Method for protecting fruit surface

FIELD: agriculture, fruit storage.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with technology to treat fruit before their laying for storage. For the purpose to decrease the loss from microbial spoiling and increase the terms of storage fruit essential oils and epiphytic substances of cuticular layer of plant raw material should be applied onto the surface from mycella obtained after extracting Pythium gracile micromycete biomass with nonpolar extragent in supracritical state.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of protection.

3 ex

 

The invention relates to the processing of the fruit before putting it into storage.

A known method of protecting the surface of fruits, including cleaning the surface from mechanical impurities and applied to the essential oils of the fruit together with epiphytic substances cuticular layer of vegetable raw materials by condensation of supercritical fluids, used as a carrier (EN 2060671 C1, 27.05.1996).

The disadvantage of this method is the low reliability of the protection of fruits from microbial spoilage.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the reliability of protection of fruits from microbial spoilage and increase shelf life of fruits.

This result is achieved in that in the method of protecting the surface of fruits, including cleaning the surface from mechanical impurities and applied to the essential oils of the fruit together with epiphytic substances cuticular layer of vegetable raw materials by condensation of supercritical fluids, used as a carrier, according to the invention, as supercritical fluids use miscella obtained after extraction of biomass micromycete Pythium gracile nonpolar solvent at supercritical parameters of the latter.

The method is implemented as follows.

The surface is prepared for storage plodovochmash from mechanical impurities by any known method, for example the sink. If removal of impurities was used fluid, the surface of the fruit is dried, and then transfer the fruit to the protective coating.

Dry biomass micromycete Pythium gracile extracted with a nonpolar solvent, for example carbon dioxide or hexane, supercritical condition. The resulting miscella mixed with essential oils such as fruits, and processed, and epiphytic substances cuticular layer of any plant materials. The resulting mixture is directed to a protective coating on the surface of the fruit.

To ensure uniform coating on the surface of the treated fruits parameters of a carrier medium reduced below the critical. This leads to condensation of the mixture of epiphytic substances cuticular layer of vegetable raw materials, essential oils and extractives biomass micromycete Pythium gracile on the surface of the processed fruit. The composition of the extractives biomass micromycete Pythium gracile mostly include higher fatty acids, mainly polyunsaturated, including eicosatetraenoate and eicosapentaenoic having immunostimulatory activity against higher plants.

Experiments have shown that the composition of essential oils of fruits and epiphytic substances cuticular layer of higher plants there are no substances that can suppress or inhibit the activity of these acids. Eventually deposited on the surface of the fruit coating not only protects the fruit from drying out and has antiseptic properties, as in the closest analogue, but also stimulates a protective reaction of the fruit, which increases their shelf life by reducing the likelihood of microbial spoilage in secondary contamination.

It should be noted that the components of the protective coating in the above combination allows you to enhance the efficiency of its components. Epiphytic matter of the cuticle of plant raw materials retard the oxidation and evaporation of essential oils and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids included in the composition of the extractives biomass micromycete Pythium gile. Essential oils neutralize weakly expressed mushroom smell and taste of extractives biomass micromycete Pythium gracile. Polyunsaturated fatty acid extractives biomass micromycete Pythium gracile retard the oxidation of essential oils in the coating composition and the coloring matter in the surface layers of the fruit. These processes have a positive effect on increasing the shelf life of fruits.

Example 1.

Dry biomass micromycete Pythium gracile extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and separate miscella without changing the parameters of the extractant. Oranges are washed, dried and treated with p is obtained by miscella with the addition of orange essential oil and epiphytic substances of the cuticle. In the control of the same epiphytic substances and essential oils are applied from pure supercritical carbon dioxide. A pilot batch of oranges compared to the control retains the appearance of 20% longer, losses from microbial spoilage during 4 months of storage was reduced 3 times.

Example 2.

Cherry is treated analogously to example 1, but using hexane and epiphytic substances cuticular layer of spinach. Term of condition of an experimental batch of cherries increased in 2 times, losses from microbial spoilage during the month storage in modified gas environment is reduced by 1.5 times.

Example 3.

Apples treated analogously to example 1, but using nitrous oxide and epiphytic substances cuticular layer salad. Term of condition of an experimental batch increased by 20%, the losses from microbial spoilage after 3 months of storage was reduced by 50%.

Thus, the proposed method allows to reduce losses from microbial spoilage and increase shelf life of fruits.

The way to protect the surface of fruits, including cleaning the surface from mechanical impurities and applied to the essential oils of the fruit together with epiphytic substances cuticular layer of vegetable raw materials by condensation of supercritical fluids, used as a carrier, featuring the the action scene, as supercritical fluids use miscella obtained after extraction of biomass micromycete Pythium gracile nonpolar solvent at supercritical parameters of the latter.



 

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