Method and device for servicing electrical installation built around electrochemical generator

FIELD: dc power supplies and dc power systems operating on hydrogen and oxygen.

SUBSTANCE: novelty is that method includes electrical installation starting and running under steady state conditions involving evaporation of liquid methanol and water, production of hydrogen and carbonic acid as result of chemical reaction between methanol and water vapors followed by chemical reaction between produced hydrogen and oxygen to generate water vapors and heat, and water and carbonic acid discharge to environment. When installation is running under steady state conditions, liquid methanol is evaporated due to its thermal chemical reaction with hydrogen and oxygen compound in electrochemical generator and water vapors produced as result of this chemical reaction are conveyed for reaction with methanol vapors to produce hydrogen. Device implementing this method is built around electrochemical generator and has methanol storage tank and series-connected vapor reformer, gas separation unit with carbonic acid discharge line, and electrochemical generator with heat and reaction product discharge lines. Newly introduced in device is methanol pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through heat discharge line, pump, thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus, and methanol vapor flow regulator; in addition device is provided with gas heat exchanger, as well as water vapor pumping circuit incorporating series-connected electrochemical generator communicating through hydrogen inlet with reaction product discharge line, water-separating heat-transfer apparatus communicating with water discharge line, fan, vapor reformer, and gas heat exchanger; vapor reformer inlet communicates through gas heat exchanger with methanol vapor flow regulator and methanol storage tank communicates with methanol pumping line and is inserted between thinning-and-heat-transfer apparatus and pump.

EFFECT: reduced ancillary power requirement, enhanced efficiency, reduced size and mass, and simplified design of device.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of sources of DC power, namely the power systems DC operating on hydrogen and oxygen.

The known method of operation of the power plant (power plant) on the basis of the electrochemical generator (ECG), comprising a chemical compound of hydrogen with oxygen to produce water and heat, which is discharged into the environment [1]. The corresponding EC implementing this method contains ECG storage units of hydrogen and oxygen, combined with the ECG circuit of hydrogen [1]. The water removal is carried out by circulation of the electrolyte. This technical solution is selected as the analogue of the offer.

The disadvantage of this method of operating a power plant with ECG and device for its implementation is the increased pozarovzryvobezopasnost, due to the constant presence in the installation of hydrogen. In addition, the storage of significant quantities of hydrogen in a relatively small power plants is associated with significant technical difficulties (cylinder high or ultra high pressure, cryogenic tanks, and others) and often limited in time.

Closer is essentially a method of operating a power plant with oxygen-hydrogen ECG adopted for the prototype [2] and using chemically bound hydrogen storage - as methanol. This method involves the evaporation of liquid methanol and water, the production of hydrogen through a chemical reaction of the obtained vapor (steam reforming of methanol)and subsequent chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity, heat and water.

Device for the operation of EC with ECG implementing this method, [2] contains the ECG with highway reset heat arteries supplying oxygen and hydrogen and highway water discharge, the storage unit of methanol, the pump and the fuel Converter (reformer), docked to the fitting of hydrogen supply ECG.

Unlike similar [1] in this technical solution, the hydrogen is not stored in the installation and use in a fuel cell (FC) immediately after generating that significantly increases the explosion safety (PVB) installation. In addition, storage of methanol, in contrast to hydrogen storage, it is not difficult and almost not time limited.

The disadvantage of the prototype (as method and device) is the low efficiency associated with inefficient heat transfer from the ECG to other units and combustion of hydrogen. As in the analogue [1], prototype [2] the transfer of heat from the ECG is performed using thermal control system (P) with liquid coolant. In most cases, this carrier is a special liquid with a wide working range the belt temperature (for example, antifreeze). In addition, there is a second PAGE for the operation of the reformer due to the heat of the post-combustion of the hydrogen. In all cases, the heat transfer through the walls of heat exchangers. The efficiency of this heat transfer is low (especially at small temperature difference units), and the energy consumption for the circulation of coolant significant. In addition, part of the hydrogen produced is burned in the afterburner.

All this increases the energy consumption for own needs of power plant and reduces its efficiency.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is the creation of a method of operating a power plant with ECG and device for its implementation, which at high PVB could be characterized by the following properties:

- improving the efficiency of conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy;

- simplification of the mode of heat transfer between units EU and simplified P;

- increased reliability of operation;

- reducing the number of components of the power plant.

