Coal processing method

FIELD: mining industry and alternative fuels.

SUBSTANCE: coal is affected by methanogenic consortium of microorganisms with culture medium utilizing continuous pumping of culture medium through wells and tank wherein methanogenic consortium of microorganisms with culture medium is placed. Tank is installed on the surface above wells and pumping of culture medium from the bottom of tank through methanogenic consortium of microorganisms. Process produces biogas and coal-water fuel.

EFFECT: increased yield of biogas to continuously effecting culturing of microorganisms.

1 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to mining, and in particular to methods of processing of coal, resulting in biogas and coal-water fuel.

The known method (1) processing of solid fuel, which is carried out by exposure through injection into wells methanogenic consortium of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. As a methanogenic consortium use of fermented feed slurry and the dilution of the rumen of cattle, as well as activated sludge aeration tank, with the optimal pH 7.2 to 7.7, thermophilic mode at 50°C. For the processing of coal into the wells pumped manure, tripe and sludge aeration tank. A significant drawback of this method is that the organic matter in manure, tripe and sludge aeration tank is more available carbon source for microorganisms than coal. The coal in this method, the microorganisms are not processed and not dispersed, and the methane produced from manure, tripe and sludge aeration tank. The second disadvantage is the inability to maintain thermophilic regime for a long time of formation of methane in the reservoir. Before injection into the well methanogenic consortium recyclable material is heated with superheated steam up to 50°C. After placing the methanogenic consortium well sealed prior to the formation of biogas. The process happens is in a closed system, warming up which is impossible.

The closest analog of the claimed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is the method (2) processing of coal, including the opening of the processing site wells, the injection of water into wells and keeping it within a specified time determined by the decrease in the strength of the coal after injection water injection into wells methanogenic consortium of microorganisms from the culture medium, the periodic flushing of the wells air within the specified time, determined by the increase of methane release, and removing the by-products of coal. As a methanogenic consortium of microorganisms using cumulative microbial culture, isolated on coal, and digested sludge digester in a predetermined ratio, for example, 5:95.

The process is conducted under anaerobic conditions, while purging the coal air activate facultative anaerobes that increase the efficiency of microbiological impacts on coal. The products are biogas and coal-water suspension.

However, in the prototype, injection of microorganisms and keeping them in the reservoir before the appearance of products of processing carried out in a closed system. A closed system has a number of disadvantages. It is not continuous cultivation of microorganisms and for the death of culture in a particular phase of the development or inhibition of the process of metabolic products. The performance of a closed system compared with an open flowing system. A closed system is characterized by complex technological cycle.

The basis of the invention is to develop a method of processing coal, in which the impact on the coal methanogenic consortium of microorganisms continuously pumping kulturalny environment through wells and the reservoir which is installed on the surface above the borehole from the bottom of the tank up through methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, which contributes to the increase of the biogas yield and improve the quality of recoverable coal-water fuel Biopreparat coal by continuous cultivation of microorganisms.

The task is solved in that a method of processing of coal, including the opening of the processing site wells, pumping water in them after a specified period of time determined by the decrease in the strength of the coal, the impact on coal methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, consisting of cumulative microbial cultures, obtained from coal, and digested sludge digester with the cultural environment, the periodic flushing of the wells air within the specified period of time determined by the increase of methane release, and removing the by-products of coal to the surface, which, according to the but to the invention, methanogenic consortium of microorganisms from the culture medium placed in a container, which is installed on the surface above the borehole, the impact on coal methanogenic consortium of microorganisms carry out continuous pumping of culture medium through wells and a reservoir with a methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, and through methanogenic consortium of microorganism culture medium is pumped from the bottom of the tank.

In the proposed method, the processing of coal formation is carried out in an open flow system. The cultivation of microorganisms in open flow systems has several advantages consisting in the standard description of process conditions, process intensification with high efficiency of the cultivation of microorganisms and stabilization of the individual phases of the biological process in the treated volume. The advantages of a continuous process is also the possibility of its realization in the mode of the upward flow of culture medium through a layer of microorganisms that form granules and not will be raised by the liquid stream.

