A single-mode electrooptical fiber and a method of its production

FIELD: optical and electronic industry; production of fiber optic components having electrooptical effect.

SUBSTANCE: the inventions are dealt with optical and electronic industry, and may be used for development engineering of transmitting systems and data processing, in which application of the fiber optic components with electrooptical effect is expedient. The fiber consists of a core, a light conducting shell, a light-absorbing shell containing light-absorbing elements and current-carrying electrodes. The method includes operations of a down-draw of separate glass rods from glasses fillets composing elements of a fiber, piling up a pack of a with the form of cross-section of a hexahedron or a square including piling of electrodes, afterstretching of preform and its pulling into a fiber with application of a polymeric coating. The invention allows to create a single-mode fiber with heightened electrooptical effect from the glasses having a Kerr constant by 1.5 order higher than one of a quartz glass, to produce fibers with the given structure of shells, cores and control electrodes at simplification of process of a drawing down of fibers.

EFFECT: the invention ensures creation of a single-mode fiber with heightened electrooptical effect, to produce fibers with the given structure of shells, cores and control electrodes, to simplify process of fibers drawing down.

13 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to optical and electronic industries, in particular to fiber-optic elements having electro-optical effect, and can be used for design of transmission systems and information processing.

In the last decade worldwide intensively study the influence of electric fields on the optical properties of materials - glass, crystals, polymers, primarily on the change in their refractive index, double refraction, dispersion, polarization.

The induced electric field birefringence, called electro-optical Kerr effect, is usually defined for an isotropic material the expression:

where λ is the wavelength in m, E is the electric field strength in V/m, n|| and n⊥ respectively the refractive indices in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the electric field and the Kerr constant in m/In2.

Intensive searches in several areas, United by a common goal - the creation of electro-optical (EO) glassy, crystalline and polymeric materials with high Kerr constant in excess of the Kerr constant of quartz glass, for EA active fiber and integrated structures, as well as the development of technologies with which Denmark of such structures on the basis of these materials. EA fiber is of the greatest interest from the point of view of its use in optical communication systems and information transfer, modulators, switches, and other electro-optical devices.

Known glass with EO characteristics that exceed the corresponding parameters of quartz glass by more than 1.5 order. For example, as described in (1) glass. However, for practical use for the manufacture of optical fiber is not enough that the glass had a high Kerr constant, it is necessary that the material possessed technological properties, allowing you to pull from it a defect-free fiber. Known above the glass does not have the combination of desired properties - high Kerr constant and the required technological properties.

EA fiber electrodes, embedded directly in the drawing process, the glass with a significantly higher than for quartz glass, the Kerr constant could open the possibility of its practical application.

This is evidenced by current patents, in which the object of a patent is quartz or polymer optical fiber electrodes, as well as patents on methods of manufacture of such fibers, based on traditional methods of drawing optical fibers (method “Stabi the handset and the double crucible).

These methods are extremely complex and require precision processing units.

Article (2) described a method of manufacturing a single-mode polymer optical fiber. As the shell used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), as the core - PMMA doped scattering red azo dye, as electrodes for indium. At first make a preform of the two semi-cylinders, inside which are placed in the grooves of the core and the electrodes. The semi-cylinders placed in a preform with a diameter of 12.7 mm and a length of 100 mm and from preforms pull the fiber diameter of 125 ám fiber diameter 10 μm, a length of 1 km, However, the design of the fiber is not possible to obtain fiber uniform transmittance and the resistance due to the high vzaimodeistvie components of the polymer in the hot zone of the extrusion. The result can be obtained suitable for measuring only short periods.

The closest object to the proposed solution is “Zhelobkovoi optical fiber electrode and method for its manufacture are described in U.S. patent (3). Optical fiber at the specified patent is made of quartz glass. To create the difference of the refractive index in the core and the shell in the core type germanium, and shell - fluorides. On the outer surface of the fiber izgotovlen who have grooves, running along the fiber, which is placed electrodes, to which is attached an electrical voltage, which changes the refractive properties of the fiber. As the electrode is wire made of gold with a diameter of 25 μm. Such optical fiber modifies the optical signal passing through it, by changing its refractive properties, under the influence of the voltage applied to the electrodes. For the manufacture of fiber used traditional technology - stretching of stabika. At first make stebic with grooves along its generatrix, then stebic heated in a furnace using high-frequency inductor to the melting point and pull the fiber winding it on the reel. The grooves are placed electrodes of gold wires along the length of the fiber.

