Method of separating multicomponent material containing metallic components

FIELD: waste treatment.

SUBSTANCE: multicomponent waste material is preliminarily impregnated with solution of salt of metal-collector in amount ensuring weight content of metal-collector in melt exceeding content of metallic components therein. Material is then calcined and melted in reductive atmosphere after addition of slag-forming flux based on metal fluorides. Melt is stirred and kept in liquid state over a period of time long enough to allow separation of slag and metallic phases. Resulting slag and metal are tapped and mechanically separated when solidified.

EFFECT: achieved high degree of recovering metals in collecting alloy at minimum expenses.

8 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of waste processing, and in particular to methods of separating components of a multicomponent material containing metallic components, with the aim of providing conditions for efficient acquisition of secondary metals from waste products. The necessary conditions include the presence of multi-component material containing the metal components of the metal oxides. These materials include, for example, spent catalysts. They contain metal oxides as the basis, the metal components providing the catalytic reaction and the products of mining, such as carbon, sulfur. In some cases, spent catalysts also contain particles of material of construction equipment, mainly iron. As the basis of most commonly used pure aluminum oxide or mixture of oxides (ceramics). The most urgent task is processing catalysts commonly used in the petrochemical industry and in the modern automotive industry. Such catalysts often contain platinum group metals. Catalysts based on platinum supported on a carrier of aluminum oxide, are widely used in the processes of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, cracking, cleaning. Catalytic filters for the afterburning of exhaust gases in the car on the commonly contain a metal component on the basis of three elements - platinum, palladium and rhodium. As a ceramic base metal component is often used cordierite consisting mainly of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide. It should be noted that the metal component is a small part of the total mass of the catalyst, typically a fraction of a percent.

Methods of separation of multicomponent materials containing metal components deposited on the basis of metal oxides, can be divided into two groups according to the type of impacts on the material - chemical effects or melting. The methods of the first group are most often based on the methods of leaching and chlorination. The application of chemical methods is time-consuming and inefficient process, and there is a separate problem of disposing of large quantities of environmentally harmful waste.

The methods associated with the melting of multicomponent material is distinguished by high performance and no environmentally harmful liquid waste.

There is a method of processing automobile catalysts fusion in a plasma arc furnace (see Pavlovsky VA Recycling of automotive catalysts// Automotive. - 2002, No. 9,p.32). According to this method, the melt is produced with the addition of recyclable material metal-collector (who elese).

The method is characterized by the loss of the main metal component (platinum) at the level of 10% and high energy costs. In addition, further processing of the alloy based on iron with the purpose of extraction of platinum group metals is possible only by a chemical method, that is, there are additional expenses.

The method for extracting metal component (platinum from spent catalysts based on alumina smelting (see metallurgy of noble metals./Edited Lphia. - M.: metallurgy, 1987, s). According to this method, multicomponent material is melted with the addition of lime (calcium oxide) and fluorspar (calcium fluoride). For the formation of an alloy containing platinum, add copper in powder form. Melting is carried out at a temperature within 1500-1550°C.

The method is characterized by a partial loss of metal due to its transition into the slag. This is due to high viscosity of the slag CaF2-CaO-Al2O3that does not allow for the necessary conditions for the separation of molten metal and slag phases. In addition, the particles of copper powder inefficient collect platinum because of the lack of uniformity of their distribution in relation to applied on the basis of platinum in the process of formation of the alloy.

The closest analogue, taken as a prototype, I what is the method of separation of multi-component material, containing metal components, including the heating and melting with the addition of slag-forming flux, providing the viscosity of the slag is less than 4 MPa•when the process temperature in the range from 1000 to 1800°C. Separation of slag and metal phases is provided by mixing and exposure of the melt in a liquid state (patent of Russia №2201978, IPC722 In 7/00; Appl. 05.06.2001,; No. 2001115756/02; publ. 10.04.2003 year). Together with slag-forming flux type metal-solvent (metal-collector). This method is not effective with low content of metal component due to their low surface interaction component and the metal-solvent in the process of education of their alloy.

The basis of the invention is the provision of the necessary conditions for more complete separation of the metallic phase at low concentrations of the metal component by increasing the contact surface of the metal component material with particles of the melt.

The technical result is achieved by the method of separation of multi-component material containing metal components, including the roasting and smelting with the addition of slag-forming flux-based metal fluoride in an amount to provide a viscosity of the slag is less than 4 MPa•when temperature is re process within 1000-1800° With, mixing and exposure of the melt to a liquid state for a time sufficient to separate the slag and metal phases, the release of the obtained slag and metal with their subsequent mechanical separation after curing, according to the invention the multicomponent material pre-impregnated with the salt solution of the metal collector in an amount to provide a mass content in the molten metal collector in excess of the amount of the metallic components, and then calcined in a reducing environment prior to recovery of the metal collector and smelting produce a reducing environment.