When the flow of culture medium through methanogenic consortium of microorganisms from the bottom of the tank in which it is placed, the upward flow of culture medium through the layer of methanogenic consortium formed easily settling bacter the material flocculi in the form of granules with a diameter of 1-5 mm Methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, due to the formation of granules of spherical shape density 1,040-1,080, has good sedimentation properties and is not pronounced upward flow of culture medium. The advantages of the system include the fact that the microorganisms present in close trophic relationships densely concentrated in the physical space. Such organization of the microbial community affects the overall stoichiometry of the process, it is advantageous for mass transfer of intermediate products, primarily hydrogen, which is the main intermediate and regulatory component in methanogenic system. A mechanical mixture of the same microorganisms are less active than the aggregate methanogenic consortium of microorganisms. In the aggregate methanogenic consortium transfer of hydrogen between the two types of bacteria increases by two orders of magnitude compared to disperse.

The concentration of methanogenic consortium of microorganisms decreases from the bottom of the tank to the top, however, the specific activity of the microflora in the upper 5-10 times higher than at the bottom, as most young active granules thanks gasolina effect are brought up and are functioning in the middle and upper parts of the vessel. The advantages of pumping culture medium through the methanogenic consortia the microorganisms upward flow from the bottom of the tank are the aggregation of methanogenic consortium has technological advantages compared to dispersed growth.

Anaerobic conversion of coal is a complex multistage process that proceeds through the formation of water soluble compounds in the initial stages of depolymerization and solubilization of coal. In the next steps, the conversion of formed compounds, the precursors of methane is transformed into the final product - methane.

Processing of coal with production of biogas can be carried out without separation and separation stages solubilization of coal and methanogenesis. During the processing of coal seam cultural environment, continuously pumped between coal and container with a methanogenic consortium, washed coal and transfers of microorganisms growing out of pellets, of a vessel with the methanogenic consortium in the reservoir, where they are fixed at an angle and are directly involved in the process. Solubilization of coal particles and water-soluble compounds transferred to culture medium from the reservoir to capacity with a methanogenic consortium that converts these compounds to biogas. In the two-stage process it is possible to save and reuse methanogenic consortium, as well as carrying out partial aeration for activated facultative anaerobes, entrenched on the corner, when the volume preserving the viability of anaerobic microorganisms in the tank with a methanogenic consortium.

The method was simulated in the laboratory. In the column with a volume of 1000 ml were placed 300 g of coal D. Coal was filled with water and left for 14-18 days. The time of exposure to coal water was determined by analyzing the strength of coal. Then a column of coal coupled with the second column, which was placed methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, consisting of cumulative microbial cultures, obtained from coal, and granulated digested sludge digester, in the ratio of 5:95 in conjunction with the cultural environment on the basis of phosphate-carbonate buffer, pH=7,0. The composition of the culture medium (g/l):

To2NRA4-0,025; NH4Cl-0,05; MgCl2-0,2; CaCl2-0,04.

Peristaltic pump through a column of charcoal and a column with a methanogenic consortium was continuously pumped culture medium at a rate of 2 l/day.

The culture medium was pumped through the column with a methanogenic consortium from the bottom of the column upward flow. The resulting biogas is collected in a container over the column with a methanogenic consortium. The amount of methane in the biogas was determined by the method of chromatographic analysis.

In column advanced coal filed culture medium from the container with a culture medium at a rate of 1 l/day. The column of coal daily blowing in air for 4 hours. Analyzed the original coal and after the end of the Oia Bioprocessing. Compare the output of methane in continuous and periodic regimes (table 1). In periodic mode, the coal was treated methanogenic consortium in culture medium in the column, which was closed before the end of the process.