The disadvantages of the known solution is, first, that the material fiber glass-based quartz has a very low constant Kerr, secondly, that it is very difficult to put the electrodes with a diameter of 25 μm along the fiber in a groove formed in the fiber thickness of about 200 μm, when the fiber length, and that it is impossible to effectively exert control electric field to the active svetovida vein. This is primarily due to the large distance from the electrodes to the conductors, and a small constant value is err, leading to the necessity of using a high operating voltage and, in turn, to an electrical breakdown.

The present invention is to increase the electro-optic effect in single-mode fiber made of glass with a larger 1.5 order than that of quartz glass, the Kerr constant, simplifying the method of manufacturing a single-mode fiber with a given profile of the shell, core and control electrodes, simplifying the introduction of conductive electrodes of metal or conductive glass directly at pulling the fiber.

This objective is achieved in that a single-mode optical fiber comprising a core and Svetovidov shell, made of glass, and the conductive electrodes placed along the fiber further comprises a light-absorbing shell with extra light-absorbing elements arranged along the fiber and dispersed sufficiently in the cross-sectional area of the light-absorbing shell with a filling of at least 5% of the cross-sectional area or volume of light-absorbing shell and an outer polymer sheath, and the conductive electrodes form a cross-section of the fiber pair of symmetrical geometric shapes with given shape and size, located in a light absorbing about is the point diametrically opposite sides relative to the core, when one side of each figure is near the border between svetovida and light-absorbing shells, and all design elements are fibers made from materials agreed by the temperature coefficient of linear expansion with a difference of ±5×10-7To-1the core and svetovida shell made of glass, with a constant value of the Kerr exceeding 1.5-order Kerr constant of quartz glass, the diameter of the fiber core is 1-5 μm, outer diameter svetovida shell - at least 3-4 diameters of the core, the outer diameter of the light-absorbing shell is equal to 10-50 times the diameter of the core, and the thickness of each of the additional light-absorbing elements is not less than the diameter of the core, the refractive index svetovida shell 0.001-0.008 lower refractive index glass core and equal to or less than the refractive index of the light-absorbing glass shell, whose light absorption is 10-1000 dB/m in the region of wavelengths 500-1600 nm, and additional light-absorbing elements made of glass with a refractive index equal to or greater of its value in the light-absorbing shell, and the light absorption 10-10000 dB/m in the same wavelength.

The core and svetovida shell single-mode optical fiber made of glass with the value of design and the ants Kerr not less than 5× 10-16m/In2and contains the following components in wt.%: SiO2- 7-25, In2About3- 6-15, La2About3- 14-30, BaO - 21-35, TiO2- 12-15, Zr2- 1-6, WO3- 0.7-2, Nb2About5- 2.5-11, and at least one component from the group: As2About3, Sb2O3in the amount of 0.1-0.5.

Glass for core and svetovida shell may further comprise at least one of the following components in wt.%: H2About3, Yb2About3Nd2About3, Y2O3Is 0.01-3, b2About3- 0.01-1.5, and further at least one of SrO - 0.5-2, CaO - 0.5-2, TA2About5- 2.5-11.

Light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements of the single-mode optical fiber made of glass containing the following components in wt.%: SIO, SIS2- 7-25, In2About3- 6-15, La2O3- 14-30, BaO - 21-35, Tio2- 12-15, ZrO2- 1-6, WO3- 0.7-2, Nb2About5- 2.5-11, and at least one component from the group: As2O3, Sb2O3in the amount of 0.1-0.5, and/or at least one component from the group COO, CR2About3, MP2About3in the amount of COO, CR2About3- 0.01-0.5, MP2About3- 0.01-2.

Conductive electrodes in a single-mode optical fiber made of a conductive material, for example metals from the ribs, tin, molybdenum, copper and other Conductive electrodes can be made from electrically conductive glass.

Additional light-absorbing elements in a single-mode optical fiber can be located in the light-absorbing shell discretely, some of them can be located on the border with svetovida shell, forming a closed layer.

