Detonator

FIELD: detonators.

SUBSTANCE: an initiating compound (5) for excitation of detonation of the main charge (2) is located in the detonator (1). The initiating compound contains the inflammable initiating charge (9,10), which at inflammation gives off gaseous combustion products, with the aid of which detonation of the main charge is excited. The initiating compound contains a compression agent (7), which is displaced under the action of the mentioned gaseous combustion products in the direction to the main charge for its compression. The invention also concerns the method for inflammation of the compressed main charge in the detonator, at which the main charge is additionally compressed to an increased density during the inflammation phase. Besides, the invention concerns the detonator provided with the main charge, which has an increased density at the instant of detonation.

EFFECT: enhanced shock wave of the detonator.

16 cl, 9 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates in General to the detonator, as well as to the originating element and associated method.

The level of technology

The detonators used or the quality of the explosives, or for initiating detonation to other explosives.

In the normal execution of the detonator is a sleeve with a closed end, which is laid or pressed base charge. At the other end of the sleeve is a means of ignition, such as a pyrotechnic igniter tube “NONE” (registered name) or the electric igniter. Between the means of ignition and the main charge is the initiating charge, which can be ignited by means of ignition. The combustion of the initiator initiates the detonation of the main charge.

Explosives are typically classified as primary explosives, secondary explosives. Primary explosives are characterized in that they are able to show a full detonation due to heating, when present in small quantities in the free state, i.e. being unlimited. On the other hand, secondary explosives need to be limited and in need of large quantities or heavy mechanical is on strike for initiating detonation. For security reasons, often avoid the use of primary explosives, and the present invention relates only to the detonators, which is free from primary explosives. As examples of secondary explosives can be mentioned pentaerythritoltetranitrate, cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine, phlegmatized RDX, RDX, TNT, tetryl (trinitrophenylmethylnitramine) and mixtures of one or more of them.

There is a quadratic dependence between the velocity of detonation of the explosive and the energy of the shock wave that is released during detonation. In order to obtain the highest possible explosive action, therefore, should be provided with high velocity of detonation. This, in particular, takes place with the detonators, which are used for detonation to other explosives, as detonators usually contain only a small number of secondary explosives, which, therefore, must detonate with the greatest possible speed for maximum explosive action.

Speed of detonation of the explosive increases with increase in the density of the explosive. For example, the speed of detonation of phlegmatized hexagona is 8.7 km/s at a density of 1.8 g/cm3at that time the AK it is only 7.6 km/s at a density of 1.5 g/cm 3that corresponds to a decrease in the energy of the shock wave nearly 30%.

Detonators are known from the prior art, equipped with the main charge, which is usually compressed to a density of about 1.5-1.55 g/cm3. Even if the desired higher density, this is infeasible in practice.

The invention

The present invention is the task of creating a detonator, which when given a certain amount of explosive in the main battery provides higher energy shock waves than was possible with prior art techniques.

A more specific problem to be solved by this invention is the provision of additional increased density of the main charge, pressed the detonator, thereby creating increased velocity of detonation and thus reinforced the explosive action of the detonating charge.

Another problem solved by this invention is the creation of the initiating element for use in a detonator, with the specified triggering element makes it possible to impart additional density to the main charge is pressed into the detonator, and the specified density is maintained until it is initiated detonation of the main charge.

These tasks are solved by a method and detonate the RA or the initiating element according to the attached claims.

Thus, the invention is based on the knowledge that the detonator can be increased explosive action given a certain amount of explosive in the main charge, if in fact at the moment of detonation of this basic charge is given to the increased density. If the main charge is compressed to such an extent that at least some part of it reaches essentially crystalline state immediately prior to detonation or during it provides significantly enhanced explosive action.

According to one aspect of the invention, the pressure created by the combustion of the initiator, is used to further increase the density of the already compressed main charge and to maintain a high density, until it is initiated detonation of the main charge, which leads to increased velocity of detonation and, thus, to intense and explosive action. It is preferable to provide such a high density primary battery to last at least partially reached essentially the crystalline state.

