Crawler tractor hydrostatic transmission

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.

EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.

1 dwg

 

Known hydrostatic transmission caterpillar tractor, consisting of a hydrostatic transmission which performs the function of the gearbox, main gear, two gear-friction rotation mechanisms, such as two-stage planetary and two side gears, see, for example, Petrov V.A. Hydrostatic transmissions for self-propelled machines. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1988, S. 109, Fig. 49-D.

Transmission - similar works as follows.

During rectilinear movement of the tractor in a two-stage planetary mechanisms of rotation, which is essentially a two-speed gearbox, included the same transmission that provides sustainable, without skid, rectilinear motion of the tractor, the speed is controlled by varying the pump capacity reversible hydrostatic transmission.

The turning of the tractor is accomplished by partial or complete turn on or off the friction control elements of the planetary mechanisms turn. The value of the turning radius of the tractor is governed by the degree of inclusion (slip) control. When this braking power is lagging side of the tractor in various ranges of changing the value of the turning radius may be partially or fully recuperates on the runner Board, and the rest of the braking power at partial recovery of poposals the slipping friction control element. Turning without recovery all braking power goes to perform work of slippage in the brake lagging side. Full recuperation of braking power occurs at only one fixed intermediate turning radius when in planetary rotation mechanisms on the sides fully included two different transmission.

The minimum turning radius of the tractor's transmission is analogous to equal the value of the gauge.

The disadvantage of analogue is the lack of modes turn with full recuperation of brake power with lagging bead on runner except for a fixed turning radius. When turning radii smaller than the fixed, no recovery at all, even partial, of all braking power is spent on heating and wear of the slippery brakes lagging side. When this occurs, the overload of hydrostatic transmission and engine tractor - they are loaded not only traction power going to overcome the resistance to movement of the tractor, but also a significant part of the braking power, which is then dispersed skidding in the brake.

Another disadvantage of analogue is the considerable complexity of the traffic management system of the tractor: the speed of the translational motion of the front and reverse is controlled by varying performance and hydraulic reversionary the m pump hydrostatic transmission, and the turning circle is strictly synchronized and precisely dosed full or partial enable or disable the six friction control elements in various combinations.

The disadvantage of analogue is the inability of rotation of the tractor in place, i.e., rotation around the vertical axis passing through the geometric center of the tractor with a radius equal to half of the gauge.

Closest to the claimed invention by a combination of traits and the achieved effect is a hydrostatic transmission, caterpillar tractor, consisting of two side hydrostatic transmission, adjustable pumps through which Razorblade gearbox is connected to the tractor engine, and unregulated motors associated hose each with its own pump, connected through final drives driving wheels of the tractor, see, for example, Petrov V.A. Hydrostatic transmissions for self-propelled machines. M: mechanical engineering, 1988, pp.109, Fig. 48-6.

Transmission - the prototype works as follows.

In straight-line motion of the tractor power generated by the engine, is divided in ResetSystem the gear in half and half power through side hydrostatic transmission, final drives, drive wheels and caterpillars are transmitted to the ground as two identical on-Board traction power.

When moving the tractor to krival nanomo movement (rotation) begin to reduce the capacity of the pump hydrostatic transmission lagging side. Thus the angular velocity of the shaft of this motor hydrostatic transmission is reduced, therefore decreasing the angular velocity of the drive wheel and the speed of the translational motion of the backward side, and the speed of the runner Board remains what it was in straight-line motion of the tractor. At the same time, there is a transfer of shares power of the tractor engine: power transmitted by the hydrostatic transmission lagging side is reduced, and the runner Board increases. This occurs when the decrease in the radius of rotation up to zero traction at the back Board. All necessary to move the tractor's pulling power is transmitted from the engine to the drive wheel runner Board only through the hydrostatic transmission of this side.

To further reduce the turning radius continue to reduce the capacity of the pump hydrostatic transmission, reducing the speed of the lagging side. The caterpillar lagging side begins increasing with decreasing turning radius, braking force, which, together with the speed of the translational movement of the lagging side generates braking power. Braking power with caterpillars lagging side through the driver gear and side gear is connected to the shaft of the motor hydrostatic transmission lagging the ORT, through the hydroline is transmitted to the pump of the transmission and through Razorblade reducer is supplied to the pump hydrostatic transmission runner Board, where stacks with power from the tractor engine. The total power is transmitted through the hydrostatic transmission and the side gear on the drive wheel runner Board, fully providing tractive power, which is consumed to overcome all resistance to the movement of the tractor and to the formation of BHP lagging side. Thus, all the braking power of the backward side of the tractor circulates in a closed loop or, in other words, recuperated from behind runner Board sequentially through two hydrostatic transmission and Razorblade gearbox. In the whole range of turns with the recuperation of braking a hydrostatic power transmission runner Board works in traction mode with power transfer from the pump to the motor and hydrostatic transmission of the backward side in the brake mode, with transmission brake power of the backward side from the motor to the pump.

