Car wheelset wear checking system

FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to measuring devices that can be used for inspection and examination wheelset cars Railways.

Control system wear of railway wheelset can be installed in paragraphs preparation of wagons to transport and prior to setting in train, as well as in other places where the regulations provide for the inspection of wheel pairs under the wagons.

For monitoring wear of railway wheelset uses measuring tools and templates, a list of which is established by the Ministry of Railways. The control is performed mainly by hand, so is labor-intensive and time-consuming.

The closest device to its technical nature of the claimed is a noncontact three-dimensional measuring instrument according to the patent of the Russian Federation for the invention N2191348, which includes forming the probe light line on the surface of the measurement object light node, two-channel optical receiving projection system, a CCD sensor and conversion-computing unit, the input of which is enabled the output of the CCD array. CCD sensor is installed on the optical axis of the projection lens dual optical receiving system, which has two pentaprism and mirror-prism dividing node. Lighting node contains a location is defined on the common optical axis of the cylindrical lens, lens and a laser diode mounted in the focal plane of the lens. Conversion-computing unit includes a personal computer, a video card, the output of which is connected to the input of the personal computer and the power amplifier, the output of which is included in the input video, and its output is connected to the output of the CCD array.

The disadvantage of this device are its limitations associated with the need for consistent measurement of coordinates of a moving object, which complicates the structure conversion-computing unit when measuring objects with complex spatial configuration.

The objective of the proposed device is extending its functionality, which results in measuring the following parameters wheelset:

the distance between the inner faces of the bands,

- the difference in size between the upper and lower points of the inner faces of the bands,

the thickness of the rim rolling circle wheels,

the thickness of the tires rolling circle,

- diameter of tires rolling circle,

- the biggest difference in the diameters of the tires rolling circle wheelset one bogie and wheelset different trucks of a car,

- out-of-roundness of the tires rolling circle,

- the width of the bands,

the thickness of the ridge bandages

the difference in thickness of the crests of one wheel pair,

- angular undercut ridge bandage

- scratches on the surface of the bandages, located at a distance of not less than 100 mm from each other around the circumference, more than 200 square mm and a depth of more than 1 mm.

This is achieved by the control system wear of railway wheelset containing optical receiving the projection system and conversion-computing unit, characterized in that it is provided with the position sensor and meter cars, the outputs are connected to the inputs of conversion-computing unit. Optical reception praktina system made of a set of stereomodels, rigid construction each of which contains two video CCD camera and lighting unit; the outputs of stereomodels connected to corresponding inputs of conversion-computing unit, and stereomodel rigidly mounted relative to each other.

The accompanying illustrations explain the essence of the device. Figure 1 shows the location of components positional group of modules of the control system relative to the wheelsets. Figure 2 presents the block diagram of the control system wear railway wheelset.

Control system wear of railway wheelset contains optical receiving the projection system and conversion-computing unit. For the sake of convenience of installation and operate the tion set stereomodels optical projection system is in the form of positional groups (figure 1). Separate stereomodel 1-8 is made in the form of a rigid structure consisting of two video CCD cameras 10 and 11 and the lighting node 12. Lighting node 12 may be made on the basis of solid-state laser emitters.

Each positional group contains 8 stereomodels and provides simultaneous receive 8 stereo images of the surface sections of the wheels 21 and 22 of one pair of wheels 20. Front and rear in the direction of travel on each wheel of the pair of wheels “look” two stereomodels. Each stereomodel 1-8 provides oversight of the surface area of the wheel and, in addition, a pair of stereomodels 1 and 4, 5 and 8, standing in front of or behind with respect to each wheel 21 and 22, provide a description of the three-dimensional surface of the ridges 23 and 24 of the wheels 21 and 22, and each pair of internal stereomodels 2 and 3, 6 and 7 provide the measurement of the mutual spatial position of the inner surfaces 25 and 26 wheels 21 and 22 of the pair of wheels 20. Stereomodel 1-8 in positional group are rigidly relative to each other, untethered from the track a single base. The mutual position of the modules 1-8 recorded during alignment and calibration, and should be constant for the period between calibrations, for example, within a few days.

To allow information in a coordinate system resultativity, obtained using individual stereomodels, application of unit coordinate reference systems (figure 2 not shown). This module is used only during calibration and periodic testing of devices and does not participate in the audit process wheelset.

Control system wear of railway wheelset contains several positional groups stereomodels. The number of positional groups and their spatial arrangement along the railway line are such that they provide a Sequency of the car control the entire surface of the wheels of each wheel pair 20. In the total field of view of the optical receiving the projection system has a full image of the pair of wheels 20.

For example, when used in stereomodel cameras with the number of elements 1300×1000 field of view of one of stereomodel on the rim of the wheel will be about 300 mm, the circumference of the wheel tread surface of about 3000 mm Because in each group at each wheel has two stereomodels for the observation of the surface front and back, then to control wheels generally take 5-6 positional groups stereomodels.

