Method for creating of plantation plots
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, creation of lands for plant cultivation on flat plots.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing layer of desired plant crop in soil layer; separating portion of said layer of any size together with soil layer comprising crop roots penetrated into soil; removing soil layer from said portions to obtain plant crop portions with fully open roots; providing container for plant and placing porous layer therein; laying said plant portions onto porous layer; locating container in predetermined place onto flat surface and cultivating plant crop with the use of irrigation and other operations.
EFFECT: provision for creating light-weight, reliable, high-quality layer of plantation plats.
19 cl, 10 dwg
The invention relates to the creation of areas for cultivation of vegetation, most areas covered with vegetation and/or turf on the surfaces of buildings (but not only them) or, in General, on any flat and horizontal surface. In particular the invention relates to a method and apparatus that provide for the application of pre-grown vegetable coating on a horizontal surface, for example, on the surface of the building, and care for them by cultivation, if it is required, without the need to create soil layers on these surfaces.
Background of the invention
Creating and cultivating vegetable plots, for example, coatings of turf on roofs and other surfaces, has both aesthetic and functional purposes. Greenery makes the buildings more attractive appearance, and have a calming effect on their residents. Walk and/or rest on this site help to ease feelings of stress and claustrophobia, which cause the surrounding high-rise buildings in modern cities. In addition, these areas have important functional advantages, in particular, provide thermal insulation, protection from excessive heating or cooling ceilings, etc. In this regard, increasing the need for more effective and for e is x how to create vegetable plots on buildings, as well as devices to accomplish the above methods. In addition, the possibility to carry out any cultivation, including growing vegetables or do not require special care fruit on surfaces where no soil, for example on the surfaces of the building, but not only, is of great interest from an economic point of view.
In the patent USP 5287650 described and claimed a method of creating an environment for growing green plants. The content of this method is given here as a reference. The specified analog includes putting land on the roof of the building to create artificial soil layer or, in another case, to create layers with the purpose of growing plants by means of hydroponics.
Installation for growing herbs hydroponically described in particular in patents great Britain GB V and W. However, hydroponics does not create the required areas covered with grass or other vegetation, where you could lie down or walk, and in addition, it is difficult enough being implemented in residential areas. On the other hand, putting a layer of earth on the roof of the building creates unwanted stress and requires adoption of certain measures that will prevent damage to the building structure. Thus, none of the above methods do not provide satisfactory is about solving the problem, consisting in the creation of parcels of green space in the buildings.
In U.S. patent No. 4364197 described coating to obtain pre-grown turf, etc., which contains two layers of nonwoven fabric, through which is formed a layer of grass seed. Grass seeds germinate, forming a coating of turf, which, however, must then be laid on fertile ground. After that grown in water the root system grows in the soil.
In U.S. patent No. 5205068 described is a method of growing turf, which also can be transferred from the place of cultivation to permanent planting. The method is to use a mesh base with small cells and a substrate of sand or a mixture of sand with a placeholder, which, in turn, placed on a plastic sheet. In the specified basis of planting grass seed and watered. After germination of the grass mesh with woven grass roots can lift and carry it to the place of permanent planting.
To eliminate the disadvantages of the known methods, U.S. patent No. 5287650 offers structural material for growing green plants that includes three layers located one above the other vertically, of which at least two of the upper layer composed mainly of synthetic fibers. The bottom layer is a drainage layer. The middle layer is to protect Tim layer, which supports the roots of green plants. The top layer is a cultivation layer which does not contain soil. It can be planted and the seeds germinate and cultivate grown grass and/or other plants. This layer is made of nonwoven cloth, possibly with fiber content, absorbing the water. The structure and properties of such matter should be very carefully controlled, since it plays an important role in the germination of seeds.
Using this material on the surface of the building with the aim of creating a plot of green space first on the specified surface is placed drainage layer, and then, on top of it, a protective layer and, finally, the top-most stack cultivation layer. Then in cultivation layer sow the seeds of grasses and other plants, germinated them and do all that is necessary to improve conditions for their germination and growth.
However, this method of creating parcels of green space in the buildings is difficult and unreliable, because in circumstances which cannot be attributed to farming or to conventional hydroponics, seed germination on these artificial surfaces requires observation specialist, and sprouted grass can be damaged easily.
