Drilling tool

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: drilling toll has body with thread and inner washing channel, as well as matrix, contacting pin by its inner surface and having outer end spherical surface, provided with rock-destroying means. Pin in body is mounted coaxially. Outer end spherical surface of matrix with rock-destroying means is made with diameter equal to outer diameter of drilling toll, and inner surface of matrix and outer surface of pin are made spherical, centers of which coincide with center of outer end spherical surface of matrix. Between inner surface of matrix and spherical pin, balls are mounted in recesses of contact surfaces. Recesses for balls made in matrix are elongated in vertical directions from ball center for distance L=(R+r)tgΨ, where R - radius of pin spherical outer surface, m; r - ball radius, m; Ψ - maximally possible angle of matrix rotation in vertical plane, in degrees.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of drilling by the rotary method of anisotropic rocks.

The need for this technical solution is determined by the fact that during the drilling of anisotropic rocks is the spontaneous curvature of the wells due to the fact that the destruction process is characterized by irregularity. Consequently, at the end of the drilling tool has the effect of overturning moment, which causes some distortion of the drilling tool, the bending of the upstream section of the drill string and the wellbore deviation in the direction of the warp tool (see, for example, which people could eat CENTURIES fracture Mechanics of anisotropic rocks during drilling direction. M., an Overview of JSC “Geoinformmark”, 1997 - 56 C.).

The tipping point occurs when drilling in the area of contact of the tool with anisotropic rock due to the inequality of the reactions of the rocks in the direction of the end face of the drilling tool.

One of the directions of development of technical means to reduce the natural curves of the wells is the creation of a special drilling tools. Such tools include drill bits according to the as of the USSR №1615306, 1620590, 1657594, RF patent No. 2167261.

However, there are technical solutions do not provide the solution to eliminate dei is the major overturning moment on the drilling string, that does not resolve the curvature of the wells.

In practice, drilling operations are widely used in various designs of roller bits (see Maslennikov I.K., Matveev GI Tool for drilling wells. The Handbook. - M.: Nedra, 1981). The peculiarity of these drilling tools is the presence of a rotating milling cutters equipped with rock elements. The mobility of cones provides some elimination of the negative action of overturning moment (Mop) on the bit and drill string and, as a consequence, the curvature of the borehole, but this effect is insignificant and does not solve the problem of preventing the deformation of the borehole during drilling of anisotropic rocks. For example, if the action of overturning moment coincides with the direction of rotation of the individual cone, in this case, Mophas a very small influence on the cone in terms of its bias. If Mopacts along the axis of rotation of the milling cutter (when turning the bit around its longitudinal axis at some angle), this effect is maximum. Given that a roller can be fitted with different numbers of cones - 4, 3, 2 and 1, it is obvious that the smaller the number of bits in the bit, the lower vibrations of magnitude Mopand the smaller the size of the total Mopthe effect on the bit and beriln the th column.

Therefore the closest in terms of efficiency, from the point of view of the Troubleshooting steps Mopto the proposed technical solution is odnoskorostnoi bit.

Studies of the influence of Mopon the roller bit is made in the work which people could eat CENTURIES fracture Mechanics of anisotropic rocks during drilling direction. M., an Overview of JSC “Geoinformmark”, 1997, p.33. 12.

For the prototype accepted odnoskorostnoi the bit (see Maslennikov I.K., Matveev GI Tool for drilling wells. The Handbook. - M.: Nedra, 1981, p.22, Fig.6). The prototype includes a housing with thread and the inner flushing channel, and the matrix (the milling cutter) in the form of a sphere with the rock cutting elements placed on its outer surface. The matrix is made in the form of spheres with a diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the bit, which determines the diameter of formed during drilling of the wellbore. The rock matrix is installed on the axle, equipped with ball bearings, which allows the matrix to rotate around the axle. Pin when installed at an angle of 20-30 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the bit, which prevents the rotation of the spherical matrix in vertical and horizontal planes.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that it does not preclude action on the drilling tool during the drilling of anisotropic rocks, which is idiffuse moment caused by unequal largest vertical reactions of the breed on the introduction into it of rock cutting elements. The result is a distortion of the drilling tool, the bending of the drill string above it, and the curvature of the well.

The invention is aimed at reducing the curvature of the wells drilled in anisotropic rocks, by eliminating steps overturning moment caused by the inequality of the vertical reactions of the face in implementing and breed Portorosa elements.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the drilling tool, comprising a housing with a threaded and the inner flushing channel, and the matrix, contacting the inner surface of the trunnion and having an outer end spherical surface, equipped with rock elements, pin installed in the housing coaxial, outer end of the spherical surface of the matrix with the rock cutting elements are made with a diameter equal to the outside diameter of the drilling tool. The internal surface of the matrix and the outer surface of the trunnion is made spherical, the centers of which coincide with the outer face of the spherical surface of the matrix. For the connection matrix and the axle between the inner surface of the matrix and spherical trunnion in the recesses of the contact surface is she installed the bulbs, the deepening to accommodate balls made in the matrix, elongated in the vertical direction from the center of the ball at a distance

L=(R+r)tgΨ,

where R is the radius of the spherical outer surface of the trunnion, m; r is the radius of the ball, m; Ψ - the maximum possible angle of rotation matrix in the vertical plane, in degrees.