The task is solved in that in the method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator comprising evaporation of liquid methanol, hydrogen production due to the chemical compounds of methanol vapor with water vapor, then the chemical compound obtained hydrogen with oxygen to produce water vapor and heat, liquid methanol is evaporated in e is G heat of the electrochemical reaction of combining hydrogen and oxygen, and water vapor formed as a result of this reaction, is directed to reaction with pairs of methanol to produce hydrogen.

The device implementing this method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator contains a storage tank methanol pump to supply and connected in series steam reformer, the separation unit gas line discharge carbon dioxide and electrochemical generator with highway reset heat and the line of discharge of the reaction products, and it introduced gas Teploobmennik, installed between the steam reformer and the separation unit gas heat exchanger-liquefier and the flow regulator of methanol vapor, which is connected to the input of the steam reformer gas through the heat exchanger, while the formed loop pumping of methanol containing connected in series pump, the electrochemical generator, is connected through line reset heat the flow regulator of methanol vapor and the heat exchanger-liquefier; in addition, the device entered the heat exchanger-separator with mainline water connected to the main discharge of the reaction products of the electrochemical generator, the input of the heat exchanger of the air dryer has a fan which is connected to the input of the steam reformer.

The essence of the proposed method lies in the fact that in a stationary mode of operation as a heat carrier, cooling ECG, use working reagent EU - methanol. It is suitable for this, because when working pressure ECG (~3 MPa) methanol boils at a temperature slightly lower than the operating temperature of the generator (as opposed to water). This allows you to use for cooling ECG boiling liquid (methanol). This specific heat of evaporation of the methanol, although less than half of the heat of vaporization of water is sufficiently large in comparison with other organic liquids.

The received ECG methanol vapor is partially directed to the reaction of steam reforming, simultaneously heating them in addition hot synthesis gas leaving the reformer. Thus, the methanol vapor acquire the temperature required for the chemical reaction. The remaining methanol vapor oiaut and again sent to the main heat ECG. Thus the circulation of methanol in a closed-loop vapor removal in the reformer reaction.

Water vapor generated in the ECG in the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, also, not condensing, fully directed to the reaction of steam reforming. Excess water condenses and is discharged into the environment. Thus, the circulation of water vapor also occurs in a closed loop with the excess of water in the environment.

The proposed method in this scheme PI OS is done as follows. After running the plant liquid methanol is sent to the ECG (4), where it evaporates, and its vapors are sent to a steam reforming reaction. Along the way the pair is additionally heated by the hot products of this reaction is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (gas heat exchanger).

This gas mixture (synthesis gas) share components, and emit carbon dioxide into the environment. Hydrogen is also directed to an electrochemical reaction with oxygen, and the resultant water vapor is also directed to the steam reforming of methanol, the path partially separating the water from it. Thus, when the operation of the unit, there are two types of circuit - with methanol and with water, and methanol and water circulate in the circuits with the measurement of their physical state (evaporates and condenses).

To implement this method, the device, the block diagram of which is shown in the drawing, where indicated:

1 - steam reformer;

2 - gas heat exchanger;

3 - unit gas separation (GTB);

4 - ECG;

5 - line heat relief;

6 - the line of discharge of the reaction products;

7 - the backbone of the discharge of carbon dioxide;

8 - pump;

9 - heat exchanger-liquefier;

10 is a flow regulator of methanol vapor;

11 - the storage tank methanol;

12-heat exchanger-separator;

13 - fan.

p> The input ECG (4) hydrogen is connected to the output of the hydrogen separation unit gas (3), the line of discharge of the reaction products (6) through the heat exchanger-separator (12) and the fan (13) is connected with the inlet of the steam reformer (1). The entrance of the steam reformer gas through the heat exchanger (2) is connected also to the output of the flow regulator of methanol vapor (10). The second output of the controller (10) connect through the heat exchanger-liquefier (9) with a pump (8). The inlet of this pump is connected to the storage tank methanol (11).

The output of the pump (8) connected to the input line reset heat (5), and the output of this pipeline is connected with the inlet of the flow regulator of methanol vapor (10), resulting in a closed loop pumping methanol through ECG.

The device implements the method in the following way. In stationary mode of operation, the pump (8) pumps liquid methanol through line reset heat (5) ECG (4) along the contour, in which in addition to the pump (8) and line heat relief (5) includes a flow regulator methanol vapors (10) and the heat exchanger-liquefier (9). Circulating in this loop, the methanol is evaporated in the ECG (4), a portion of the steam then flows into the steam reformer (1), and the remaining steam is condensed in the heat exchanger-liquefier (9) and again pumped by the pump (8) for cooling the ECG (4). Pumping fluid in the circuit is made from the storage tank methanol is (11).