Such a regenerative mode of rotation of the tractor continues until zero performance pump hydrostatic transmission lagging side on which the shaft of the motor of the transmission is stopped and the tractor turns around slow, the medium of the hydrostatic transmission, lagging caterpillars with a radius equal to the track.

The rotation of the tractor in place, that is, around a vertical axis passing through its geometric center, is carried out by setting the same performance pumps both hydrostatic transmission, but when the hydraulic reverse one of the transmission. The side of the tractor when this move with the same magnitude, but oppositely directed velocity of translational motion, and speed cushions will be the same as in the rectilinear movement of the tractor with the same pump hydrostatic transmission. In this mode, both hydrostatic transmission work with the transfer of traction power from the pumps to the motors.

In all modes of motion of the tractor control transmission is only a change in performance and hydraulic reversing pump side hydrostatic transmission.

The disadvantages of the prototype of the most used modes of rotation with the recuperation of braking power, is, first, that the recuperation of braking power is carried out consistently through the hydrostatic transmission lagging, and then runner Board that if far from ideal values, the efficiency of the hydrostatic transmission gives them great (defined by the product of the efficiency of the transmission loss of regenerative powerfully the tee and the consequent enhanced power load of the engine of the tractor, and secondly that there is a very high loading capacity of hydrostatic transmission runner Board, which has to transmit all the power from the engine to overcome the resistance to movement of the tractor, but the braking power of the backward side, and this forces to use in the transmission of hydrostatic transmission with an installation capacity of each hydrostatic transmission is much larger than the nominal power of the engine of the tractor.

Noted disadvantages prototype eliminates offered as the invention of the hydrostatic transmission tractor.

The purpose of the invention is the improvement of flexible qualities of the tractor by maximizing and most economical recuperation of brake power with lagging bead on runner when turning the tractor while reducing the power load of the engine during rotation and reduction of power losses in hydrostatic transmissions the transmission of the tractor, which will allow the use of hydrostatic transmission with substantially smaller installation capacity, and therefore, less weight, smaller size and cheaper.

This task is solved in that the hydrostatic transmission caterpillar tractor, containing Razorblade reducer, two parallel side hydrostatic transmission with a pump controlled production the productivity and unregulated motors, as well as two side of the gearbox, which according to the invention between the motors and side gears has two planetary gear, a sun gear which is connected with each of the hydraulic motors two identical gears, and drove each summing planetary mechanism connected with epicycle gear of the other planetary gear and then with the tail gearbox.

Due to the presence of two summing planetary mechanisms linking motors onboard hydrostatic transmission driving wheels and driving wheels between them, can provide the transmission of brake power with lagging bead on runner through the summing planetary mechanisms with minimal losses, to reduce the load capacity of the hydrostatic transmission runner flanges on the amount of recuperated braking power to reduce the load on the tractor engine by the amount of power losses in two sequentially loaded hydrostatic transmissions and exclude hydrostatic transmission the backward side in the brake mode. In addition, the summing planetary mechanisms is rigidly interconnected with the planet carrier of one mechanism and epicycle wheel other mechanism to allow for the rotation automatically be reduced by regulating the performance of the pump of the hydrostatic transmission lagging side not only the speed of this Board, but also, to a lesser extent, the speed of the runner Board, which allows for overcoming resistance to turning of the tractor within the available capacity of its engine.

Hydrostatic transmission caterpillar tractor, a scheme which is presented in the drawing and serves as the invention, is connected with the engine 1 through razorblades gear 2 and contains two side hydrostatic transmission with adjustable pumps 3 and 4 and connected to hose them unregulated motors 5 and 6, connected by two identical gears 7 and 8 with sun gears 9 and 10, two identical summing planetary mechanisms measured including carriers 11 and 12 and epicycle gear wheels 13 and 14, each took one summing planetary gear constantly connected with epicycle wheel of another summing planetary mechanism, and these pairs links summarizing planetary mechanisms through axes 15 and 16 through the side gears 17 and 18 are connected to the drive wheels 19 and 20 of the tractor.

Hydrostatic transmission operates as follows.