Conductive electrodes form in cross section straight or curved tape adjacent to the border svetovida and light-absorbing membrane layer or additional light-absorbing elements, the electrodes may form in cross-section fibers of different shapes: triangle, or rectangle, or hexagon, or a semicircle, and so the shape of the section of conductive electrodes determines the configuration of the electric field.

To obtain the above-described electro-optical single-mode fiber is proposed a method, which includes the manufacture of preforms from glass core and shell, pulling the fibers with embedded conductive electrodes, in which the addition of the rods, made of glass for the core, for svetovida shell for light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements, and having an arbitrary size and round, hexagonal or rectangular cross-section, pull droty ginecologo diameter of 0.5-5 mm, then from Kotov core and shell glasses, glass light-absorbing elements and conductive electrodes made of metal or conductive glass, trying to enter the package having the shape of a hexagon or square size apogamy hexagon or the side of the square 10-50 mm, a length of 400-600 mm, thus forming the internal structure of the fiber, then from the package, typed thus from Kotov, pull, using a vacuum of 0.5-1.0 ATM., the preform, ranging in size from 1 mm to several millimeters, then the preform is dragged into the fiber diameter of 50-250 μm, simultaneously causing the polymer coating.

The advantage of the proposed method is that it requires the manufacture of tubes for shells, and at the stage of Assembly of the individual elements in the billet to extrude, you can provide any interposition svetovida veins, membranes and conductive electrodes and to put any configuration of cross section that known methods either extremely expensive or even impossible.

The invention is illustrated by the following drawings.

Figure 1 shows a schematic drawing of Kotov from the original rods 1-4 glasses for the core, shell, and light-absorbing elements, where 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively billet glasses for the core, svetovida shell and sotovogo the surrounding shell elements, 5 - heating stove, 6 - pulling device 7 is extruded from a billet 1-4 trot.

Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the package, recruited from Kotov round shape, made according to scheme 1, where 8 - core, 9 - svetovida shell, 10 - a layer of light-absorbing elements at the border svetovida and light-absorbing membranes, 11 - light-absorbing shell, 12 - light-absorbing elements, 13 - conductive electrodes.

Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the package, recruited from Kotov hexagonal form, made according to scheme 1, the elements of the structure indicated in figure 2.

Figure 4 shows the schematic drawing of the fiber preform using vacuum package 2 and 3, where a - package, 14 - heating stove, 15 - vacuum pump for evacuating the package, 16 - preforms for drawing fibers.

Figure 5 shows a cross-section of the preform 16 after the first banners, under the scheme of FIGURE 4 of the package of figure 2, where 8 is the core of the fiber, 9 - svetovida shell, 10 - a layer of light-absorbing elements 11 - light-absorbing shell, 12 - light-absorbing elements, 13 - conductive electrodes.

Figure 6 shows a cross-section of the preform after the first banners package diagram FIGURE 4 hex form conductive electrodes.

7 shows a cross-section of the preform after the first banners package scheme is IG with a triangular conductive electrodes 13.

On FIG shows a cross-section of the preform after the first banners package diagram FIGURE 4 with Y-shaped conductive electrodes 13.

Figure 9 shows a cross-section of the finished single-mode optical fiber obtained after dragging preforms in FIGURE 5, where 17 - protective polymer shell.

The limits of the content of oxides of the elements in the chemical composition of the glass core, svetovida shell and a light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements are shown in table 1. Examples of glass compositions according to the invention are shown in tables 2, 3.

7-25 and/or
Table 1

The limits of the content of components in the glass core, svetovida shell and a light-absorbing shell and elements.
ComponentThe content of components in wt.%
 Glass for core and svetovida shellThe glass for the light-absorbing shell and
 The glass according to claim 2The glass according to claim 3The glass according to claim 4The glass according to claim 4The glass according to claim 5
SiO27-257-257-257-25
In2O36-156-156-156-156-15
La2O314-3014-3014-3014-3014-30
HLW21-3521-3521-3521-3521-35
TiO212-1512-1512-1512-1512-15
ZrO21-61-61-61-61-6
WO30.7-20.7-20.7-20.7-20.7-2
Nb2O52.5-112.5-112.5-112.5-112.5-11
As2O30.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.5
and/or     
Sb2O30.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.50.1-0.5
H2O3-0.01-3 0.01-3-
     
