Device for sampling snow

FIELD: meteorology.

SUBSTANCE: device has sampling cylinder provided with cutting ring with teeth, piston with pusher, cutting members secured to the inner side of the ring, and cover with central threaded opening for the pusher made of a screw. The cover and pusher are provided with handles.

EFFECT: enhanced convenience of sampling snow.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to meteorological, hydrological, hydrochemical and environmental studies and can be used to study the density, stocks and chemical composition of snow and research snow dumps.

The level of technology

There is a method of sampling snow (RU # 94033538, CL G 01 N 1/20, 1994), in which the device for sampling manually dipped into the snow until it stops at the surface of the soil, compacted sample snow translational motion of the piston by means of the pusher, raise the device without skid bottom and freed from the compacted sample movement of the piston. Upon release from compacted sample it first to remove the top layer by means of the pusher side pravopriemnikom openings and without touching the inner surfaces of the remaining sample displace the piston stroke, leaving a gap at the end of the device and finally clear the gap and connecting holes of the piston.

Signs known way, coinciding with the features of the proposed method - a device for sampling immersed in snow, compacted sample snow plunger lift device without skid bottom and freed from the compacted sample movement of the piston.

The disadvantages of the method are the complexity of its implementation and the inability to apply for sampling compacted and compressed snehas inclusions of ice (snow dumps), related to the fact that to move the piston within the cylinder seal and wipe samples must make great efforts due to the significant frictional interaction (friction) compacted sample with the inner surface of the device, and also in view of the lack of cutting device properties; the need for and the complexity of the complete liberation of the sample cylinder from snow to move the piston in the upper (initial) position; the complexity of the Stripping gap and the adjacent holes of the piston.

The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a method of sampling snow (RF patent No. 1428984, CL G 01 N 1/20, 1988), in which the device for sampling manually dipped into the snow before contact with the ground, with the help of the pusher compacted sample snow translational motion of the piston, for violations of the clutch samples of snow from the ground rotate the device around the axis, raise the device without skid bottom and freed from the compacted sample movement of the piston.

The features of the process, coinciding with the features of the proposed method, device for sampling immersed in snow, compacted sample of snow by the piston, rotate the device around the axis, raise the device without skid bottom and freed from the compacted sample movement of the piston.

The disadvantages of the method I have considered the complexity of implementation and the impossibility of its use for sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice (snow dumps), related to the fact that to move the piston within the cylinder seal and wipe samples must make great efforts due to significant friction engagement compacted samples with the inner surface of the device and the complexity of immersion of the sample cylinder in the snow in the absence of a cutting device properties.

A device (patent RF № 1428984, CL G 01 N 1/20, 1988)containing the sample cylinder with a lid having a hole, and the piston pusher. The piston is provided with ribs mounted on its front surface side pravopriemnikom of the cylinder bore, and the plunger is made hollow and is provided with a check valve.

The characteristics of the known device, coinciding with the signs declare - sampling cylinder cover, piston with the plunger.

The drawbacks is the high complexity of its use is related to the fact that to move the piston seal and wipe samples must make great efforts due to significant friction engagement compacted samples with the inner surface of the sampling cylinder; loss of use of the device for sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice due to the lack of cutting properties of the device.

The closest tehnichecheskomu to the present invention is a device (RU # 94033538, CL G 01 N 1/20, 1994), containing the sampling cylinder with a cutting ring, piston with groove on the lateral surface of its bottom and an annular spring and plunger. Cutting ring has a working surface in the form of teeth. The piston is made with two holes for entry of the pusher that is axially spaced from the opposite sides and connected to each other in the axial bore, and the plunger is designed as a removable element with a tip ending in a flat face. When the diameter of the axial bore is smaller than the width of the flat end at the tip of the plunger, the plunger is made with a check valve at the bottom of the hole, axially located on the opposite side from pravopriemnikom holes.

The characteristics of the known device, coinciding with the signs declare - sampling cylinder with a cutting ring, piston with the plunger.

The disadvantages of the devices is the complexity of its use and the inability to apply for sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice (snow dumps), related to the fact that to move the piston within the cylinder seal and wipe samples must make great efforts due to significant friction engagement compacted samples with the inner surface of the device, and also in view of the lack of cutting is of waist device; the need and the complexity of the complete liberation of the sample cylinder from snow to move the piston in the upper (initial) position; the complexity of the Stripping gap and the adjacent holes of the piston.

The essence of the invention.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is the possibility of selection of representative samples of snow, reducing the complexity of sampling and expanding the field of use of the method and device. The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to reduce the effort of movement of the piston, increasing the cutting ability of the device, reducing the frictional interaction of the sample with the inner surface of the sample cylinder and the prevention of freezing snow.

The problem is solved in that in the method of sampling of snow, in which the device for sampling manually dipped into the snowy array, compacted sample of snow moving the piston with the plunger, turn the device around the axis, raise the device and release from compacted samples by movement of the piston, moving the piston seal and release the device from samples of snow is performed by the rotation of the follower. When sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice immersion of the device in the array of snow Ave is upset by rotating it around the axis.