According to another aspect of the invention, the gaseous combustion products from the initiator used for heating to ignition and compression loosely laid or unlimited secondary explosives, whose power is I, thus, increases, which eventually leads to detonation of the secondary explosive, which, therefore, causes the detonation of the main charge, which is compressed to increased density.

According to another aspect of the invention features a triggering element for use in a detonator for initiating detonation of the compressed main charge, which is located in the detonator.

The initiating element according to the invention contains a compression tool, which is located to act on it the gaseous combustion products, which are released during the combustion of the priming charge for additional compression of the main charge.

According to the invention it is also proposed initiating element, which allows the hot gaseous products from the combustion of the initiator to be held in camera, which is located in the originating element and is situated near the main charge located outside of the initiating element. The camera is preferably loosely compacted or unlimited secondary explosive that is designed to heat up to ignition of the incoming gaseous products of combustion, whereby, in the end, excited by the detonation of said main charge.

The invention also relates to triggering the it element, in which the above-mentioned gaseous products of combustion is used to heat and compress tightly compressed secondary explosives for the excitation of its detonation at the same time as the compressed base charge is subjected to a force, which is generated from the burning of the initiator and which additionally increases the density of the main charge, so that at least some portion of the main charge reaches essentially the crystalline state. Preferred to loosely compacted secondary explosive substance was heated to ignition when starting the implementation of its compression.

According to the invention, the base charge in the detonator, which is compressed in the manufacture of the detonator, so excite to detonation with the initiator by a method in which the pressure generated by the combustion of the initiator, is used for additional compression of the main charge before detonation.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the initiating element contains the secondary explosive, which is located for initiating detonation of the main charge in the detonator.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the initiating element according to the invention the secondary explosive is emesto initiating element initiates detonation of the main charge by heating to ignition and compression of the specified secondary explosive gaseous products of combustion, which are released during the combustion of the priming charge, located in the originating element.

In one embodiment, the detonator according to the invention, therefore, may contain triggering element having a camera that is connected with the main charge and contains relatively loosely compacted or unlimited secondary explosive. During the initiation phase, i.e. when the combustion of the priming charge, decreases the volume of the chamber, which leads to increased pressure in said chamber. Simultaneously, the combustion of the initiator results in additional compression of the main charge, which, thus, achieves essentially crystalline, or at least, very compressed state. The ignition of the main charge is provided by the gaseous products of combustion in initiating the charge, passing in the specified camera, whereby the explosive in the chamber is heated to ignition. When the explosive in the chamber is heated to ignition, increase the pressure and, thus, the energy in the chamber, so it's explosive, eventually, reaches detonation, whereby excited detonation of the main charge.

In preferred embodiments of the invention increase the pressure in this chamber about especially positive pressure, which is caused by an initiating charge and which pushes movable piston located in the chamber, so that decreases its volume. The thickness of the piston preferably more than 0.15 mm and less than 1.0 mm

The diameter of the above-mentioned camera is preferably larger than the critical detonation diameter of the explosive, which is designed to be placed in the camera. The critical detonation diameter for pentaerythritoltetranitrate is, for example, about 1 mm. in Addition, it was found that length of the camera (its length in the axial direction) with a benefit greater than its diameter, but smaller than, approximately ten times its diameter.

In addition, in the preferred embodiment of the invention applies a compression tool in the form of a piston of corresponding form to provide the specified additional compression, and the above-mentioned chamber in the compression tool as preferably the axial channel. As installed, it is useful to the diameter of the compact was at least 1.1 times greater than the diameter of such a channel. It is preferable, at least 1.5 times greater, and most preferably about 2 times greater than the diameter of the channel.

The present invention makes it possible to produce the initiating elements, with a total length 9-10 mm, which compare the and with the length of the charge of primary explosive in detonators according to the prior art, in which the length of the column of primary explosives in initiating the charge is usually around 6-7 mm.