Yb2O3-0.01-3-0.01-3-
and/or     
Y2O3-0.01-3-0.01-3-
and/or     
Nd2O3-0.01-3-0.01-3-
and/or     
b2O3-0.01-1.5-0.01-1.5-
TA2O5--2.5-112.5-11-
and/or     
SrO--0.5-20.5-2-
and/or      
CaO--0.5-20.5-2-
and/or     
Soo--  0.01-0.5
and/or     
CR2O3    0.01-0.5
and/or     
MP2O3--  0.01-2

5.5
Table 3

Glass for light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements
Compo-element123456789
SiO217.011.0 9.017.017.07.017.07.025.0
In2O315.011.011.013.96.68.06.012.015.0
La2O314.024.020.314.020.030.024.020.014.0
HLW25.030.034.630.3735.035.030.035.021.0
Tio212.012.314.412.015.012.012.013.012.0
ZrO26.04.01.01.02.991.01.06.03.4
WO32.00.70.80.70.71.01.01.01.0
Nb2O58.06.78.511.02.53.58.06.0
As2O30.50.30.3-0.1-0.50.3-
Sb2O30.5---0.1--0.2-
CoO--0.10.010.01-0.50.10.1
CR2O3---0.01-0.5--0.5
MP2O3---0.01-2.0--2.0

Example 1. The technical essence of the invention is demonstrated by the following example.

Of rods of circular cross section 1-4 1 glass 2 (table 2) for core and svetovida shell different boiling cycles having refractive indices respectively 1.8636 and 1.8614 (the difference between the refractive 0.0022) and glass 2 (table 3) for light-absorbing shell having a refractive index 1.8619 and the light absorption of 10 dB/m, and the glass is La light-absorbing component 3 (table 3), having the refractive index 1.8737 and the light absorption 200 dB/m at a wavelength of 600 nm, elongated rods with a diameter of 0.84 mm according to scheme 1 by alternately placing them in the oven with 5 heating to a temperature of 760-780°and extruding by means of the exhaust device 6, rod 7, with a diameter of 0.8-0.85.

From the obtained rods of circular form and of the elements of conductive electrodes trying to enter the package size apogamy 30 mm, a length of 400-600 mm, the cross-section of which is shown in figure 2, which at the time set spread a core 8 made of glass 2 (table 2) with a refractive index 1.8636, the sheath 9 made of glass 2 (table 2) with a refractive index 1.8614, additional light-absorbing shell 10 made of glass for the light-absorbing component 3 (table 3), having a refractive index 1.8737 and the light absorption 200 dB/m, the light-absorbing shell 11 made of glass 2 (table 3) for light-absorbing shell, having the refractive index 1.8619, light-absorbing elements 12 of the glass for the light-absorbing component 3 (table 3), having a refractive index 1.8737 and the light absorption 200 dB/m, and the electrode 13 banded form of rods of conductive glass. The package 2 IS placed in an oven 14 FIGURE 4 is heated to a temperature 760-780°and pull through the vacuum of 0.5 ATM. using a vacuum pump 15, the preform 16 size apogamy 2.4 mm At the waist of the package in the reform of the rods are sintered and form a continuous environment, the cross-section of the preform shown in FIGURE 5 with the core 8, svetovida casing 9, an additional light-absorbing layers of light-absorbing element 10, the light-absorbing elements 12 and electrodes 13. The preform 16 is again placed in a furnace and drag in the fiber diameter of 250 microns with a coating of polymethylacrylate. Figure 9 shows a cross-section of the finished single-mode optical fiber with a coating of polymethylacrylate 17.

The above data confirm a single inventive concept of the claimed group of inventions, in which the method is intended for the manufacture of an object with a certain original structure.

Literature

1. N.F.Borrelli and other Electric-field-induced birefringence properties of high-refractive-index Glasses exhibiting large Kerr nonlinearities. J.Appl.Phys. 70 (5). 1.09.1991.

2. D.J.Welker and other Fabrication and characterization of single-mode electro-optic polymer optical fiber. Optics Letters / Vol.23. No.23. December 1.1998.

3. U.S. patent No. 5.768.462., Int. CL. G 02 B 602. Jun. 16, 1998. “Grooved optical fiber for use with an electrode and a method for making same”.