Therefore, the aim of the present invention is to develop a method and device that provide with the building areas of green space on building surfaces, and free from the disadvantages inherent in previous designs.
Another objective of the present invention is to develop a method and device which do not require the creation of soil layers on the surfaces of the building.
Another objective of the present invention is to develop a method and device which do not require the planting of seeds and to ensure the monitoring of their germination in residential areas.
The next objective of the present invention to provide such method and device which provide protection of the surfaces of the building, which created lots of green vegetation from damage as the vegetation and operations that are required to care for her.
And finally, another aim of the present invention is to develop a method and device that provide vegetable coatings, characterized by the desired compactness and having an attractive appearance.
Other objectives and advantages of the invention will become apparent in the further description.
The way to create plots for growing vegetables or green space according to this invention includes the following operations:
I - growing layer of the desired crops on soil formation;
II - Department of pieces of the specified layer, is within any desired dimensions, together with a layer of soil containing the roots of crops;
III - removes the specified layer of the soil of these pieces to obtain the components of the coating, consisting of cultivated vegetable crops, the roots of which are fully open;
IV - preparation container to cover;
V - packing of the porous layer in the specified container;
VI - laying of these components cover specified on the porous layer; and
VII - culturing the obtained coatings grown
crops by irrigation and perform other operations that are required for cultivation.
It should be understood that although the natural soil layer, of course, is preferred for growing crops, the components of the coating, consisting of cultivated vegetable crops, the roots of which are fully open, can be obtained by growing the desired culture on an artificial reservoir, from which vegetable culture can be separated by lifting it.
Further, for purposes of this description, made with reference to the grass as a cultivated vegetable crops, however, it should be understood that it is preferable example, but not limitation.
Preferably, if the specified porous layer saturated with water to a preset level and is equipped with drainage with what edstam for draining the water from this reservoir to the specified level, whereby in the specified layer of the porous layer of the pores remain open, ventilated condition. Of course, the ventilated layer of the porous layer may be wet due to irrigation or evaporation from a water-soaked layer and, in addition, the porous layer can adsorb different amounts of water, depending on its physical properties. So the fact that this layer is "vented", does not mean complete lack of moisture.
According to the invention, the areas cultivated vegetable crops, particularly grass or other vegetation, create any flat, horizontal surface. For example, such a surface is the surface of a building, such as roof, etc., or any other surface, prepared for this purpose, for example, aligned with the pouring of the concrete. In addition, the surface must be created on the land, may be made waterproof by any suitable means, for example, by setting the bottom sheet of plastic or other airtight material, on which is placed the bulk material, or by coating on the surface of the layer of waterproof material.
Grown vegetable culture, which preferably is a grass, can also be vegetable culture, for example, tomato, watermelon, melon, etc. to Grow the W garden crops on the surface of buildings, by itself, a new idea.
The terms "coating" and "component coating" means a layer of twisted roots, stems and leaves of plants that comprise the desired grown culture, freed from the soil (if there were any). Moreover, it is preferable that the soil was removed from a piece of corresponding layer cultivated vegetable crops method of washing, after he was separated from the strata in which it was grown.
These pieces layer grown culture and, respectively, the components of the coating may be of any shape, although usually they are rectangular, and can have any dimensions, in relation to the size of the generated plot vegetation. For example, one component of the coating may have the same size as the container in which it is placed. As for convenience in describing all grown culture, stacked in the container, will be described by the term "coating", any coating can be formed as a single component coating, having the same size as the container, or, in another case, many smaller components of the coating adjacent to one another.
It should be understood that when used herein, the term "container" means any design, which can save water inside and, consequently, the porous layer containing the water. Such an element which may (a) contain the bottom and attached wall, i.e. to have a design in the form of a reservoir; b) to have a separate bottom, in particular in the form of a sheet of waterproof material, around which is formed a Board, for example, of the several side walls that limit the space in the tank; C) to be educated plot waterproof surface, particularly the surface of the building, which must be installed in the floor, and the Board made around a specific surface area, for example, of the several side walls, and a specified portion of the surface forming the bottom; or g) to be educated on the surface, which must be installed floor in the form of recesses having bottom and side. It should be understood that the term "container"as used in this description and the claims, if you do not provide a more narrow definition of this term, includes all of the above options, and any other structure or device (typically restricts the space in the tank), which can save water inside and, consequently, to preserve the porous layer is filled with water, and in addition also contain drainage means, such as holes that are located at a certain height, as explained next.