Distinctive features provide mobility of a connection matrix with the trunnion and the ability to rotate the matrix in any vertical plane at some angle Ψat the same time excluded the possibility of a rotation matrix around the axis of the stud.

All the essential, including distinctive features in the specified combination is not found in the known technical solutions, which implies the compliance of the claimed drilling tool the criteria of novelty and accordingly involves an inventive step. The latter is confirmed by the fact that implements a new feature - elimination steps overturning moment on the hull of the drilling tool during the drilling of anisotropic rocks, which in turn reduces the curvature of the wells.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 shows the proposed drilling tool in the form of bits;

figure 2 shows a section a-a in figure 1;

figure 3 shows the proposed drilling tool in the form of crowns;

figure 4 shows the section b-B figure 3;

figure 5 shows a diagram explaining the operation of the drilling tool during the drilling of anisotropic rocks;

figure 6 shows the scheme for calculating the dimensions of the recesses in the inner surface of the die under the ball.

The proposed drilling tool includes a housing 1 with thread 2 and the inner flushing channel 3. With the housing 1, by means of the spherical trunnion 4, are connected to matrix 5, are spherical. While the centers of the spheres of the trunnion 4 and the plates 5 are the same (point O). On the outer face of the spherical surface of the matrix 5 posted Portorosa elements 6. Between the housing 1 and the matrix 5 has an elastic protective seal 7. To transmit torque from the housing 1 to the matrix 5 in corresponding recesses in the inner surface of the die 5 and the outer surface of the trunnion mounted balls 8. The balls 8 are installed in the recesses 9 and 10, is made at the level of the centerline passing through the center of the spherical surface of the trunnion 4 and the matrix 5. Pin 4, matrix 5, the balls 8 and the recesses 9 and 10 respectively in the matrix 5 and the pin 4 form a hinged connection matrix 5 with the tool body 1, which ensures the transmission of torque to the matrix 5 and the possibility of its rotation in the vertical plane.

Enable rotation matrix 5 in the vertical plane is provided by the shape and size of the recesses 9 of the Recess 9 for placing the balls in the matrix 5 is elongated in the vertical direction from the center of the ball at distances

L=(R+r)tgΨ,

where R is the radius of the spherical outer surface of the axle 4, is equal to the radius of the inner spherical surface of the matrix 5; r is the radius of the ball 8 is placed in the recesses 9 and 10 between the matrix 5 and pin 4; Ψ - the maximum possible angle of rotation matrix 5 in the vertical plane, in degrees.

At the same time, the recesses 9 in the inner surface of the die 5 is made exactly equal in width to the diameter of the balls 8, which provides fixation of the matrix 5 relative to the axle 4 in a horizontal plane and eliminates the twisting matrix 5 relative to the trunnion 4. The recess 10 in size exactly matches the size set in a ball 8.

The inner flushing channel 3 has continued in the trunnion 4 and the matrix 5 with the output end of the drilling tool.

A similar construction is used as a bit for drilling without coring (Fig 1 and 2), and drilling crown (figure 3 and 4). The latter has widened the channel 3, which, along with the supply of cleaning agent ignores the core rocks formed during drilling.

As one of the variants of the drilling tool, you can perform recesses for accommodating the balls 8 in the trunnion 4. The deepening should be elongated in the vertical direction from the center of the ball at distances

L=(R-r)tgΨ,

where R is the radius of the spherical outer surface of the trunnion, m; - the radius of the ball, m; Ψ - the maximum possible angle of rotation matrix in the vertical plane, in degrees.

The proposed drilling tool works as follows.

During the drilling of anisotropic rocks, deposited layers at an angle to the axis of the drilling tool, Portorosa elements 6 matrix 5 under the action of axial loads embedded in the rock (figure 5) and forms a zone of deformation and fracture. Due to the fact that the hardness, elastic and plastic properties of rocks of different relative to the direction of lamination or sizes (see the work of CENTURIES which people could eat fracture Mechanics of anisotropic rocks during drilling direction. M., an Overview of JSC “Geoinformmark”, 1997, p.16-33, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10), under the rock cutting element 6 deformation area receives an asymmetric shape, and on the rock cutting element 6 influence equal to the vertical reaction of the breed, which determine the value of a single overturning moment Mop. Inequality as the vertical reactions of the breed is determined by the anisotropy of elastic, plastic and other properties of the rock. The amount of tilting moments acting on each of the contact with the rock rock cutting elements Mopdefines the value of the total aproched the living moment M opacting on the end face of the drilling tool.

