Luminescent housing material
FIELD: agriculture and plant cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: claimed material contains luminophors with luminescence in spectral range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, 600-750 nm, and 1200-2000 nm. Luminescence intensity ratio in ranges blue:jade:red is (2-3):(2-4):(4-5), and in IR:PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) is 1:(1.15-2). Material has thickness of 120 mum and is obtained by extrusion of granulated polyethylene and mixture of said luminophors. Material of present invention is useful for plant cultivation in frame area.
EFFECT: accelerated plant growth and maturation, improved yielding capability, decreased morbidity and late blight lesion, improved taste, odor, vendibility, and increased storage time after cropping.
3 cl, 1 tbl
The invention relates to a film materials, which are used as a covering material in the plant when growing plants in a protected pound.
The level of technology
It is known that the leaves of plants absorb light of different spectral ranges, which performs substrate (synthesis of substances) and regulatory (morphogenesis) function. Under the action of light there are various photobiochemical reaction. The spectral ranges of light have the following physiological values:
- 280-320 mm: harmful;
- 320-400 nm (UVA): regulatory role, you will need a few percent;
- 400-500 nm (blue): required for photosynthesis and regulation;
- 500-600 nm (“green”): useful for photosynthesis optically dense leaves, lower leaves tiers, dense crop plants due to the high penetrating power;
- 600-700 nm (red): pronounced effect on photosynthesis, development and regulation processes;
- 700-750 nm (far red): pronounced regulatory action, quite a few percent in the total spectrum;
- 1200-2000 nm (IR): absorbed intra - and extracellular water, increases the rate of heat biochemical reactions.
The ratio of rays of blue, green and red ranges of the reference light S:3:K=15-20:20-40:40-65.
The ratio of the infrared rays and photo is intutions active radiation (PAR) - 50-85%, depending on the angle of incidence of sunlight and atmospheric conditions .
Greenhouse film and the sealing material substantially altering the spectral composition of light in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (PAA) and infrared (IR) bands, as the materials themselves and the input of various additives (UV absorbers, UV stabilizers, antifog, IR absorbers, etc.) absorb and scatter light , particularly UV light, blue and IR ranges.
In famous films and coatings for greenhouses containing phosphors of blue and red, and far red range of illumination [3, 4], conversion and amplification of only blue and red light, and red light is enhanced, including through the absorption and attenuation of green light.
The disadvantages of these materials are:
- the absence of luminescence in the green (500-600 nm) region of the spectrum;
- change ratio of the spectral flow, which can lead to loss of crops, and in strong sunlight - death leaves of plants, as it is known that increasing the light intensity in the field of HEADLIGHTS blue rays continues to be effective, and the action of red becomes harmful ;
- shielding of solar radiation in the field of molecular absorption of water in plant cells 1,2-2,0 mm.
Known polymer film and the polymer of the first composition for the manufacture of agricultural films, containing pigments and phosphors of blue and red glow in which to attenuate intense luminous flux (shading) uses light-diffusing additive (for example, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate powders of metals - aluminum, copper, mica, etc.) [5, 6]. The disadvantage of these materials is the high pigment content (0.05-2%) and additives (0.5-1.0%), resulting in a large absorption, reflection and dispersion of light, causing the phosphors inside the material do not receive enough light for luminescence.
At the same time, even a single reflection of solar beam in the plane of the greenhouse cover increases the probability of absorption and re-emission of quanta ray phosphors in the material.
In the well-known greenhouse floor  proposed to use in the coating material of organic and inorganic light diffusing additives that increase the path of the refracted rays of light inside the material. This leads to the fact that increases the probability of the photon to be absorbed by the corresponding phosphor. This increases the overall yield of luminescence. In order pereizlucheniya phosphor photon is not absorbed additives or coating material proposed Microperforation coating, forming pores, referred to as “the true light pipes”that outputs a photon of material is inside the cover.
The disadvantages of this proposal are the following:
is not provided by the use of a reflective additives (for example, aluminum, copper, mica, and others);
- too large diameter holes of Microperforation (0.01 to 1.0 mm), which leads to excessive air exchange and as a consequence of loss of heat in cold days; in addition, in the rain increases the likelihood of spills cold drops on ripening fruit, which leads to their diseases and spoilage;
- too large distance between the holes (2-20 mm), which increases the probability of absorption in the material of the light rays and pereizluchennykh photons.
The aim of the invention is a fluorescent material:
a) with extended ranges luminescence, providing balanced light-heat mode of growing plants;
(b) content of the light diffusing and reflective additives in a concentration sufficient to prevent overheating of the plants and at the same time increasing the luminescence of phosphors;
in) diameter holes of Microperforation less than 0.01 mm, the distance between the holes is less than 2 mm, an enhanced form of holes for directing light fluxes emerging from the material.