The device operates as follows. Shooting for acquiring images is set by the position sensor 30 (figure 2), which consists of emitting led and the receiving photodiode and CPA is ativam, when the pair of wheels 20 in the process of moving on rails takes the position that should be done shooting. At this point, open the gates of all the CCD cameras 10 and 11 stereomodels 1-8, and included lighting nodes 12. Lighting nodes 12 stereomodels 1-8 are formed on the surfaces of the pair of wheels dotted and dashed spots. The sizes of the light spots, their number and location on the observed part of the surface of the wheel is determined by the shape of the surface and the required accuracy of measurement, as well as requirements identification of individual spots in the right and left image of a stereo pair. The exposure time depends on the speed of movement of the carriage and the desired resolution (acceptable blur image).

For example, when the speed of the carriage 3.6 km/h and the measurement accuracy of 0.5 mm exposure time is about 100 μs. A pair of images each stereomodel 1-8 is introduced into the conversion-computing unit 40, where they are processed to determine the coordinates of the centers of the light spots in each image. Conversion-computing unit 40 consists of a computer interface units 41 and 42 and 43. A joint analysis of the images of a stereo pair allows to obtain a spatial description of the surface area of the pair of wheels 20, defined by a set of spatial coordinates of the surface points, the exchange rate is represented part of the wheel. The comparison of the received descriptions with reference description entered in the computer 41 conversion-computing unit 40, taking into account tolerances, allows you to judge the appropriateness of the wheel (according to its specified requirements). This applies both to the surfaces 25 and 26 wheels 21 and 22 and the surfaces of the ridges 23 and 24, and also to the mutual position of the inner surfaces of the two wheels 21 and 22 of the pair of wheels 20. As a comparison of spatial descriptions of areas of the surface, this comparison is resistant to fluctuations in the scale of the images due to the uncertainty of the moment of shooting due to inaccuracies in the determination of this point.

The signal for the input image is formed by the position sensor 30, which detects when a wheel pair 20 in the monitoring area positional group stereomodels. Processing and analysis of images allow one to develop a spatial description of the observed parts of the surface of the pair of wheels 20 in one for all eight modules of the spatial coordinate system.

As one positional group stereomodels monitors only about 20% of the surface of the wheels rolling circle along the track must be installed several such groups of modules. All other positional groups stereomodels connected with transformative computing the unit 40 similar to that described for the first. The distance between the groups should be such that in view of the subsequent group got a small part of the surface of the wheels, observed already by previous groups, and the distance must be known.

In addition, the system includes a counter 50 cars, which records the passage of each car through the measuring area. At the input of the counter 50 is set the trigger to one input of which the position sensor 30 receives a pulse at the entrance of the car at the beginning of the control plot, and is reset trigger another pulse position sensor 30 with the passage of the carriage end of the control plot.

The distance between the inner edges of the tyres and the difference in size between the upper and lower points of the inner faces of the bands are determined from the comparison of the results of measurements of right and left internal modules in all groups. The thickness of the rim rolling circle wheels, thickness, width and diameter of tires rolling circle, chipping on the surface of the roller, the angular undercut ridge band defined by the results of measurements of external modules. The thickness of the ridge is determined by the joint results of measurements of external and internal modules. Out-of-roundness of the tires rolling circle, the difference in the thickness of the ridges of one pair of wheels, and the biggest difference in the diameters of the tires in a circle kata the Oia wheelset one bogie and wheelset different trucks of a car is calculated based on the measurement results of all groups of modules. Modeling control wear of railway wheelset has shown its high efficiency.

Advantages of the proposed system are the high accuracy and speed of measurements, the accuracy of the obtained results, a contactless method, no need for accurate positioning of the object relative to the monitoring system, the possibility of a description in the coordinate system of the object (pair of wheels). The measurement protocols can be printed on a printing device.

The use of the proposed non-contact measurement in three-dimensional space promising advances in applied computing technology, mass production of cheap matrix converters light signal from the hard geometry of the raster, the emergence of cheap solid state laser diodes.

Multiview contactless high-precision measuring productive system provides monitoring of the measurement object with all the necessary directions and measurements, carried out separate stereomodels in a single coordinate system. This allows obmeryat products of arbitrary shape and obmeryat with high accuracy bulky items, whose dimensions exceed the dimensions of the zone of measurement of the individual stereomodel.

1. Control system wear rolling the wheel containing optical receiving the projection system and conversion-computing unit, characterized in that it is equipped with a position sensor and meter cars, the outputs are connected to the inputs of conversion-computing unit, the optical reception projection system made of a set of stereomodels, rigid construction each of which contains two video CCD camera and lighting node, the outputs of stereomodels connected to corresponding inputs of conversion-computing unit, and stereomodel rigidly mounted relative to each other.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the position sensor is made of emitting led and the output led.

3. The device according to each of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the number of stereomodels, from a set which is made of an optical reception projection system, chosen so that their total field of view present a complete picture of the pair of wheels.



 

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FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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