When working prototype, whose edge rock cutting part has no vertical rotation, the effect of the total overturning moment Mopleads to distortion of the drilling tool and the bend upstream of the drill string that provides the curvature of the wellbore.

When we are drilling tool Mopcauses the rotation matrix 5 on angle Ψthat estimates of experimental and analytical work (see which people could eat CENTURIES fracture Mechanics of anisotropic rocks during drilling direction. M, JSC “Geoinformmark”, 1997, p.52, graphics in Fig.20) is a value ranging from 0.3 to 1 degree. In this case, since the matrix 5 of the drilling tool is made spherical, its rotation does not cause the transfer of overturning moment on above the drill string, and the drilling tool does not get skewed. Oriented towards the possible curvature distortion of the drilling tool in this case is impossible due to the fact that the rotation matrix 5 in the vertical plane occurs continuously as the rotation of the drilling tool at the bottom. Elastic seal 7 provides sealing swivel matrix 5 and the trunnion 4 and the elastic is reflexive effect on the matrix 5 as it is rotated in the vertical plane.

The form of a matrix 5 with a diameter equal to the outside diameter of the drilling tool, provides for the rotation angle Ψ the most important quality associated with the impact drilling tool on the curvature of the wells, which consists in the fact that there is no pressure on the borehole wall with a deflecting force equal to P·Ψwhere P is the axial force on the drilling tool, Dan. In this case, when the rotation of the spherical matrix 5 it strictly fits the dimensions of the bottom section of the well bore, eliminating the pressure matrix to the well wall and milling the borehole wall by the lateral arms of the tool, and hence the curvature of the wellbore.

The transmission of torque from the housing 1 to the matrix 5 is due to the presence of a swivel balls 8, posted with the coincidence of their axes with the centers of the spherical surface of the matrix 5 and pin 4 (point O). Rotation in the vertical plane of the matrix 5 is possible due to the swivel matrix 5 and pin 4, and the form of the recesses 9, which are made symmetrically elongated in directions from the centerline by a distance L (6) and have a width, strictly corresponding to the diameter of the ball 8.

The latter ensures the transmission of torque from the housing 1 and pin 4 to the matrix 5.

The distance L, which is extended in both with the parties from the centerline and the center of the ball 8 of the recess 9 (6), is determined from the dependencies

L=(R+r)tgΨ,

where Ψ - the maximum possible angle of rotation matrix 5 in the vertical plane, C; R - the radius of the spherical outer surface of the axle 4, is equal to the radius of the inner spherical surface of the matrix 5; m; r is the radius of the ball 8 is placed in the recesses 9 and 10 between the matrix 5 and pin 4, m

An example of a specific execution of the drilling tool.

For drilling anisotropic rocks can be used as a chisel (figure 1 and 2), and drill bits (3 and 4). The constructive dimensions of the components of these instruments are calculated based on the possible angle of rotation matrix 5 in the vertical plane should be 0.5-1 degree, while the diameter of the outer end of the spherical surface of the matrix 5 is equal to the outside diameter of the drilling tool.

The length L of the elongation of the recess 9 when R=20 mm r=5 mm and Ψ=1 degree will be: L=(20+5)tg1=0,43 mm, which sets the vertical size of the recess 9, is equal to the diameter of the ball 8 (10 mm) plus 2L (0,86 mm)=10,86 mm calculation corresponds to the diameter of the drilling tool (drill bit) 76 mm For a crown of the same outer diameter R can be equal to 30 mm, r=5 mm At Ψ=1 degree longitudinal dimension of the recess 9 may be of 11.2 mm, based on L=0.6 mm

Drilling tool, comprising a housing with a threaded and the inner flushing channel, and is also a matrix, contacting its inner surface with the axle and having an outer end spherical surface, equipped with rock elements, characterized in that the axle installed in the housing coaxial, outer end of the spherical surface of the matrix with the rock cutting elements are made with a diameter equal to the outside diameter of the drilling tool, the inner surface of the matrix and the outer surface of the trunnion is made spherical, the centers of which coincide with the outer face of the spherical surface of the die and between the inner surface of the matrix and spherical trunnion in the recesses of the contact surfaces set the balls and the grooves for the placement of the balls, made in the matrix, elongated in the vertical direction from the center of the ball at a distance of

L=(R+r)tgΨ,

where R is the radius of the spherical outer surface of the trunnion, m; r is the radius of the ball, m; Ψ - the maximum possible angle of rotation matrix in the vertical plane, in degrees.



 

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