List of figures

Various distinctive characteristics and features of the invention will be apparent from the following description of some preferred embodiments of the invention. In this description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which

figure 1 schematically shows in sectional view the detonator according to the invention,

figure 2 schematically shows in sectional view the detonator according to the invention during the phase of initiation, and

figure 3-9 schematically show various embodiments of the initiating element according to the invention.

It should be noted that a part or parts having shapes identical or similar to the image or the purpose indicated in the same positions.

Description of the preferred embodiments of the invention

Now with reference to figure 1 will be described in more detail the preferred embodiment of the detonator according to the invention. According to this variant embodiment of the invention, the detonator includes a sleeve 1, which has an open end and a closed end, the outer diameter of the sleeve is equal to about 6.5 mm, the base charge 2 of secondary explosives are pressed to the closed end of the sleeve (up to a density of about 15-1,55 g/cm 3), and at the open end of the sleeve through the gasket 4 is placed 3 ignition, in this case tube “NONE” (registered name). Inside the sleeve 1 near said main charge 2 is initiating element 5, which transmits the impulse ignition tube 3 “NONEL to the main charge 2 for excitation of its detonation. The initiating element is essentially cylindrical and one of its ends facing the tube 3 “NONE”and the other end to the main charge 2. At the end of the initiating element 5 facing the tube 3 “NONEL”, made the opening 6. In the originating element 5 near said hole 6 in series with the secondary explosive 10 is a pyrotechnic charge 9. A pyrotechnic charge and a secondary explosive together form the initiator charge. Below is described a pyrotechnic charge. Secondary explosive 10 is located in the vicinity of the initiator, which contains the first and second pistons, respectively 7 and 8. One end surface of the first piston 7 rests on compressed base charge 2 and, therefore, can move with difficulty, and so that the first piston is called static. However, it is clear that during the initiation phase static piston 7 in most cases will move on Corot is some distance towards the main charge. This piston 7 is formed of a Central cylindrical channel 11, which extends along the Central longitudinal axis of the static piston 7 and at one end is connected with the compressed main battery 2 and the other end adjustably limited located the second piston 8. As the second piston 8 can be moved much more than the first static piston, the piston 8 is called dynamic piston. Channel 11 contains a secondary explosive 12, which in this case is pentaerythritoltetranitrate, cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine, phlegmatized RDX (RDX) or a mixture of one or more of these secondary explosives in an unconfined or leaky compressed state (having a density of about 0.8-1.4 g/cm3). Thus, channel 11 contains a certain amount of air (or perhaps some other mixture of gases).

A typical detonator has an outer diameter of 7.5 mm and a length of about 65 mm, the detonator Sleeve has a wall thickness of about 0.8 mm, and the cylindrical shell of the initiating element has an outer diameter of about 5.5 mm and a wall thickness of about 0.4 mm Cylindrical static piston located in the originating element has an outer diameter of about 5.1 mm and a length of about 5 mm Channel, which is made in a static piston, also one is by essentially cylindrical and has a diameter of about 3 mm and a length of about 5 mm. Thus, the triggering element has a static piston with external diameter, which is approximately 1.7 times greater than the diameter of the channel, which is formed in the static piston. Thus, the channel is about 35% of the total cross-sectional area of the static piston.

In this case the dynamic piston 8 has a thickness of about 0.4 mm and the diameter of which essentially corresponds to the diameter of the channel. The total length of the initiating element is about 10 mm

Now with reference to figure 2 will be described the process of ignition of the detonator according to the invention. The emission of a pulse of the ignition means 3 ignition, which in this case is a tube “NONE”ignites the pyrotechnic charge 9, after which ignites the secondary explosive 10 in a short period of excitation. During the combustion of the initiator creates a high pressure acting on the pistons 7 and 8. Static piston 7 in this case, putting strong pressure on the base charge 2, which achieves essentially crystalline, or at least, very compressed state with a high density, at least near the piston. The so-called static piston will move a short distance of 5 in the direction of the main charge, even if he remains essentially static is to them. The initiator is of such construction that the gaseous combustion products of the initiator penetrate into the channel 11 of the rotating piston 8, which leads to heating of the explosive 12 in the channel before ignition. The piston 8 is pressed into the channel 11 of the static piston, which leads to increased pressure in the channel. Due to the dynamic friction of the piston 8 against the walls of the channel and/or because of its mass, i.e. its inertia it is not moving as fast as gaseous products of combustion, and hence the explosive 12 in the channel 11 is heated to the ignition before will noticeably increase the pressure in the channel. The energy in the channel increases with increasing temperature and pressure in the channel 11, and when the energy reaches a certain value, the secondary explosive in the channel 11 detonates essentially instantaneously across the channel due to the fact that the secondary explosive is tightly pressed and, thus, reaches a critical energy essentially simultaneously in the entire channel. This process of ignition gives relatively rapid detonation, which is distributed to the main battery 2, which due to its strong compression undergoes a very rapid process of detonation.