After the end of the experiment was determined by the amount of the formed fine fraction and perform the analysis of changes in coal properties (table. 2). Comparing these results with those for a closed system. Received 32% of the weight. new fine fraction with a particle size of <0.07 mm from the source D grade coal with a particle size of-2.5+1.6 mm, whereas after the process in a closed system formed 19% weight. the fine fraction. Decreased ash content and sulfur content in the coal (table 2).

In the drawing is given of implementation of the method. In the scheme: the input 1 and 2 suction wells, recirculation pumps 3 and 4, the sump 5 solid particles of coal capacity with 6 methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, balance tank 7, the pump 8, the container 9 with mineral medium, the compressor 10 and the gas manifold cap 11. Capacity 6 methanogenic consortium of microorganisms is connected through a sump 5 solid particles of coal from the pumping well 2 and through the balance tank 7 from the feed hole 1.

The method is as follows. In coal seam Buryats from the surface of feed 1 and Tkacheva the General 2 wells. The distance between the wells is determined depending on the conditions of occurrence, and the permeability of the reservoir, the technical characteristics of the coal. Via a supply wells produce fracturing. After some experimental by time (10-24 hours) contact of the coal with water pumped into the reservoir methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, consisting of cumulative microbial culture and digested sludge digester in the ratio of 5:95, in conjunction with the cultural environment. The culture medium is pumped continuously by a pump 3 through a feed hole 1 into the reservoir. The culture medium flows through the reservoir into the well 2, from which the pump 4 is fed through a settling tank 5 solid particles of coal to the vessel 6 with a methanogenic consortium of microorganisms. In the tank 6 culture medium is pumped in the direction from the bottom of the tank 6 up, and from it through a surge tank 7 to the pump 3, which delivers it into the well 1. With the decline of culture medium in a balance tank 7 pump 8 additionally serves the culture medium from the tank 9 to the desired level. Daily for 3-4 hours supplied to the culture medium before entering the uploaders pump aeronaut air through the compressor 10. The resulting biogas is collected over capacity with microbial consortium in the gas cap 11. The hydrocarbon fuel in the suspension of coal, dispersed in water, pumped to the surface after the process.

When the layer thickness of 0.5 m and the area of the fracture 20 m capacity with a methanogenic consortium is 15 m3capacity of tank 1 m3the volume surge capacity 2 m3.

The use of the invention will improve the quality of recoverable coal-water fuel and biogas yield. The combustion of coal-water fuel has several advantages over coal combustion: does not require preliminary dehydration and drying, significantly reduces emissions of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, toxic metals, which reduces the negative impact on the environment. The cost of transportation by pipeline is considerably below the coal transportation by other modes of transport.

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Patent USSR No. 1814686 And 3, class F 21 43/ 295,1993.

2. RF patent №2139426, CL E 21 In 43/295, C 12 N 1/20, 1999.

Table 1
The formation of methane from coal in batch and continuous modes
TimeThe output of methane, ml /300 g of coal
DayPeriodic modeContinuous mode
0 00
122
1033
152034
203842
255052
305264
405778
606786
Table 2
Changes in sulfur content and ash content in coal
 S %Ash, %
Coal source1,1017,2
The coal after processing:  
continuous mode0,6411,4
periodic mode0,8214,1

The method of processing the Glu, including the opening of the processing site wells, pumping water in them after a specified period of time determined by the decrease in the strength of the coal after injection of water, the impact on coal methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, consisting of cumulative microbial cultures, obtained from coal, and digested sludge digester with the cultural environment, the periodic flushing of the wells air within the specified period of time determined by the increase of methane release, and removing the by-products of coal to the surface, wherein the methanogenic consortium of microorganisms from the culture medium placed in a container, which is installed on the surface above the borehole, the impact on coal methanogenic consortium of microorganisms continuously pumping of culture medium through wells and a reservoir with a methanogenic consortium of microorganisms, and through methanogenic consortium of microorganism culture medium is pumped from the bottom of the tank.



 

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