 1 μm in the form of cracks, obtained by a controlled fracture of the specified covered with whom I am on a mechanical press, and

b) the control of leakage in the form of tightly fixed in metal washers and calibrated diameter in the range of 1.5 µm, 1.2 µm and 0.9 µm glass capillaries with a length not less than 30 μm, which served as models through defects appearing on the surface of parts.

The tests were carried out in a series of 10 experiments with each sample and each listed in table 1 compositions indicator of penetrants as follows:

every subject penetrant was applied (usually with a brush) on the sample surface must be cleaned from mechanical impurities, fat acetone or purified from the residue of the developer that was used in every previous experiment, and thoroughly dried;

each covered penetrant sample was kept for 5 minutes, wash off the excess of penetrant water, drained surface with a cotton cloth and put the developer in the form of a 20% suspension of kaolin in ethanol;

the defects were determined by the appearance of crimson spots in the layer of the developer. The results recorded in the form of a ratio of the number of experiments in each series and the number of successful experiments on the detection of defects with known disclosure. These data are shown in table 2.

Table 2

The test results of indicatorheaderarrow
The number of samplesType and size (in microns) of detected defects
 crackscontrol leakage
 3,02,01,01,51,20,9
110/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/9
210/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/8
310/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/10
410/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/9
510/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/10
610/1010/1010/1010/1010/1010/9

Analysis of the data from table 2 indicates a high efficiency indicator of penetrants according to the invention.

Industrial applicability

Proposed indicator penetrants can be made arbitrary part is s on order with the use of mineral and specified in the invention of organic acids (if the consumer will require to reduce the corrosivity of penetrant to a minimum). They are almost safe in the production, storage and application and can be used for reliable color liquid penetrant inspection with minimum level of training of personnel.

1. Indicator for liquid penetrant flaw detection, containing water-based, organic dye and at least one surface-active substance (surfactant), characterized in that it contains a “main crimson” dye antivirusoveho series with quinoid group and nonionic surfactants and optionally contains an additive acid, and these ingredients are taken in such a ratio, wt.%:

Basic raspberry 3,0-5,0

Nonionic surfactant of 0.5-1.0

The acid number of

slightly to close

neutral pH

Water The Rest.

2. Indicator penetrant according to claim 1, wherein the acid is selected from the group of mineral acids consisting of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid.

3. Indicator penetrant according to claim 1, wherein the acid is selected from the group of monocarboxylic organic acids consisting of formic and acetic acids.

4. Indicator penetrant according to claim 1, characterized in that the nonionic surfactant is selected from g is uppy, consisting of neonols, cintanya, wetting OP-7, wetting OP-10, or mixtures thereof.



 

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FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect defects at opening about 1 mcm at coarse surface a penetrating agent contains "the main raspberry" dyestuff of antipyrinic group with quinoid group and non-ionogenic SAS and it, additionally, contains acidic supplement , moreover, these ingredients should be taken at the following ratio (weight%): the main raspberry dyestuff 3.0-5.0, non-ionogenic SAS 0.5-1.0, acid - at the quantity from low acidic to approximately neutral pH, water - the rest.

EFFECT: higher sensitivity.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: measuring processes and devices.

SUBSTANCE: penetrating agent used for detecting on oleophilic surface flaws with opening until l0.5 micrometers contains "main crimson" dyeing agent of fireproofing compounds with quinoid group and in addition it contains fatty acid and benzyl benzoate. Said ingredients are taken in relation (mass %): dyeing agent, 3.0 - 5.0; non-ionogenic surface active matter, 0.5 -1.0; fatty acid, 10.0 - 15.0; benzyl benzoate, 5.0 -10.0; hydrocarbon base - up to 100.

EFFECT: enhance accuracy and responsibility of measurements.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: nondestructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: color chemical reaction between penetrant and developer is used for defect indication. Penetrant has surface-active substance (SAS), ethyl alcohol, water, boric acid. Developer has glycerin, kaolin, SAS, ethyl alcohol, bromine-thymol blue indicator and PH regulator for achieving initial blue-green color.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

FIELD: analyzing and investigating materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises processing the surface with a water-soluble penetrating agent, applying developer, recording defects, and washing the surface with water. Each of the washings is carried out in two baths arranged in series, with fresh water being supplied to the second bath in amount that is determined by the permissible concentration of contaminant and overflowing the water from the second bath to the first one in the direction opposite to the movement of the article.

EFFECT: improved method and reduced cost of control.

