Method of hardening tools by magnetic treatment

FIELD: mechanical engineering; increase of wear resistance of tools by magnetic treatment.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes circulating magnetizing by transmitting electrical pulses through tools; electrical pulses are supplied to tools through melt of low-melting alloy.

EFFECT: increase of wear resistance of tools by 0.8-1.2 times.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, and in particular to methods of improving the wear resistance of the magnetic treatment.

A known method of manufacture of the tool, as the USSR №468707, including its circulation magnetization pulsed magnetic field by passing current through a conductor placed near the instrument. Effect of the pulsed magnetic field in the metal tool changes patterns. Structural changes lead to increased wear and durability of the tool. For effective use of this method of hardening required for each tool to find experienced by the processing modes and parameters of the conductor.

There is also known a method of hardening tool, in which the magnetic treatment is carried out by circulation magnetization by passing through the instrument of pulses of electric current (Ito, Pontorno, Lowcock. Hardening of the cutting tool when exposed to a pulsed current. Supplement to the journal “Aviation industry”, No. 3, 1982, p.31). By passing a pulsed current directly through the instrument of its surface layer is subjected to intensive exposure to electric and magnetic fields. In the modified structure and substructure of metal swasanie with them utility tool properties: wear resistance, the heat resistance and strength. The disadvantage of this method is that during the passage of a strong pulse current at the contacts appear prizhogi surface, deteriorating the quality of the instrument. In addition, when the sparking distorted the shape of the current pulse, which also affects the efficiency of processing.

The closest in technical essence, adopted by the applicant for the prototype, is the way in which the magnetic treatment also carry out circulation magnetization, by passing through the instrument pulsed electric current (journal of mechanical engineering”, 2003, №1, p.29-33). To eliminate the negative effects of prizhogi at the site of contact, we offer a hardening of pulsed current to produce before sharpening.

The disadvantage of this proposal is that in the process of sharpening can also appear prizhogi surface and residual stresses from the impact of abrasives. Also this method does not eliminate the negative consequences of the distortion of the shape of the current pulse, deteriorating the efficiency of processing.

The invention solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of the hardening process and the quality of the tool by improving the switching of the electric current when a pulse effect.

The problem is solved as follows. In a way the hardening tool magnetic processing circulation magnetization, by passing electrical impulses through the instrument, the electrical pulses supplied to the tool through the molten low-melting metal. As the fusible metal is proposed to use alloys of wood.

The proposed method is illustrated by a drawing, which shows a diagram of a supply of electrical pulses to the processing tool.

The mounting portion of the tool 1 is fixed in the clamp 2, which is connected to the bus 3 low-voltage transformer 4, the other bus 5 of the transformer 4 is connected to a heated tank 6, which is a low-melting metal 7 in the molten state. The cutting part of the tool 1 is dipped into the molten metal 7 at a depth of not less than the value of the cross section of the tool. The transformer 4 is connected to the power supply system of the electric current through the apparatus 8 controls the supply of pulses. As the fusible material used alloys of wood having a low melting point, and they are in the molten state of the adsorption-active steel and is able to modify the dislocation surface.

The method is as follows. The tool 1 is fixed in the clamp 2, and drop the working portion into the container 6 with a pre-molten metal 7. Through the transformer 4 through the control equipment, the electrical pulses are served by buses 3, clamps , through the molten metal 7 in the vessel 6 to the tool 1. Since the molten metal has good contact, ionic-electronic communication and has better than a tool, conductivity, burns on the surface during the passage of the pulses is not formed. Passing through the material, prone to structural and phase transformations, what is the material of the tool - high speed tool steels and hard alloys, electric impulses and excited by their magnetic field acts primarily on the elements of the structure with clusters of dislocations, impurity atoms, point defects, vacancies and other defects. There is a rearrangement of the dislocation structure, which subsequently leads to structural changes associated with further precipitation-hardening. The interaction of the melt of the alloy of the wood with the surface metal layer of the tool increases the dislocation excitation in the surface layer, contributing to the hardening. To prevent weakening pulse energy (the amount of current, duration, number of pulses) is set so that no heating of the metal tool.

Experimental verification of instrument processed by the same modes of circulation magnetization showed:

- the presence of prizhogi on the surface of the tool while supplying the current is through solid conductors;

- no prizhogi on the surface of the tool while supplying the current through the molten metal;

- improving the wear resistance of 0.8-1.2 times, processed in the melt of the alloy of wood, compared to the prototype.

1. The method of hardening tool magnetic processing circulation magnetization by passing electrical impulses through the tool, characterized in that the electrical pulses supplied to the tool through the melt fusible metal.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the low-melting metal is used alloys of wood.



 

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