1. Single-mode optical fiber comprising a core and Svetovidov shell, made of glass, and the conductive electrodes placed along the fiber, characterized in that it further comprises a light-absorbing shell with extra light-absorbing elements arranged along the fiber, the distribution is nymi specified image on the cross-sectional area of the light-absorbing shell with a filling of at least 5% of the cross-sectional area or volume of light-absorbing shell, and the outer polymeric sheath, the conductive electrodes form a cross-section of the fiber pair of geometric shapes defined shape and size, located in the light-absorbing shell with diametrically opposite sides relative to the core, with one side of each figure is near the border between svetovida and light-absorbing shells, and all design elements are fibers made from materials agreed by the temperature coefficient of linear expansion with a difference of ±5·10-7To-1the core and svetovida shell made of glass, with a constant value of the Kerr exceeding 1,5-order Kerr constant of quartz glass, the diameter of the fiber core is 1-5 μm, outer diameter svetovida shell - at least 3-4 diameters of the core, the outer diameter of the light-absorbing shell is equal to 10-50 times the diameter of the core, and the thickness of each of the additional light-absorbing elements is not less than the diameter of the core, the refractive index svetovida shell by 0.001-0,008 less than the refractive index of the glass core and equal to or less than the refractive index of the light-absorbing glass shell, whose light absorption is 10-1000 dB/m in the region of wavelengths 500-1600 nm, and more light-absorbing elements made of glass is with a refractive index, equal to or greater than this value in the light-absorbing shell, and the light absorption 10-10000 dB/m in the same wavelength.

2. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, characterized in that the core and svetovida shell made of glass, with a constant value of the Kerr not less than 5·10-16m/In2and contains the following components, wt.%: SiO27-25, In2O36-15, La2O314-30, BaO 21-35, Tio212-15, ZrO21-6, WO30,7-2, Nb2O22.5 to 11, and at least one component from the group As2O3, Sb2O3in an amount of 0.1 to 0.5.

3. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 2, wherein the glass further comprises at least one of the following components, wt.%: H2O3, Yb2O3Nd2O3, Y2O30.01 to 3, b2O3of 0.01 to 1.5.

4. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the glass further comprises at least one of the components, wt.%: SrO 0,5-2, CaO 0.5 To 2, TA2O5the 2.5-11.

5. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, characterized in that the light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements made of glass, containing the following components, wt.%: SiO27-25, In2O36-15, La2O314-30, BaO 21-35, Tio212-15, ZrO21-6, WO30,7-2, b 2O52.5 to 11, and at least one component from the group As2O3, Sb2O3in an amount of 0.1-0.5 and/or at least one component from the group COO, CR2O3, MP2O3in the amount of COO, CR2O3of 0.1-0.5, Mn2O30.01 to 2.

6. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein the conductive electrodes are made of conductive glass.

7. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein the conductive electrodes are made of molybdenum.

8. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein the conductive electrodes are made of copper.

9. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein the conductive electrode is made of tin.

10. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional light-absorbing elements are light-absorbing shell discretely, some of them located on the border with svetovida shell, forming a closed layer.

11. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, characterized in that the conductive electrodes form in cross section straight or curved tape adjacent part of the lateral line to the border svetovida shell.

12. Single-mode optical fiber according to claim 1, from causesa fact, that conductive electrodes form a cross-sectional shape or a triangle, or rectangle, or hexagon, or circle.

13. A method of manufacturing a single-mode optical fiber, comprising the manufacture of preforms from glass core and shell, pulling the fibers with embedded conductive electrodes, characterized in that of the rods, made of glass for the core, for svetovida shell for light-absorbing shell and light-absorbing elements and having an arbitrary size and round, hexagonal or rectangular cross-section, pull droty the same diameter of 0.5-5 mm, then from Kotov core and shell glasses and glass light-absorbing elements and conductive electrodes made of metal or conductive glass, trying to enter the package having the shape of a hexagon or square size apogamy or hand 10-50 mm, a length of 400-600 mm, thus forming the internal structure of the fiber, then the package is pulled, using a vacuum of 0.5-1.0 ATM., the preform size apogamy hexagon or the side of the square from 1 mm to several millimeters, then the preform is dragged into the fiber diameter of 50-250 μm, simultaneously causing the polymer coating.



 

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