1 dwg

FIELD: capillary defectoscopy; compositions of the color penetrants.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the color capillary defectoscopy, in particular, to the compositions of the color penetrants applied to the color control over the items of the high-duty. The penetrant contains the mixture of the following composition: xanthene dyes of the yellow-orange fluoresceine and red-dark blue rhodamine of 3-6 %, the surfactant of 10-40 %, the rest - the dissolvent. The ratio of the mixture of the yellow-orange and the dark blue - red dyes compounds 1:2, as the surfactant use neonol or syntanol. The technical result of the invention is creation of the color penetrant of the lowered volatility, the reduced flammability, the extra-high sensitivity ensuring detection of the minimal flaw with the opening width of 0.5-1 microns and the improved reliability and stability of the monitoring of the items in conditions of repairs and operation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures detection of the minimal flaw with the opening width of about 1 micron, improved reliability and stability of the monitoring of the items in conditions of repairs and operation.

1 tbl

FIELD: flaw detection technologies, non-destructive control methods.

SUBSTANCE: method for controlling products by means of luminescent magneto-powder or capillary flaw detection includes observing images of defects in products produced during flaw detection and following analysis of these images. In accordance to method, product surface being controlled is irradiated firstly with light, causing luminescence of agent used during magneto-powder or capillary flaw detection, and light, not causing luminescence of aforementioned agent. To detect flaws, comparison of produced images is performed using computing device. Received images are recorded by means of at least one video camera. As computing device, computer connected to video camera is used.

EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical means, used for flaw detection, creation of method for non-destructive control of products of any configuration, providing for automatic finding and analysis of defects in products.

3 cl

FIELD: analysis of materials.

SUBSTANCE: dependence of weight and diameter of particles is determined on diameter of the particles' prints onto substrate. Fixing indicator substrate is scanned together with particles of applied aerosol to get contrast image and computer system is used to process of video images of fixing indicator substrates with particles of aerosol applied onto it. To register video images, digital cameras are used with variable discrete resolution which allows widening of range of sizes of aerosol particles.

EFFECT: improved precision; improved truth of results.

2 cl, 5 tbl

FIELD: capillary luminescent flaw detection, possible use in aviation, automobile, shipbuilding and other branches of mechanical engineering, and also power engineering, chemical and nuclear industries for detection of surface defects, cracks, pores, foliating, abscesses, inter-crystallite corrosion and other defects of material discontinuity flaw type, primarily with small dimensions, in case of especially precise control of products.

SUBSTANCE: penetration agent includes organic phosphor, non-ionic surfactant and solvent, while as organic phosphor a mixture of phosphors from the class of coumarin colorants is used - mixture of donor-coumarin and acceptor-coumarin, as nonionic surfactant a specially defined substance is used, and as solvent a mixture of dibutyl phthalate and propylene carbonate is used with mass ratio ranging from 1:1,5 to 1:0,8. As donor-coumarin, 4-methyl-7-dethyl amine coumarin (K-47) may be used, and as coumarin-acceptor, at least one coumarin of yellow-green luminescence, with mass ratio ranging from 1,1:1 to 1,8:1.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity and reliability of flaw detection, while simultaneously reducing fire hazard and toxicity of used composition.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of an indestructible control.

SUBSTANCE: the magneto-luminescent method is in that the controlled article is magnetized, suspension with magneto-luminescent powder or dried powder is put on its surface. The controlled surface is irradiated with ultra-violet light and on points of luminescence of the powder availability of defects in the article is defined. An optical spectrometer whose entrance slit receives light information about its condition with the aid of light pipe is used in quality of automatic arrangement for registration of the indicative image of defects on the controlled surface. Scanning the area of the controlled surface is executed by displacement of an entrance face of the light pipe or by displacement of the object itself relatively to the light pipe.

EFFECT: increases reliability of the results of control.

FIELD: printing industry; other industries; method and the device used for marking and control of the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of printing industry and may be used for control over the length of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll. The special feature of the method of the marking and control over the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output paper roll is that in the capacity of the controlled parameter select the length of the paper sheet strip(1) of the output paper roll (2). In the capacity of the control marks (3) use the digital code with the element indicating the direction of reading-out. The spacing (4) between the control marks (3) take of the preset value. The received data are stored in the memory unit of the computer (8). The special feature of the system used for marking and control over the technological parameter of the paper sheet strip of the output roll is that it additionally contains in series located between the marking tool (10) and the unit of the optical-electronic devices of the control and registration(5) there is the speed sensor (11) and the cutting apparatus (13). The speed sensor (11) and the marking tools are switch-connected with the computer (8). The software the computer (8) is formed with the capability of application by tools of marking (10) of the control marks (3) by the method of printing on the field of the paper sheet strip (1) along the whole length of the roll (2) with the spacing (4) of the preset value, registration of the spacing value (4) between the control marks (3), memorizing of the observed and transformed readings in the memory unit of the computer (8) with provision of saving of the information and the capability of its delivery to the appropriate information carriers. The invention ensures the increased accuracy of the control over the paper sheet strip length.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased accuracy of the control over the paper sheet strip length.

7 cl, 5 dwg

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