If the container is designed in the form of a tank consisting of a bottom and attached aboard the desired Uch the runoff vegetation form stacking in the container, the porous layer and the coating and then setting all on the surface, for which it was intended, in any position, provided that the container is horizontally balanced and upright. In another case, the porous layer and/or coating can be stacked in the container after the latter is installed on the surface. This surface, as described above, may be the surface of the building. It can also be an artificial surface other than the surface of a building, or a natural surface, smooth or aligned. If the container has a bottom, not associated structurally with the Board, as, for example, if the bottom is a waterproof sheet or a portion of the surface of the building, to such a container if necessary, attach the side walls, and then placed in a container of the porous layer and the coating.
The porous layer, on which is placed a coating, preferably made of a granular inert material, which can also be a mixture or a composition of two or more different materials. Two materials with similar properties, it is tuff and perlite. Another suitable material is a clay (produced by Leca S. R. A., Milan, Italy). Preferably, but not necessarily to the bulk material was laid, at least in two rows, with the bottom row, preferably, has a larger particle size than the top row. In any with what you learn at an intermediate level between the upper and lower part of the porous layer carry out drainage holes. This is done in order to divide the specified layer (regardless of the number of rows, of which it is composed) on the bottom layer containing liquid (usually water or an aqueous solution that come here when watering grass or otherwise), and the top layer, the pores of which are free from the liquid and are open and ventilated, for example, is filled with gases or vapors. Grass roots pass through the top layer and align themselves with him. Grass roots can also, to a minor degree, to intertwine with bulk material from the bottom layer.
According to the most preferred implementation variant of the invention the upper row are placed in a mesh design, which can occupy a small area. Thus, the top row may be made of modules in the form of small plots in the form of layers of granular material, placed close to each other, which facilitates the Assembly surface. In addition, since the top row is essentially located in a mesh design, the roots penetrate vegetation in this design and, ultimately intertwined with it. After a short period of time the grass surface is combined with mesh design and bulk material, forming a "plant the items containing vegetation, roots and the top row of the bulk material. This gives you the ability to take care of the obtained plot vegetation "modular way, for example, when taking the service only modular sections, maintaining at the same time, the uniformity of their appearance during normal use. Mesh design, of course, freely permeable. The above described modular top row and the resulting modular areas of vegetation are also part of the present invention.
Processing, which is subjected to the vegetation cover after its installation on the site, include, in addition to irrigation, surgery is usually used for such vegetation when it is cultivated in the traditional way.
For example, it fertilize. Can also be used protective chemicals such as herbicides and/or pesticides. It is preferable that the temperature of the water used for irrigation of vegetation, was regulated to maintain the temperature of the coating in the optimal range. For this purpose provided by the heating means, which include in the appropriate seasons for that. to protect the vegetation cover from excessive temperature reduction.
The device according to this invention includes a container (as described above)containing layer ine the private porous material. The container has drainage holes to keep water inside the container at the specified level, so that the pores in the top layer of porous material, were ventilated, free from liquid, as described above. The device also includes means for irrigation of vegetable coating. It is preferable that the device additionally could be included means for regulating the temperature of the contents of the container and plant cover, or at least, its roots, if it is required by seasonal conditions. It is preferable that the means for regulating the temperature consisted of a heater, a heat exchanger for heating the water to the desired temperature and the system of pipes, which serves the heated water to the appropriate places in the container or provide any water from the hot water on and/or under the plant floor. The heated water may drip, for example, from below the floor of a flexible rubber or plastic tube (in particular, the standard tube diameter 16 mm)equipped with a drain/release liquid.
Brief description of drawings
The accompanying drawings represent:
Figure 1 - schematic top view of the device for cleaning pieces of grass from the soil, to produce coatings;
Figure 2 is a vertical, longitudinal resolution the device, shown in figure 1;
Figure 3 is a top view of the container used according to one variant of the invention (container shown empty);
4 is a cross section of a container containing porous layers and floor, along the plane IV-IV of figure 3;
5 is a part cross-section along the plane V-V in figure 3 of the specified container with porous layers and coating, on an enlarged scale;
6 is a schematic illustration of the system of regulation of water temperature;
7 is a photograph depicting a bottom view pieces of grass layer after separating them from the soil in which the grass was grown, together with soil particles adhering to them;
Fig is a photograph depicting a bottom view of the components of the coating obtained from pieces of grass layer 7 by removing them from the soil;
Figure 9 is a photograph of a piece of coverage obtained and grown according to one example implementation of the invention, wrapped in order to show its bottom side; and Figure 10 is an enlarged image of a piece of cover, marked on Fig.9.
