Reactor for direct synthesis of alkylchlorosilanes

FIELD: chemical industry; production of alkylchlorosilanes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with chemical industry and is used for realization of processes of synthesis in a fluidized layer. The reactor for direct synthesis of alkylchlorosilanes operating in a mode of fluidization of finely dispersed silicon and catalyst with promoters in the form of gaseous products consists of: a cylindrical body, a gas-distributive device and a heat-exchange device, an inlet and an outlet connection pipes. The cylindrical body of the reactor is made in the form of two coaxial cylinders forming a ring-type reaction zone, in the lower part of which is located a ring-type gas-distributing device, and on the external in relation to the reaction zone cylindrical surfaces there are jackets for delivery and withdrawal of heat. The given engineering solution provides a high selectivity of the process of production of alkylchlorosilanes.

EFFECT: the invention provides a high selectivity of the process of production of alkylchlorosilanes.

3cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the chemical industry and is used to implement the processes of synthesis in the fluidized bed, in particular for direct synthesis alkylchlorosilanes of powdered silicon metal and alkylchloride in the presence of promoters, and may be used for other processes associated with the fluidization of the dispersed material in large exothermic effects reactions.

Known reactor for direct synthesis organochlorosilanes, which is a vertical apparatus has a cylindrical shape, provided with a jacket coolant. See the applicable design to achieve low unit capacity of the reactor, since the coefficient of heat transfer from the fluidized bed is small, and a small surface of the device limit thermal load and, consequently, the performance of the reactor (SU 207214 A1, 01.01.1968).

To increase capacity of the device increases its cross section and place the heat exchange device within the reaction zone. Patent-protected vehicles (DE 2704975 A1, 24.08.1978; EN 2162735 C1, 10.02.2001; EN 2200057 C1, 10.03.2003; EN 2208477 C1, 20.07.2003) differ in the design of input reagents, the switchgear and deploying elements. Last somewhat similar and are often made in the form U t the UB. It is obvious that the temperature of the fluid as it moves through the pipes is increased, therefore, changes the temperature of the fluidized bed, i.e. the reaction mass, which leads to an undesirable decrease in the selectivity of the process. Thus, there is the unsolved problem of equalization of temperature with height of the device, reaching 5-10 meters.

The closest to the proposed solution to the technical essence and the achieved effect is the synthesis reactor organochlorosilanes consisting of a body of cylindrical shape and provided with a gas distribution device, jacket coolant and U-shaped tubes immersed in the fluidized bed substantially all of its depth (RU 2205683 C1, 10.06.2003). This design reduces the temperature gradient across the section of a fluidized bed, but not eliminates temperature change by its height, which reduces the selectivity of the process.

The task, which addressed this technical solution is to create a reactor of large capacity.

Technical result achieved in the implementation of this invention is to achieve high selectivity of the process in obtaining alkylchlorosilanes.

This technical result is achieved by a reactor for direct synthesis of alkyl silanov mode of fluidization of fine silicon and catalyst promoters gaseous products, consisting of a cylindrical body, gas distribution and heat transfer devices, input and output fittings, according to the invention, the casing is made in the form of two coaxial cylinders forming an annular reaction zone, in the lower part of which there is an annular gas distribution device external to the reaction zone of the cylindrical surfaces are shirts for supply and removal of heat.

In a preferred implementation of the device of the shirt is made in the form of a cylindrical casings, forming with the walls of the reaction zone annular ducts for supplying a cooling gas.

One or both coaxial cylindrical surface forming a reaction zone, can have a wavy profile.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a scheme of the synthesis reactor alkylchlorosilanes; figure 2 - the same, with air cooling.

The design of a reactor for direct synthesis alkylchlorosilanes in the fluidized bed consists of a body, including the outer cylindrical wall 1 and an inner cylindrical wall 2. The body is made of two coaxial cylinders forming an annular reaction zone 3, in the lower part of which there is an annular gas distribution device is made is in the form of a support-distributive lattices 4. On the external to the reaction zone 3 cylindrical surfaces are outer shirt 5 and 6 internal wall of the reaction zone for supply and removal of heat of reaction.