Rectilinear motion of the tractor is carried out with the same performance of the pumps 3 and 4, the speed at a constant rotational speed of the engine 1 is regulated by the simultaneous change of the productive the minute these pumps, the transition from moving forward to the progress of reversing and back - simultaneous hydraulic reversing pump 3 and 4 at their zero performance. The angular velocity of the shafts of the motors 5 and 6 in straight-line motion is the same, so summing planetary mechanisms transmit power from the sun wheels 9 and 10 through the carrier 11 and 12 and the epitsiklov 13 and 14 on the driven shafts 15 and 16 only portable motion, almost without losses. Each of the two hydrostatic transmissions are loaded with half of the power generated by the engine 1 of the tractor. In other words, the rectilinear movement of the tractor with the inventive transmission is identical in all respects to the movement of the tractor with the transmission of the prototype, and the gears 7 and 8 serve as first stage side gears 17 and 18.

When turning the tractor (say that the drive wheel 19 of lagging and leading wheel 20 - runner) it is necessary to reduce the capacity of the pump 3 lagging side, leaving the performance of the pump 4 runner side unchanged, i.e. that which was before the entrance of the tractor in turn. Unlike the prototype, this reduces not only the speed of the backward side, but also, to a lesser extent, the speed of the runner side. Values reduce these velocities are inversely proportional with led is a different radius of rotation, and, in addition, depend on the magnitude of the kinematic characteristics of the summarizing planetary mechanisms (kinematic characteristic is the ratio of numbers of teeth of the epicycle and the sun gears of the planetary mechanism). So, at any fixed ratio of the angular velocities of the shafts of the motors 5 and 6, the increase in kinematic characteristics increases the turning radius and speed of the backward side (directly proportional dependence) and reduces the speed of the runner Board (inversely proportional dependence). The magnitude of the translational velocity of the center of the machine from the kinematic characteristics of the summarizing planetary mechanism is not affected and is determined only by the ratio of the angular velocities of the motors 5 and 6.

The decrease in performance of the pump 3 lagging side to zero and stop the shaft of the motor 5 of this Board provides the turning of the tractor with a fixed radius, which is determined by the tractor and kinematic characteristics of the summarizing planetary mechanisms. The value of this radius greater than the gauge of the machine.

When turning with a radius smaller than fixed, it is necessary in the transition regime of fixed radius hydraulic reversing pump 3 hydrostatic transmission lagging side and increase its PR is the capacity in proportion to the desired reduction of the turning radius of the tractor. At a certain performance pump 3 stops the rotation axis 15 and the drive wheel 19 of the lagging side, the machine rotates with a radius equal to the gauge, and zero braking power, lagging on Board.

With further increase of the pump performance 3 axis 15 starts to rotate in reverse, compared to the axle 16, the party providing the backward movement side of the tractor in reverse. When the performance of the pumps 3 and 4 are compared, the tractor will steadily rotated around the vertical axis passing through its geometric center, and the speed of the translational movement of the boards will be less than the speed of rectilinear motion of the tractor when the same performance of the pumps 3 and 4.

The estimated relative kinematic parameters of rotation of the tractor from the values of ratios of airborne hydrostatic transmission and kinematic characteristics of the summarizing planetary mechanisms are summarized in table.

Table
The kinematic parameters of the rotation of the tractor
Kinematic parameterFor prototypeFor the inventive transmission
The speed of the tractor
The speed of the backward side
Speed runner Board
Turning radiusρf=1+k
where VCR- speed rectilinear motion of the tractor before entering a turn;

where R is the absolute value of the radius of rotation of the runner on the track,

In value, the gauge tractor; ρF- fixed relative turning radius;

- ratio hydrostatic transmission, respectively, lagging and runner boards, where ω5and ω6- the angular velocity of the shafts of the motors, ω3and ω4- the angular velocity of the shafts of pumps, and ω3and ω4;

- kinematic characteristics of the summing planetary gear,

Zeand Zwiththe number of teeth of the epicycle and the sun is Oles.

In all modes of rotation of the tractor with a non-zero braking power, lagging on Board the recovery of this power is exercised only through the summing planetary mechanisms with minimal losses, and both hydrostatic transmission work only in traction mode, the transmitting power of two unequal parts from the engine to the summing planetary mechanisms, and the sum of the capacities, loading both hydrostatic transmission, equal to the power developed by the engine, and spent entirely on overcoming resistance to movement of the tractor. This provides a significant reduction in power load both hydrostatic transmission and, together, and individually, as well as tractor engine compared to the prototype.

Control movement of the tractor is made, as in the prototype, only synchronous (rectilinear motion) or asynchronous (turn) change in performance and hydraulic reverser hydrostatic transmission.

Hydrostatic transmission caterpillar tractor, containing Razorblade reducer, two parallel side hydrostatic transmission with variable capacity pumps and unregulated engines, as well as two side of the gearbox, characterized in that between the motors and side gears has two planetary gear, the sun is cnie gears which are connected with each of the hydraulic motors two identical gears, drove each summing planetary mechanism connected with epicycle gear of the other planetary gear and then with the tail gearbox.



 

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