A detailed description of the preferred variants of the invention
The first operation of the method according to the present invention is a growing vegetative layer, for example, in this implementation, herbal layer corresponding to the fertile soil. This is a normal agricultural operation to which I do not require any further explanation. The result is a layer of vegetation - sod in the described implementation, together with the soil on which it grew. The turf is cut into pieces, the shape and dimensions of which do not matter. They can represent, in particular, square or rectangular pieces with sides equal to several centimeters, for example, from 7 to 10, see These pieces is separated from the ground layer, if the cultivation was performed on natural reservoir, as this is taken further, the pieces contain some soil at a depth of, for example, 10 cm or more. This operation is common to obtain areas covered with a turf instead to sow and grow the turf in place, bring the pieces of turf grown on fertile soil, and then stack them. Thus, this normal operation does not require any further explanation.
During the second operation of the method chunks of peat is washed to separate them from the soil, if it stuck to him, in order to obtain the components of the coating, such as described above. This operation is illustrated figure 1 and figure 2.
Figure 1 and figure 2 figure 10 indicated a device for removing soil from pieces of turf to obtain the components of the coating. Device 10, in a very schematic form, contains a closed loop 11, is made of a material with corresponding holes, in particular, from the Council of Europe is key, which provides drainage of water and captured her soil. Specified loop 11 is supported and driven in the direction of the arrows, with the rollers 12 and any suitable drive (not shown). In addition, the device contains a water-spraying installation, conventionally shown in the form of nozzles 13, and means for supplying water under pressure to said nozzles (not shown). Sod indicated by the numeral 14, is placed on the mesh loop 11, which moves them in the direction of the arrows. Each piece of turf 14 cut to the required size and contains the topmost layer 16 consisting in this embodiment of implementation of matted grass roots, stems and leaves, and below the soil layer 17, and the roots of the layer 16 are held in the soil layer 17. When the forward movement of the pieces of turf 14, together with the grid 11, they sprayed water from nozzles 13, gradually washing away with them the soil layer 17, which is conventionally indicated in the drawing by the numeral 18. Accordingly, the thickness of the soil layer 17 decreases, as shown in the drawing, as long as the soil is not completely removed, and the result of the original pieces of turf 14 out components of the coating 20, in which the roots are fully open. The components of the coating 20 is removed from device 10, storing, if necessary, and transported by conventional means, to the of which is not self-explanatory, to the place of execution of the operations described below.
The container 21, which is part of the device according to this variant of the invention is, as shown in figure 3, a shallow tank, preferably of rectangular shape when viewed from above. It is preferable that the container was made of sheet metal such as sheet aluminum or steel treated appropriately for protection against corrosion, for example, by applying a zinc coating having a thickness of, for example, about 275 microns or more. The container has a bottom 22 and a Board formed by the walls 22' height of a few centimeters, for example, from 5 to 12 cm or more. According to another preferred variant of the invention, vegetation and loose layers not put in the container, and placed directly on the surface, and the whole plot vegetation wall sheet of durable material. In addition to the materials mentioned above, as a material for fencing convenient Perspex ca. The shape of the container depends on the specific surface of which is supposed to install it, however, it is usually rectangular. As indicated above, the container may consist of a bottom and sides, which are structurally unrelated. The bottom can be a waterproof sheet, for example, of the bituminous layer or sheet, or do the same with bituminous coating, or are formed by the surface of the structure, for example, the surface of the building, which should be stacked components of the coating. For the formation of the bottom of the container waterproof sheet can be laid on a waterproof surface area of the building.
On all side walls of the container 21 has a hole 23 for water drainage, and the height at which they are located, depends on the level required to meet the water inside the container, filling the empty space in the porous layer. The distance between the holes and their diameters must provide sufficient drainage. As an example: the diameter drainage holes can be from 5 to 20 cm, and the distance between two adjacent holes may be such as to ensure the presence of the 2 holes at approximately 1.5 m2the surface area of the container. They are at the height of a few centimeters, preferably from 1 to 5 cm, and, for many applications, preferably at a height of about 4 cm from the bottom of the container. As a consequence, creates a lower porous layer with a depth equal to said height, filled to the specified level of water or aqueous solution, and the upper porous layer containing liquid, preferably having a depth of from 5 to 12 cm or more, depending on the height of fencing material. Moreover, as stated in the above, the top layer does not necessarily have to be free of moisture, however, should not contain a layer of water.
