Method for building cellular radiotelephone communication

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging base stations supplying services to objects belonging to given region in pentagon vertices. Its two non-adjacent angles are equal to 90° and vertex with an angle of 132° is between them. The other angles are equal to 114°. Communication zones cover territory under service without gaps. Their base stations have circular pattern and two radii of communication zones r and R related to each other as r=0.575R. The stations having lesser serviceability radius form a square which side is equal to 1.827l.

EFFECT: reduced service zone overlay degree; coverage of uneven and convex earth surface types.

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The method of constructing a cellular network relates to telecommunication systems and can be used for the provision of telecommunication services.

The organization of cellular systems is the division of the service area on the micro - cell. See, for example, U.S. patent No. 5418779 class H 04 L 12/48 “network Architecture with high-speed switching, the geometry of base stations (small circles) and zone connection (large circles) of the known device is shown in figure 1.

From figure 1 it is seen that in the known mobile communication system, the service area is completely covered with cells which are posted by the base station, located at an equal distance from each other, forming right triangles. In the area of service management is performed by switching the channels between radiosonde so that the transition of a moving object from one zone to another radio communication can continue without interruption. For this purpose it is necessary to implement the overlap zones. Full floor flat surface using regular polygons can only be achieved in three cases: for equilateral triangles, squares and hexagons. Conventionally, the geometry of a single cell of the cell taking into account the overlap accept the correct hexagon in the center of the circumscribed circle which is the base station. It does seem to mentioned regular polygons optimal according to the criterion of the minimum area of overlap of the cells (21% of the area height, see the book Zykov A.A. fundamentals of graph theory. - M.: Nauka, 1987. 381 C.)that the marginal (minimum and maximum) estimates of the required number of communication channels corresponds to the chromatic number of oriented graph Beria characterizing the interaction of radio-electronic means serving these communication channels. When this calculation is performed using the invariants of oriented graph And the maximum degree of vertices, α - vertex independence number, χ - chromatic number of a graph. With regard to the claimed cellular network, characterized by a large number of sectors of the base stations, analyzed from the perspective of their interaction, the estimate of the maximum required number of frequency channels Mmax(the chromatic number of the graph of the cellular network) is based on calculating the maximum degree of vertices of the graph of Berga Δ by the formula

The minimum required number of frequency channels Mminlimited to “clique”, which is numerically equal to the number of vertices is maximal complete subgraph allocated from the graph Berga

Mmin=K.

The calculations result in the following two formulas estimates are obtained in the form of dependences minimum and maximum required frequency channels depending on the number of sectors hundred base is tion, at the same time attracted to service the common areas in the interests of improving graphics provider.

Estimates obtained using the above formulas provide a rough estimate as it does not take into account the interdependence of sectors of the base stations in adjacent frequency channels over a single frequency channel; additional restrictions on the use of frequency channels of a base station according to the conditions of ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility of radio electronic means other purpose, functioning in the field of energy availability to interference from transceiver base stations. These factors shift the estimates obtained using the following formulas, in the direction of their maximization. Using the above formula shows that the location of base stations in the vertices of an equilateral pentagons achieved an increase in the number of channels in the space sector Ssabout 1.5 times compared with the location of the base stations in the vertices of a regular hexagons.

The closest to the technical nature of the proposed solution is the way to build a cellular network, described in the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1626412 A1, class H 04 b 7/26 “Way of the mobile radio communication cellular structure adopted for the prototype.

The well-known architect is round (geometry) cell communication (figure 1) consists of base stations, located at the vertices of the triangles and the base station are managed with the condition that during the transition of a moving object from one zone to another telephone exchange could continue without interruption. Regulation of transmitter power is based on the measurements and commands of moving objects, i.e. according to the scheme with feedback. For each channel direct traffic power adjust individually. In the process of power control base station periodically reduce the radiation power in the channel traffic. Power is reduced until such time as the movable object will not count exceeding the threshold level, the frequency of erroneous frames and sends the request to increase the transmitter power of the base station. Getting the team moving objects, the base station increases the radiation power in the respective channels of the graph, while they re-allocated by the system and severely limited resource capacity.

To ensure the effectiveness of radio communications by expanding the service area while maintaining the number of base stations in the prototype features a circular scan using phased antenna arrays installed at the base stations, where it receives the signals from moving objects. Using phased antenna arrays requires memorization of the azimuthal angle podejmowanych relative to the base station and the communication with the mobile object only during the crossing of the main lobe of the beam phased antenna array of the base station rolling object. For normal loading system requires a uniform distribution of moving objects on the azimuth angle of the pattern that is difficult to achieve in real terms, this is a significant drawback of the prototype method.