The task is also solved in that the device for sampling the snow, including the sampling cylinder with a cutting ring with teeth and the piston pusher further comprises cutting elements mounted on the inner surface of the ring, and cover with a Central threaded hole for follower, made in the form of a lead screw. Cover and pusher handles. Cutter ring are removable. The sampling cylinder is made of a hydrophobic polymer material and has on the outer surface of a scale to measure snow depth.

The implementation of the pusher in the form of a lead screw, cover with a Central threaded hole for screw and handles on the plunger, permitting the seal samples of snow and releasing the device from the sample by rotating the plunger. This will greatly reduce the force needed to attach to the plunger to move the plunger. And supply the device with additional cutting elements mounted on the inner surface of the cutting ring, will reduce the effort required for penetration of the device, and use it for sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice, i.e. to expand the scope of use of the method and device.

When sampling snow for studying the properties of the device can the be used without the cutting ring. For this cutter ring are removable.

To reduce the frictional interaction of the sample with the inner surface of the sampling cylinder and prevent freezing snow cylinder made of a hydrophobic polymer material.

For convenience, the cylinder has on the outer surface of a scale to measure snow depth.

When sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice immersion of the device in the array of snow produced by its rotation around the axis through the handles of the lid.

The inventive method of sampling of snow and device for its implementation differ from the known analogues, therefore, the claimed solutions satisfy the condition of patentability "novelty."

The analysis of the prior art to conform to the decisions of the condition of patentability "inventive step" showed the following.

Seal the sample by rotating the plunger in the known devices do not allow to reduce the displacement force of the piston, i.e. reduce the complexity of sampling. In the proposed method of sampling snow for the first time the seal of the sample is performed by the rotation of the follower. First pusher device for sampling is made in the form of a lead screw. This helps reduce the force of the piston and thereby reduce the complexity of the selection item is about. Also for the first time proposed to be mounted on the inner surface of the ring cutting elements that will allow for sampling compacted and compacted snow with inclusions of ice. Thus, both the claimed solution satisfy the condition of patentability "inventive step.

The claimed invention interconnected so that they form a single inventive step. When developing a new method of sampling the snow had invented a new device specifically designed for carrying out the method. To use this device for carrying out the proposed method will allow to solve the problem of obtaining the required technical result is to reduce the complexity of sampling and to expand the scope of use of the method and device. Therefore, the claimed invention to satisfy the requirement of unity of invention.

List of figures.

The invention is explained by examples and drawings: figure 1 shows a General view of the device in Assembly with removable cutting ring, figure 2-5 - cutting elements.

Device for sampling snow consists of sample cylinder 1, piston 2, the lead screw 3 with a handle 4, a removable cutting ring 5 with the teeth 6 and the cutting elements 7, the metal cap 8 with handles 9. The cover 8 has a rigid attachment with C is lindrum 1 (for example, by means of screw connections). In the center of the cover 8 has a hole 10 with thread, which is screwed to the drive spindle 3. On the outer surface of the sample cylinder 1 marked scale 11 in centimeters. On the bottom edge of the sample cylinder 1 with holes 12 for mounting the cutting ring 5. To ensure the exit of air from the interior of the sample cylinder, lead screw 3 has an axial hole 13.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.

The principle of the device when sampling snow for the study of its properties is the following. The rotation of the handle 4 screw 3, the piston 2 is moved to its extreme upper position. The sampling cylinder 1 with the handles 9 are immersed in the thick snow all the way into the soil surface and by rotating the lead screw 3, the piston 2 is compacted sample of snow that prevents its precipitation during the lifting device. For violations clutch snow with the ground device several times rotate around the axis. The device is then removed from the snow. Sample snow push of a sample cylinder 1 through the rotation of the lead screw 1 with a piston 2. In the inventive device, unlike the prototype eliminates the output piston sample cylinder due to the fact that the length of the lead screw with the piston equal to the length of the sample cylinder is a, and when installing the piston in the lower position it is flush with the edge of the sample cylinder. Scale 11 allows you to define the height of snow cover.

In ecological studies, snow dumps, where the snow can be loose, soft, to have enable ice to facilitate sampling using a cutting ring 5 with the teeth 6. On the inner surface of the cutting ring is rigidly fixed cutting elements 7. Cutting elements 7 can have a different shape that allows using your device on snow dumps (Fig.2-5). When sampling on snow dumps the rotation of the sample cylinder 1 for the handle 9 device deepen in the array of snow perpendicularly or at an angle to the surface. While the teeth 6 of the cutting ring 5 facilitate the entry of the sample cylinder 1 into an array of snow, and cutting elements 7 are crushed compacted snow. The stroke of the piston 2 is compacted crushed snow, the device is removed and the further stroke of the piston 3 extract the sample.

The claimed invention allows to obtain a representative sample of snow, significantly reduce the complexity of sampling, allow to extend the scope of the method and device.

1. Device for sampling the snow, including the sampling cylinder with a cutting ring with teeth piston with the plunger, characterized in that it additionally sod is RIT cutting elements, fixed on the inner surface of the ring, and cover with a Central threaded hole for follower, made in the form of a lead screw, and cap and plunger handles.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the cutter ring are removable.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the cylinder is made of a hydrophobic polymer material.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the external surface of the sample cylinder has a scale for measuring the height of the snow cover.



 

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