The above process of ignition allows the main charge at the time of detonation to be essentially Krista is " condition, i.e. to have a very high density. By selection of the appropriate weight and size of the pistons and the selection of the relevant dimensions of the channel 11 and the appropriate density of the explosive 12 located therein, for each given explosives to ensure the greatest possible speed of detonation of the main charge of the detonator.

Specialist in this field will make the appropriate selection in the usual way through the trials and experienced explosions.

Needless to say, even if in figure 1 and 2 shows the detonator, which means 3 of the ignition tube is “NONE”, can be also used other means of ignition, such as, for example, the electric igniter.

Figure 3-9 shows examples of various embodiments of the triggering element 5 according to the invention. Shell originating elements 5 can be made of almost any material, although it is preferable to use a durable material, such as steel, bronze or brass. When using durable material wall membrane can be thin, so will be the initiator with a diameter that is nearly equal to the inner diameter of the sleeve 1 and, thus, also the diameter of the main charge 2, whereby during the phase of initiation is provided by the compressive action on the big cha is th lateral surface of the main charge 2.

Piston system 7, 8, 13-18 initiating element may contain multiple pistons or can even be originally manufactured as a single Assembly item. However, during the phase of initiation exist or occur, at least one static piston, which increases the compression in the main charge, and at least one dynamic piston, which compresses loosely laid explosives 12 in the chamber 11. In those cases, when the piston system is formed as a single Assembly detail, it is important that the dynamic piston separated from the common Assembly parts during the initiation phase (for example, through pressure from the combustion of the initiator) and, thus, was moving in the static channel of the piston. The material of the piston varies from case to case; however, as installed, it is useful that the material had a modulus of elasticity that is essentially the same as the modulus of elasticity of the compressed main charge, or higher.

In some preferred versions of the invention, the static piston 7 has a slightly conical outer shape, with the narrow end facing the initiator charge and, therefore, easily comes out of the shell of the initiating element during the initiation phase, for example, by a slight extension on the shell of the initiating element under the action of pressure. At the same time the conical shape facilitates the securing of static piston 7 into the shell of the initiating element. Once the static piston is separated from the inner wall of the shell of the initiating element, attached greater compressive force to compress the main charge.

Figure 3 shows the initiating element, similar to that used in the detonator in figure 1. In this case the dynamic piston 8 and the static piston 7 are separate Assembly parts. The cross-section of the dynamic piston, which in this case is made round, essentially corresponds to the cross section of the channel 11, which is made in a static piston. The channel 11 has a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 5 mm, an Outer diameter static piston 7 is approximately 1.7 times greater than the diameter of the dynamic piston 8 (and thus also approximately 1.7 times greater than the diameter of channel 11).

Figure 4 shows the triggering element, which contains two static piston 13, 14, while figure 5 shows the initiating element, in which the piston system instead has two dynamic of the piston 8, 15.

Figure 6 shows the initiating element, in which the piston system initially consists of a single Assembly parts 7, 16. During the initiation phase pressure caused by combustion initiating ZAR is Yes, will lead to the separation part 16 from the common Assembly parts, and this part will be a dynamic piston, the corresponding dynamic piston 8 shown in figure 3.