Figure 27 is indicated a pipe designed to supply fertilizer. As can be seen from figure 3, which shows their top openings, pipes are placed at the corners and side walls of the container 21. One of the pipes is visible in cross section in figure 5. Pipes have a diameter of about several tens of millimeters, for example, about 40 mm, and a length slightly less than the depth of the container 21, and the concave ends 28', contributing to the release fertilizer of the pipes. If required, the upper openings of the pipes can also provide craters or connect with craters. The fertilizer is injected from the top and flows from the lower part of the tube to receive the container, the mixture of water and perlite or other porous material.
The container can be mounted on any flat surface, as on artificial, for example, the surface of the building, and natural. In the described embodiment of the invention, the surface on which the container shown in figure 4 by the numeral 30.
As can be seen from figure 4, in this embodiment of the invention the container is filled granular, porous material, which may represent, for example, tuff, perlite, expanded clay, as well as their mixture or composition. It is preferable that the specified bulk mater what al was laid in two rows 25 and 26, consisting of particles of different sizes. However, you can use and one granular material, i.e. one row. For example, if the material used tuff, lower row 25 is formed by particles with a size of about 10-20 mm and has a depth of about 3 cm, and the second row 26 placed on the first row, has a depth of about 4 cm and is formed by particles of size up to 4 mm, the Density of the bottom row is 850-950 g/l, and the density of the top row - 1300-1400 g/L. If the porous material used perlite, the depth of the series remains the same as when using tuff. However, the bottom row will consist of particles with a size of about 0.4 mm and the density will be about 10 g/l, and the top row is of a particle size of about 0.2 mm and its density is 5 g/L. However, it should be borne in mind that these values are given only as examples and do not represent any limitation. In the case of the use of perlite to prevent its loss through drainage holes and/or clogging them these holes, before the holes placed in the container holding means made of, for example, geothermal, and in particular, waterproof fabric. The grid of waterproof fabric can also be placed in the specified upper layer of granular material or directly above it.
As mentioned, the level to which the PRS are drainage holes, divides the granular material in two layers - bottom layer impregnated with liquid, and the upper layer containing liquid (as explained above). When using two (or more) rows of different bulk materials, as in this implementation, the rows coincide or do not coincide with these two layers, depending on are whether the drainage holes at the level of the border between two rows or at another level. Therefore, it should be borne in mind that the difference between "rows" is the bulk material from which they are (or if use only one material, there is only one row), and the difference between "layers" is the presence or absence of fluid in the space between the particles of the bulk material and, consequently, the level at which there are drainage holes. It should again be noted that the moisture may also be present in the layers of granular material above the drainage holes, as previously explained.
The coating of turf, which in this example is grass,
indicated on the drawings by the numeral 28, is placed over the top of the layers, in this case the implementation is on top of the number 26. The grass roots are in the specified layer and intertwined with it. They don't go down much below the level of the drainage holes so as, when the grass roots penetrate into the water, then they are either starting the Ute to rot, or their development, in fact, stopped.
In the system, means shall be provided for watering or irrigation, while watering perform almost the same way as in the case of conventional turf grown on fertile soil. Known means of irrigation can also be applied in this case. They can be a spray nozzle located in the reservoir under the vegetation layer and passing over it, as is usually done when irrigating turf, or can be used other means, in particular, underground irrigation system. All these means of irrigation are self-explanatory, as they are generally accepted and in the technique known to a large number of such funds. Irrigation system, located inside or outside the container, connected to one or more of the containers can have automatic control, as well as under normal irrigation.