Depending on the requirements to be considered horizontally isothermal surface process shirts can be made multi-section when filled with fluid each partition.

1 shows a reactor with three shirts on both surfaces. Shirts can be made in the form of cylindrical casings (2) for feeding the cooling air from the environment. The use of air for cooling the reaction mass allows you to change its temperature in the soft mode, which greatly simplifies operation of the machine,

Cylinders, forming a reaction zone, both or one of them may have a wavy profile with a radius of curvature of the waves 5-10% of the radius of the cylinder, which increases the heat exchange surface and thereby improves heat removal.

The advantage of the proposed solution is to provide intense heat sink to maintain isothermal conditions in the reactor volume and thus in achieving high selectivity of the process. The reduction of the temperature gradient along the height of the reactor are provided by the organization “cross” supply SV is gego of the coolant in each separate section of the shirt (figure 1).

In the known structures to implement such techniques are not possible.

The apparatus operates as follows.

The dispersed material is silicon, copper and catalyst promoters in a predetermined ratio load through the top fitting 8 to the specified level, then served in the coolant jacket of the line 11 and the nitrogen through the nozzle 9 into the reaction zone.

After heating the layer to the working temperature in the reactor through the nozzle 9 introducing vaporous alkylchloride. The reaction products in vapor form is directed to the separation through the nozzle 7. On line 10 remove the carrier.

When using air cooling of the reactor (figure 2) heating of the apparatus to operating temperature realize otherwise. Initially in the reaction zone 3 serves hot nitrogen to heat the fluidized bed to operating temperature. Then into the reaction zone through the nozzle 9 enter alkylchloride, and in the space between the reactor walls and enclosures - air cooling. The reaction products in vapor form is directed through the nozzle 7 to the separation.

1. Reactor for direct synthesis alkylchlorosilanes mode of fluidization of fine silicon and catalyst promoters gaseous products consisting of a cylindrical body, gas distribution and heat transfer devices, input and output fittings, otlichuy is the, the casing is made in the form of two coaxial cylinders forming an annular reaction zone, in the lower part of which there is an annular gas distribution device external to the reaction zone of the cylindrical surfaces are shirts for supply and removal of heat.

2. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the shirt is made in the form of a cylindrical casings, forming with the walls of the reaction zone annular ducts for supplying a cooling gas.

3. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that one or both coaxial cylindrical surface forming a reaction zone, can have a wavy profile.



 

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FIELD: chemical industry; production of alkylchlorosilanes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with chemical industry and is used for realization of processes of synthesis in a fluidized layer. The reactor for direct synthesis of alkylchlorosilanes operating in a mode of fluidization of finely dispersed silicon and catalyst with promoters in the form of gaseous products consists of: a cylindrical body, a gas-distributive device and a heat-exchange device, an inlet and an outlet connection pipes. The cylindrical body of the reactor is made in the form of two coaxial cylinders forming a ring-type reaction zone, in the lower part of which is located a ring-type gas-distributing device, and on the external in relation to the reaction zone cylindrical surfaces there are jackets for delivery and withdrawal of heat. The given engineering solution provides a high selectivity of the process of production of alkylchlorosilanes.

EFFECT: the invention provides a high selectivity of the process of production of alkylchlorosilanes.

3cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: luminescent materials.

SUBSTANCE: nitride coating precursor, in particular aluminum-, gallium-, or tin-containing metalloorganic nitride, is charged into reaction vessel 10a filled with electroluminescent phosphor, e.g. ZuS-Cu, and surrounded by heating means 30a using nitrogen as inert gas carrier. Precursor is passed through pipeline 32 open all over its length. Co-reagent, e.g. anhydrous ammonia is fed into lower part of vessel 12a through porous glass disk 12a. When vessel 10a is heated to 150-225°C, nitride coating precipitates on phosphor particles being in fluidized state. Phosphor bearing nonoxide coating is characterized by high brightness after 100 h use at high humidity.