The invention also covers other link of the piston system. For example, figure 7 shows the initiating element with the initiator, which consists of two parts: one part is a static piston, corresponding to the static piston 7 shown in figure 3, and the other part has the form of a disk 17, which is located ahead of the static piston 7 and, thus, closes the channel 11 static piston. In accordance with the foregoing part of the disk 17 will be separated during the initiation phase and act as a dynamic piston. To ensure proper separation of parts in a piston system, which should form the dynamic piston, in accordance with the variants described with reference to Fig.6 and 7, can be performed undercut or break lines 19 in the seats, which, as I think will happen branch. In the example shown in Fig. On Fig dimensions of these recesses or break lines selected for illustrative purposes only. Real-triggering elements according to the invention, these undercut or break lines, of course, will have dimensions in accordance with the rest of the originating e the ment, which differs from that shown on the drawing.

Figure 9 shows another embodiment of the initiating element according to the invention. In this case, the static part of the piston system consists of two pistons having the same outer diameter and the same diameter of the channel 11. Between the two piston parts is the drive from which, during the initiation phase as described above is separated dynamic piston.

The initiator may be located entirely inside the shell of the initiating element 5 (as shown in Fig.3-6), partially within the shell (7) or only to rely (if pressed) on the shell (Fig, 9).

It is preferable that the channel 11 and, consequently, the dynamic piston 8 were round in cross section, but the invention is not limited to any particular configuration of the channel. The choice of geometric shapes in a particular case is a matter of convenience, which is solved by the expert in this area, and it can be freely selected within the scope of the invention and in accordance with the inventive idea.

Description of the initiating charge

Pyrotechnic charge 9 of the initiator has a speed of combustion, which is preferably higher than 5 m/s, more preferably higher than 10 m/s and most preferably higher than 20 m/s the Transition from deflagration to detonate is in the originating element should not take more than about 0.5 m/s, and, consequently, the speed of combustion of the pyrotechnic charge should not be too low. At the same time it is highly desirable that the secondary explosive initiating charge showed would essentially flat front combustion, which allows the piston of the piston / cylinder system to operate synchronously. In addition, the period of excitation of the specified secondary explosives must be such that the deviation of the instantaneous detonators did not exceed ±0.1 m/s the Effect of the initiator according to the present invention depends on the formation of a sufficiently high pressure in the combustion of the priming charge. In practice, this means that the temperature in vosplamenyayuschaya pyrotechnic charge is preferably higher than 2000°S, more preferably higher than 2500°and most preferably higher than 3300°C. Due to the high temperature of combustion of the pyrotechnic charge is also provided quick and reliable ignition of the secondary explosive initiating charge. Suitable pyrotechnic substances for this purpose are the so-called “termites”that contain metal powder (for example, SB, Al, Ti, Zr), which serves as fuel, and metallic oxides that serve as oxidants. For example, can be used pyrotechnic mixture, ka is, for example (30-40)%Al+(70-60)%Fe2O3and (20-40)%Ti+(80-60)%Bi2O3that cause detonation of the main charge in the range 0.1-0.5 m/s Thus, the time of transition from deflagration to detonation is equivalent to this time detonators that use the primary explosive.

Description of tests.

Below are described two different tests, which confirm the high rate of detonation of the detonator according to the present invention.

Example 1

Compared to the speed of detonation of the detonators three different types. The velocity of detonation (i.e. explosive action) compared the conventional method, in which the detonator was set with the location of its end against the lead plate with a thickness of 5 mm, as a measure of the explosive action of the detonator (velocity of detonation) took the hole diameter, which breaks upon detonation of the detonator.

Blew up ten detonators three different types: the detonators of the first type of primary explosive substance according to the prior art; detonators of the second type without any primary explosives according to the prior art and the detonators of the third type according to the present invention. All detonators contained in an equal quantity of explosive substance, namely 470 mg RDX I mg pentaerythritoltetranitrate. Detonate according to the prior art as a primary explosive substance and without it, gave essentially the same result. The diameter of the through holes was in the range of 9-10 mm Detonators according to the present invention had a significantly higher rate of detonation and formed holes having a diameter of 12.0 mm to 12.1 mm

Example 2

As in example 1, was compared detonators of the same three types. Compared to conventional method, named “Prayer”. As the test showed, detonators both types according to the prior art consistent with the detonator No. 11, while the detonators according to the present invention correspond to the detonator No. 13, 5.