However, it is preferable that were provided by means of irrigation, which could be adjusted according to different seasons, for example, with summer season, which usually means warmer months, and with the winter season, which usually means colder months. The roots of the vegetation cover should be at the optimum temperature, typically in the range of the region from 18° With up to a 22°C. In the winter season, it is required to heat the irrigating water. For this purpose, set the heater 30, conventionally shown in Fig.6, which heats the irrigating water through a heat exchanger 31. Inside the container is installed pipe system, for example, polyethylene pipes with a diameter 12-16 mm, for Example, such a system may have, as in this implementation, the comb structure containing the pipe 32 and the number of taps 33, each of which leads to conditionally shows the hole or nozzle 34 located underneath the layer of sod. The water from the heat exchanger is fed through the said pipe system and provides the required heating of the underside of the covering of turf.
As indicated above, requires further processing to maintain vegetative cover in the best condition and prevent wilting from lack of nutrients or from the effects of weeds or pests. So, for example, fertilizers can be made once every six months. As fertilizer can be used, for example, fertilizers, with trademarks LEVATIT HD-5, MULTICOTE and OSMOCOTE, or other suitable fertilizer supplied to the market.
As stated above, creating a coating of turf on the surface of the buildings is the most common and typical applications of the invention, however, it can also be used for growing ogorod the crops. The application method and the device are essentially the same as described above.
Grass "E1" raised in the usual way, after receiving the turf, and then processed as follows. To obtain the components of the coating the soil adhering to the roots was removed by using the device shown in figure 1 and figure 2. The lower part of the pieces of turf grass EI Addition to removal of soil is shown in Fig.7, and after the delete - Fig.
Aluminum sheet thickness of 3 mm, zinc coated, made of a rectangular container. He had the size 8x5 meters and a side wall height of 10 cm In each wall has complied with the drainage holes with a diameter of 20 mm, and the distance from the inner surface of the bottom of the container to the center drain hole was 4.5 see Each container is filled with a porous layer containing a lower number of perlite height of 3.5 cm and the top row of perlite height 7 cm, laid on top of the bottom row. Since the upper surface of the lower row were at the same level as the lower part of the drainage holes, the bottom row formed by the lower layer of the porous layer saturated with water and the top row formed drained upper layer. Then each container is equipped with a network of horizontal piping branches off from a flexible plastic pipe having an internal diameter of 16 mm and is connected to the heat is bennike for supplying heated water. Plastic pipes had a discharge holes every 30 see branches off the pipe was laid in the container at a height of 3.5 cm from the inner surface of the bottom of the container.
The components of the coating was placed in the specified container adjacent to each other, on top of the top row of perlite, and put the container on a flat roof of a house in tel Aviv. The turf was grown in the following way. It periodically watered by means of a spray of water, controlled by a PC and have the normal consumption of water, for 10 minutes at 5 o'clock in the morning and within 10 minutes at 8 PM. In the period from December 1997 to may 1998 on the specified network plumbing plastic pipes circulate the heated water, the temperature of the specified water flow rates were such that the temperature in the top row of perlite, automatically regulated by a thermostat was maintained at 18°s 20-20-20 Fertilizer (containing 20% N, 20% P2About3and 20% K2O) contributed to the turf in July 1997 and July 1998, both times in the amount of 0.05 kg/m2.
It was found that the resulting turf has all the features lush turf grown in natural soil. In addition, it was found that the coating had a high density, allowed to walk on it as on a natural derno. In addition, the coating can be removed from containera is, for example, to care for him, and then lay back, by the expand and collapse without damage. This is due to the fact that the grass roots were intertwined with perlite from the top row and into the bottom row to a considerable depth, due to the fact that after penetration into the layer of water that has infiltrated the specified bottom row, they started to rot and/or has become incapable of further development. Turf was effective insulation of the roof on which it was laid.
Structure and properties of turf, obtained according to the invention, illustrated in figures 9 and figure 10. Figure 9 shows the edge of the cover, wrapped to show its lower part. On the picture you can see the bottom layer of tuff and impregnating his water. Part of the underside turf, bounded by the rectangle in figure 9, is shown in figure 10 in an enlarged scale. It is seen that in addition to the original roots visible on Fig grew shallow roots that are intertwined with the porous material of the upper layer (tuff), which is held by them and by folding the cover is lifted together with them. Thus, grass and porous material form associated with a solid structure that can be transported, if required, and can be transplanted to another location. Such linked combine the automated structure itself has novelty, it was not previously known and cannot be obtained using previously known methods and devices. Therefore, it is part of the present invention.