To address these shortcomings in the proposed method of construction of cellular communication, which consists in continuing the radio when switching the mobile station from one service area to another, according to the invention using the base station of the two radii of the service areas, which have the same vertices of an equilateral pentagons with two non-adjacent right angles, covering a service area without gaps, and the base station with a smaller radius service feature in the center of the intersection of two perpendicular lines passing through three base stations, forming a square.

The inventive method of constructing a cellular-based solution to the problem of optimal placement on the surface of the base stations of cellular networks with uniform (circular) area of communication, providing a minimum of mutual overlapping zones of communication. In this zone due to overlap without gap (no gaps between zones), which ensures the radio without interruption. To do this, use the following clause shall dhod. The area of mutual overlap γ will be determined by the analytical formula

where β - adjacent to the cover angle, shown in figure 3.

The optimal solution here is determined by the formula

cos2β=2cosβ+sinβ, (2)

Real roots of the equation (2) will be: β1=-90° and β2=125,25. To cover a flat surface equilateral pentagons without breaks, if you select two corners of the Pentagon on 90°, other angles will be: 132° (between 90°) and two angle 114°. The length of a side of an equilateral Pentagon denote by l. The vertex of the Pentagon, located at the intersection of mutually perpendicular angles (90°), form a square of side h=s=1,827l (figure 2). These peaks are located base station that provides the radius of the zone of connection 0,4355l, and vertices with angles 114° 132° transmitters with the radius of the zone of connection 0,7574l.

The optimality of the chosen geometry is confirmed by the calculations. For hexagonal cells (figure 1) and the proposed geometry (figure 2) scroll fragments in the form similar hexagons shown in solid bold lines. The degree of overlap we define as the ratio of floor area to the total area bounded by the thick solid lines

where - the total area of the zones of overlap,- the area of a single zone of overlap, Stotal- area hexagonal fragment.

The zone of overlap () on figure 1 and figure 2 shows in the form of overlapping areas of overlapping circles and are shown by hatching. Total area (Stotal) limited solid thick line and is represented in the form of hexagonal fragments (figure 1 and figure 2), similar to the truncated diamonds.

Compare the base case (figure 1) and new variant (figure 2). We denote the distance between base stations through l. We are interested in the ratio of the areas, so different values of this parameter in figure 1 and figure 2 do not affect the result of the calculation by the formula (3). The service area will accept having the shape of a circle. The area of each zone of overlapfind the sum of two segments, limited relevant arcs.

The basic version.

Consider the base case presented in figure 1. As you can see, hexagonal fragment contains 16 of an equilateral triangle, whose nodes are base stations. To ensure continuous radio (no gaps between service areas) you must have a service-area radius R=0,577l. In this area the individual triangles S▿ =0,144l2and the total area of the fragment will be Stotal=2,304l. One overlap zone has an area of=0,061l. Such zones on the fragment of figure 1, there are 24. Therefore, the total overlap within a fragment is Slane=1,464l2. Substituting in the formula (3), we obtain the degree of overlap δ=63,54%.

New option.

Consider a new option presented in figure 2 and will carry out similar calculations. The area of a Pentagon is 1,661l2and the total area of the fragment, consisting of 4 pentagons will be Stotal=6,529l2.

The zone of overlap, as can be seen from figure 2, presents 3 types:

1) the overlap of two areas of large radius, the distance between the centers of which is equal to l. This area is=0,397l2;

2) the overlap of two areas of large radius, the distance between the centers of which is. This area is=0,007l2;

3) the overlap zone of small radius area with a large radius. This area is=0,0597l2.

The total area of overlap of the fragment will be

Slane=2+8(+)=1,327l2.

Hence the degree of overlap will be δ=19,97%, i.e. 3,182 times less, che is at the baseline.

Figure 3 shows the plan area covered by a cellular communications, where base stations are distributed on the vertices of the Pentagon. When cellular communication is large (comparable to the radius of the Earth) and uneven in height the territory it is necessary to consider additional advantages of the proposed base stations.

The flat surface may be covered only equilateral triangles, squares, and right hexagons. However, given that the surface is close to the sphere that can be inscribed in a dodecahedron (a regular polyhedron composed of regular pentagons), at small deformation (change in internal corners) you can cover various non-planar surfaces.

At the same time, the non-planar surface cannot be covered right hexagons. In this sense, the proposed method for the construction of cellular communication has the advantage, as with the deformation of an equilateral pentagons may cover both flat and rough and convex surfaces.

The method of construction of cellular communication, which consists in continuing the radio when switching the mobile station from one zone to another, characterized in that use base stations of the two radii of the service areas, which are placed uniformly at the vertices of a Pentagon covering the service area without gaps, moreover, the base station with the smaller radius of the service area is placed at the vertices of the squares.



 

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