The above examples show that the present invention provides in detonators significantly increased the speed of detonation compared with detonators according to the prior art. Through the use of the initiating element and method of ignition according to the invention can achieve enhanced explosive action without increasing the number of explosives in the main charge.

1. The method of ignition of the compressed main charge in the detonator, whereby detonation of the main charge excite by the initiator, characterized in that the main charge is additionally compressed to increased density under the action of pressure from the gaseous products of combustion, released from the priming charge, which burns during the initiation phase, the pressure from the gaseous products of combustion acts on the main charge by means of compression of the main charge, located between the initiating charge and the main charge, and this increased density is maintained until the initiation of detonation of the main charge.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the additional compression of the main charge, which provide during the initiation phase, leads to the achievement of essentially crystalline state, at least some portion of the main charge.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, in which the initiate detonation of secondary explosives, located between the initiating charge and the main charge, after creating increased density in the main charge, which ignite the detonation of the specified secondary explosives.

4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the secondary explosive is present in loosely compacted or unrestricted state, and the gaseous combustion products of the initiator is additionally used for heating to ignition and compression secondary explosives, which, in the end, is excited to detonation.

5. The method according to claim 3 or 4, in which the pressure caused by combustion is m of the initiator, indirectly squeezes secondary explosive by transmission of force through the compression tool secondary explosives, located between the initiating charge and the secondary explosive.

6. The method according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the secondary explosive is first heated to ignition by means of the gaseous combustion products that are released from the priming charge and flow in the secondary battery, and then subjected to the specified compression.

7. The initiating element for use in a detonator made with the possibility of excitation of compressed detonation of the main charge, located in the detonator, with the specified triggering element contains flammable initiating charge, which when ignited, emits gaseous products of combustion through which initiated the detonation of the main charge, characterized in that it contains a compression tool of the main charge, which when initiating element in the detonator is, on the one hand, with adherence to the main charge, and on the other hand, with the possibility under the action of the gaseous products of combustion move in the direction to the basic charge for its compression.

8. The initiating element according to claim 7, which contains a secondary explosive, which under nagode the AI initiating element in the detonator is located with a location between the initiating charge and the main charge and the possibility of providing excitation to detonation by these gaseous products combustion and then initiate detonation of the main charge.

9. The initiating element according to claim 8, in which the secondary explosive substance is present in a loosely compacted or unbound state.

10. The initiating element according to claim 9, in which the means for heating to ignition and compression loosely compacted secondary explosives under the action of the gaseous products of combustion, thereby increasing its energy to a level at which excited his detonation.

11. The initiating element according to claim 10, in which the specified loosely compacted secondary explosive is located in the channel in the compression tool of the main charge or alternative around him and compression tool secondary explosives movably positioned in the channel with the ability to create the specified compression secondary explosives under pressure from the gaseous combustion products.

12. The initiating element according to claim 11, in which the channel length greater than its diameter, and less than the size, ten times its diameter.

13. The initiating element according to claim 11 or 12, in which the compression tool main charge contains the first piston, the compression tool secondary explosives contains movably located in the second piston and the outer diameter of the specified first pre piston is respectfully 1.1 to 5.0 times larger than the diameter movably arranged piston.

14. The initiating element according to any one of claims 7 to 13, which has an essentially round cross-section with a diameter that is essentially the same as the inner diameter of the detonator, in which the triggering element is designed to be placed.

15. The detonator containing compressed base charge of a secondary explosive, in which at least some part of said main charge is essentially in the crystalline state at the time of detonation and which contains means for additional compression of the main charge during the initiation phase to achieve thereby essentially crystalline state, at least some part of the main charge.

16. The detonator containing compressed base charge of a secondary explosive, wherein it is equipped with an initiating element according to any one of claims 7 to 14.



 

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