These herbal properties of the coatings according to this invention are important so as to facilitate maintenance of building surfaces, which laid the specified coating. For example, if the bottom of one or more of the containers formed by the surface area of the building and if the surface requires, for example, replacement or repair of waterproofing, it is sufficient to collapse the turf to open the appropriate site to perform the necessary technical operation (for example, surface cleaning followed by the application of a new layer of asphalt or tar), and then re-deploy the floor, returning to its original position. This way maintenance of building surfaces covered by vegetation, is new and could not be done previously known means.
Examples of implementation of the invention shown in the illustrations, however, it should be understood that the invention can be implemented with various variations, modifications and adaptations, in particular, with the above, or within the understanding and capacity of professionals, not deviating from its meaning and not going beyond claims
1. The way to create areas of vegetation that includes growing a layer of the desired crops on soil formation and separation, characterized in that the resulting layer is removed soil layer to get clean, practically free from soil of roots, the specified layer for further cultivation is placed on a porous, inert layer, pre-Packed in a container that can hold water, and the cultivation of crops is carried out by watering and other processing operations that are required for cultivation.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the layer of desirable plants grown in natural soil, separating the layer of vegetable culture together with a layer of soil containing the roots of vegetation, and remove the specified soil layer with the specified layer of vegetable crops with getting almost pure, purified from the soil to the roots.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes the drainage of fluid from the porous reservoir level between the upper and lower bounds of the specified layer, whereby this layer is divided into the lower layer containing the specified fluid, and the upper layer, from which the reserved liquid.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the vegetable culture selected from the group consisting of herbs and fruit plants.
5. JV the property according to claim 4, characterized in that the fruit of the plant is chosen from the group consisting of tomatoes, watermelon or melon.
6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the soil is removed by washing stations crops.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flat surface is an artificial surface.
8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the artificial surface is the surface of the building.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pieces of layers crops, and hence the corresponding parts of plants have the shape and dimensions tailored to the size of the area of vegetable crops, which must be created.
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that each section of plant culture has an area equal to the area of the container for vegetation.
11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the many sections of plant culture, laid close to one another, have a total area equal to the area of the container for vegetation.
12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous layer consists of granular inert material.
13. The method according to item 12, wherein the granular inert material selected from the group consisting of tuff, perlite, expanded clay, or combinations or mixtures of these materials.
14. The method according to item 13, wherein the material stack, hence, is her least in two rows, and the bottom row consists of particles larger than the particles that make up the top row.
15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the vegetable culture after laying in place of processed, which is usually used for such vegetation under normal cultivation.
16. The method according to item 15, wherein the processing comprises applying fertilizers.
17. The method according to item 15, wherein the processing comprises applying herbicides and/or pesticides.
18. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes the temperature of the water used to irrigate crops, to maintain its temperature in the optimal range.
19. The method according to p, characterized in that it involves the heating of water in the cold season.
FIELD: weather control methods.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to eliminate fog and cloud over various surface facilities that need protection against unwanted weather conditions during their operation, for instance airfields, high-speed highways, seaports, and the like, includes installation of ionizing wires of electrically charged particles above ground surface; heating of atmospheric air above ground surface area of minimum 104 m2 in the course of generation, heating intensity being at least 10 W per sq. m, in air space under ionizing wires; measurement of electric field strength at ground surface and air heating around locations where electric field strength is maximal. Formation of man-induced upward air flow reduces transfer of electrically charged particles to ground thereby reducing their loss.
EFFECT: enhanced operating efficiency.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing and feed production, may be used for growing of spring rape in fodder crop as postcut forage crop.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing soil and seeds; sowing; providing care for young crops; harvesting. Seed sowing is carried out during period of mass development of cruciferous weeds and die-off of first generation of wintered cruciferous fleas Phyllotreta spp. Spring rape is grown in postcut forage crop. Before seed sowing, soil is cultivated by rotavation or two-three-staged disking by means of harrows to 8-10 cm depth immediately after harvesting of preceding crop. Seed sowing is performed during 2-3 days after harvesting of said crop. Spring rape is cultivated in single-course complete fodder crop rotation mode. Winter wheat is used as preceding crop. Early ripening rape seeds with growing period of up to 100 days are commonly used. In the Middle Urals zone, rape seeds are sown in June, 15 to 30.
EFFECT: increased yield of spring rape grown for forage in risky agriculture regions at intensive utilization of plowed field in fodder crop rotation mode without use of pesticides.
4 cl, 6 tbl