The use of multi-component impregnation of the material with a solution of metal salt-collector provides the best conditions for the formation of the metal component with the metal collector. During annealing in a reducing environment salts decompose to metal, providing a substantial increase in the contact surface of the metal component material and a metal collector as due to the small dispersion of the particles of the metal collector, and due to the homogeneity of the distribution of these particles on the surface of the metal component in the education of their alloy.

Use as metal salts collector nitrates specified metal allows izbavites is from the influence of sulfur in case of its presence in the processed material.

Use as a metal salt collector of Nickel nitrate allows you to process the material containing the iron (or iron oxides, which are reduced to metal processing), so as Nickel form alloys with the iron, and with most of the metals in a wide range of conditions.

Use as a metal salt-collector nitrate of copper provides a reduction of the temperature of formation of metal alloy with a relatively low melting point of copper in the absence of the material in the iron. Copper does not form alloys with iron, however, both of these metal to form alloys with platinum.

Use as a metal salt-collector copper sulfate reduces the temperature of formation of the metal alloy during processing of the material, which doesn't contain iron (oxides).

Use as a metal salt-collector silver nitrate simplifies the process when the metal component of the multicomponent material includes only the platinum group metals.

Use as a slag-forming flux fluxes on the basis of calcium fluoride allows to obtain a slag with a low-viscosity materials based on the combination of the silicon oxide - aluminum oxide (cordierite to the ceramics and reduce costs through the use of cheap minerals (fluorspar). In addition, these toxins are not water soluble, and their utilization requires no additional cost.

Use as a slag-forming flux fluxes on the basis of sodium fluoride allows the processing of multi-component material with different composition of the oxide basis, as sodium fluoride in the melt with the most used metal oxides form a slag with a low viscosity.

Use as a slag-forming flux fluxes on the basis of sodium fluoride with the addition of calcium oxide provides lower costs, in particular for multi-component material based on pure aluminum oxide, through the use of a cheap mineral raw materials (limestone).

An example of the method

As a sample of multicomponent material served as the spent catalyst cars of American manufacture on cordierite basis. The content of metal component analysis was 0,253% when the ratio of the metals Pt:Pd:Rh=8,5:1:1,5. The catalyst was ground, were impregnated with the solution of copper sulphate at the rate of two grams of copper per one hundred grams of the catalyst was hot and was placed in a graphite crucible induction furnace with the addition of slag-forming flux in the ratio of 1:1, which served as a metallurgical flux mark the ANF-1, containing 97% of calcium fluoride.

After melting, mixing and shutter speed for 5 minutes, the melt was poured. The analysis of the obtained metal showed that 95% of platinum goes into an ingot of copper-based, and the rest of the metal is lost in the slag. For comparison conducted experience in similar conditions with the addition of the same quantity of metal-collector in the form of copper powder fraction size of 20 μm. The analysis of the slag and metal showed that the ingot of copper-based switches only 78% of platinum, the remainder 22% remains in the slag.

The method provides a high degree of extraction of the metal component of multi-component materials based on metal oxides with its small mass content. As a by - product slag is environmentally friendly and can find application, for example, as a building material or thinner in the production of steel.

1. The method of separation of multi-component material containing metal components, including the roasting and smelting with the addition of slag-forming flux-based metal fluoride in an amount to provide a viscosity of the slag is less than 4 MPa·when the process temperature in the range 1000-1800°With, mixing and exposure of the melt to a liquid state for a time sufficient to separate the slag is metallic phases, the release of the obtained slag and metal with their subsequent mechanical separation after curing, wherein the multi-component material pre-impregnated with the salt solution of the metal collector in an amount to provide a mass content in the molten metal collector in excess of the amount of the metallic components, and then calcined in a reducing environment prior to recovery of the metal collector and smelting produce a reducing environment.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the metal salt-collector use nitrate Nickel.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the metal salt-manifold use of nitrate of copper.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the metal salt-collector use copper sulfate.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the metal salt-manifold use of nitrate of silver.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that as the slag-forming flux using the flux-based fluoride of calcium.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that as the slag-forming flux using the flux-based sodium fluoride.

8. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that as the slag-forming flux using the flux-based sodium fluoride with the addition of oxide of calc who I am.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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