The invention consists in that:
1. Known luminescent material, the luminescence in dia is hasanah 400-500 nm, 600-700 nm and 700 to 750 nm complement phosphors with luminescence in the range of 500-600 nm and 1200-2000 nm, thereby making normal balanced spectral composition of SWAT under the floor for pathomorphological the regulation of growth and development of plants.
2. The ratio of the intensity of luminescence of the material in the range of blue : yellow : red=2-3:2-4:4-5, and the ratio of the intensity of luminescence of the material in the IR ranges:PAA=1:1,15-2,0, thereby making the substrate of the light power plants to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, increase plant productivity, reduce time of ripening, increase product quality.
Examples of carrying out the invention
Polyethylene greenhouse film thickness of 120 μm was produced by extrusion of granular polyethylene and superconcentrate pigments phosphors of the following composition
|Mark phosphor in pigment||Spectral range||Radiation λ, nm|
|Cascade Blue, Ampomah||blue||423, 445|
|The fluorescein, Lucifer yellow, Rhodamine 6g||yellow-green||519, 528, 576|
|Alexa Fluor 750||Yes ini red||750|
Measurement of the luminescence intensity of the samples of the films in the spectral ranges were performed on a spectrophotometer LOMO SF-56A with infrared console X-40 and a radiation source with a set of filters that simulate daily sunshine.
Greenhouse films, the samples which showed the declared parameters of balanced light and heat flux were tested in greenhouses with tomatoes and cucumbers. Control greenhouses were covered with polyethylene film without additives and coated with a reflective additives.
The effectiveness of the films with the stated parameters were determined relative to the film without additives and film with reflective additives. In all experiments, plants under the films with the stated parameters showed accelerating growth and development, earlier maturation, increase productivity, reduce morbidity and late blight lesions, improved taste and strengthening odor, improving the appearance and timing intact after removal of the crop.
1. Tikhomirov A.A., Cherubic VP, Lisovsky HE was Spetacular plants. Ed. SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 2000
2. The masterbatch for agricultural films. Polymeric materials, No. 12/2002, No. 1/2003.
3. Patent RU 2125063 C1
4. Patent US 4952443.
5. GOST 10354-82. M: Standard, 1988.
6. Patent RU 2053247 C1.
1. Luminescent covering material containing phosphors with luminescence in the spectral ranges of 400-500 nm and 600 to 750 nm, characterized in that it contains phosphors with luminescence in the range of 500-600 nm and 1200-2000 nm.
2. The material according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of luminescence intensity in the range of blue : yellow : green : red=(2-3):(2-4):(4-5).
3. The material according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of luminescence intensity in the IR ranges:HEADLIGHT=1:(1,15-2).
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to chemical industry and construction and can be used in manufacture of building materials, azimuth or location indicators with decorative or dark-field illumination. Artificial stone includes: 20 to 80% of transparent aggregate having diameter from 0.1 mm to 2/3 thickness of artificial stone after molding and hardening; luminophor with average particle diameter 10-30 μm; and resin. Luminophor is selected from strontium aluminate and zinc sulfide. Transparent aggregate is selected from quartz, rock crystal, glass, or silica. Artificial stone may further contain interaction or organic filler, the former being selected from above-mentioned materials plus aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate, all having particles with average diameter 30-70 μm. Organic filler may be plastic powder or plastic beads less than 0.1 mm in diameter. Volume ratio of filler to luminophor ranges from 0 to 100. Along with transparent aggregate, artificial stone can also include opaque aggregate having diameter less than 2/3 thickness of artificial stone. Total volume fraction of transparent and opaque aggregates ranges from 20 to 80%. Stone may further contain compound adjusting color or imparting fire resistance and antimicrobial agent or light stabilizer. Artificial stone constitutes thin bedding or a part of surface. Its color palette is as rich as that of natural occurring stones and higher luminescence characteristics than corresponding luminophors. Artificial stone can emit by all its body and shows high mechanical characteristics.
EFFECT: enlarged choice of building stones.
18 cl, 4 dwg, 10 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: radiation monitoring of environment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed scintillator that can be used for radiation monitoring of lands and water areas and in engineering systems for inspecting primary nuclear fuel and items made of fissionable materials includes calcium fluoride activated by europium and 3He helium isotope, proportion of ingredients being as follows, atom percent: calcium fluoride, 99.25 - 99.59; europium fluoride, 0.4 - 0.7; 3He helium isotope, 0.01 - 0.05.
EFFECT: enhanced thermal neutron recording efficiency.