The remaining pairs of methanol from the ECG (4) through the flow regulator of methanol vapor (10) enters the steam reformer (1), preheated in the gas heat exchanger (2) the mixture of gases leaving the steam reformer (1), the temperature of methanol vapor almost reaches the desired reaction level. Produced in the steam reformer (1) the mixture of gases through a gas heat exchanger (2) is fed to the separation unit gas (3)where stands out from the gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide released into the environment through line discharge carbon dioxide (7). Highlighted in the separation unit gas (3) hydrogen is sent to the ECG (4) for the reaction with oxygen. The resulting water vapor is sent to the steam reformer (1) after separation of the water in the heat exchanger-separator (12). The consumption booster circuit water vapor is the fan (13).

In the proposed method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator and the device, its implements, positive effect on a stationary mode of operation is achieved due to the following main factors:

1. Due to a more efficient method of heat removal from ECG - is not only the heat capacity of the coolant, but its evaporation;

2. Due to a more efficient way to heat the reagent - heat is transferred along with the heat is nositelem, which is also the reagent;

3. Due to the optimum use of the reaction products in the ECG - water vapor, which, without intermediate condensation sent to the reformer.

This allows in a stationary mode to significantly reduce the energy consumption for own needs of the EU, i.e. to increase its efficiency, to improve the physical characteristics of the installation, to simplify the design by reducing the number of components (as in the quality of the fluid, P is the energy carrier) and to make the installation more reliable. This PVB installation is not affected.

Thus, the problem is solved by the creation of such a method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator and devices, it implements, in which:

the heat exchange between the ECG and reformer EU would be carried out not only by heat transfer to the coolant, but also due to the evaporation of the latter (it is known that evaporation for heat removal is much more effective heat transfer);

- reducing the number of components of the power plant is achieved by the fact that, as a coolant for cooling the ECG is one of the consumable reagents EU, namely methanol, boiling point (at normal working pressure in the ECG is slightly lower than the working temperature of the ECG (TECG90° S; RECG 3 MPa), and therefore when passing through the ECG methanol will evaporate.

In addition, the water vapor generated in the ECG during a chemical reaction between oxygen and hydrogen, are also used in the reaction of steam reforming of methanol. It also increases the efficiency of the EU and its reliability. Simplified and maintenance, because the simplified scheme.

The proposed measures can significantly reduce the energy consumption for own needs of the EU, i.e. to increase its efficiency, to improve the physical characteristics of the installation, to simplify the design by reducing the number of components, since the coolant PAGE uses an energy source, and to make the installation more reliable. This PVB installation is not affected.

The list of used literature

1. Navarova. “Electrochemical generators”, “Energy”, M. 1974, p.106-109.

2. U.S. patent No. 6063515, 2000

1. The method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator, including the launch of the plant and its work in a stationary mode with the evaporation of liquid methanol and water, producing hydrogen and carbon dioxide due to the chemical compounds of methanol vapor with water vapor, the subsequent chemical compound obtained hydrogen with oxygen to produce water vapor and heat, and discharge of water and carbon dioxide into the environment, great for the present, however, that during operation of the power plant on a stationary mode liquid methanol is evaporated in an electrochemical generator heat of the electrochemical reaction of combining hydrogen with oxygen, and water vapor formed as a result of this reaction, is directed to reaction with pairs of methanol to produce hydrogen.

2. The device implementing the method of operation of a power plant on the basis of the electrochemical generator containing the storage tank methanol pump to supply and connected in series steam reformer, the separation unit gas line discharge carbon dioxide and electrochemical generator with highway reset heat and the line of discharge of the reaction products, characterized in that it introduced gas heat exchanger installed between the steam reformer and the separation unit gas heat exchanger-liquefier and the flow regulator of methanol vapor, which is connected to the input of the steam reformer gas through the heat exchanger, while the formed loop pumping of methanol containing connected in series pump, the electrochemical generator, is connected through line reset heat, the flow regulator of methanol vapor and the heat exchanger-liquefier; in addition, the device entered the heat exchanger-separator with mainline water connected to the main discharge of the reaction products is C the electrochemical generator, at the output of the heat exchanger of the air dryer has a fan which is connected to the input of the steam reformer.



 

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