EFFECT: enabled large-scale manufacture of phosphors.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat exchange apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: rector comprises housing, heat exchanger, means for charging and discharging contact mass, supplying gas component, and discharging finished product, and gas distributor. The housing receives the pipe whose diameter is equal to 3.8-4.2 of the diameter of the housing from the gas distributor. The pipe is mounted coaxially inside the housing at a distance of 0.4-0.8 of the diameter of the housing. The ratio of the diameters of the housing to the coaxial pipe is equal to (4-5):1, respectively.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and simplified structure of the reactor.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemical or physical processes.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises cylindrical housing provided with an external heat exchanger and separator arranged at tits top part, units for charging contact mass and discharging exhaust contact mass, supplying gas component and discharging finished product, gas distributor, and built-in heat exchanger. The reactor is provided with outer circulation loop which has heat exchanger, pump, and ejector connected with the unit for supplying gas component. The separator is provided with a branch pipe for recirculation circuit. The built-in heat exchanger can be made at least of one heat pipe whose evaporation zone is located in the housing of the reactor and condensation zone is provided with a heat exchanging cooling chamber arranged out of the reactor above the top part of its housing. The built-in heat exchanger can be also made of two or more heat pipes interconnected through horizontal bridges.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heterogeneous gaseous phase reactions in a pseudo- fluidized layer.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to heterogeneous gaseous phase reactions in a fluidized layer with utilization of molecular oxygen or ammonia and a olefin. The method of the invention provides for a contact of at least one gaseous reactant and at least one liquid selected from a group including reactants, cooling liquids and their mixtures with utilization of a pseudo-fluidized layer of the catalyst. The liquid is fed into a reactor through at least one inlet opening disposed inside a zone of pseudo-fluidization, and the gaseous reactant is fed into the reactor through at least one inlet opening disposed in the zone of pseudo-fluidizing near to a supporting means. It is preferable, that one or several gaseous reactants are fed as an ingredient of a pseudo-fluidizing gas. The possible finish-products are acetic acid, a vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride. The apparatus to conduct the heterogeneous reactions in the pseudo-fluidized layer includes a mean, on which the pseudo-fluidized layer of the catalyst rests inside the zone of the pseudo-fluidization at least one inlet opening for feeding in the reactor of at least one gaseous reactant and at least one inlet opening for feeding in the reactor at least of one liquid. The technical result is upgrade of the method and the apparatus for realization of the heterogeneous gaseous reactions in a pseudo-fluidized layer, in which a gas and a liquid are fed into a catalyst layer.

EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the method and the apparatus for realization of the heterogeneous gaseous reactions in a pseudo-fluidized layer.

17 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and soda from reservoirs of 1 and 2 to reactor 3. Reaction mass thus obtained is delivered to double-screw mixer 6 communicated with drier 7. Part of dried granules is returned from drier 7 to mixer 6 and other part is directed to classifier 8; fraction at size of particles from 0.1 to 1.00 mm is directed from intermediate part of said classifier to storage reservoir 9 for target fraction granules. Then, granules are fed to vacuum drier in the scope of no more than 50% of its inner volume. Solution preparation unit 37 is used for preparation of aqueous solution of stabilizing agent- sodium, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, sodium silicate or their mixtures. Concentration of stabilizing agent solution is 5-15 mass-% and volume is 0.215-0.235 of volume of granules. Vacuum drier 11 and measuring reservoir 10 are evacuated simultaneously to residual pressure not exceeding 13.33 kPa. Granules are evacuated at heating to 55°C and are mixed with stabilizing agent solution first in vacuum followed by jumpwise rise of pressure to atmospheric level or to excessive pressure of 10 kPa; procedure is continued for 0.5-1.0 min. Then vacuum drying is performed at constant or periodic mixing. Moisture content of finished product doe not exceed 1.05% at stability of 59.93-65.74%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; reactor having a circulating fluidized layer and a system of selective catalytic reduction.

SUBSTANCE: the offered invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry. A combination of a device consisting of a reactor or a combustion chamber with a circulating fluidized layer and a selective catalytic reduction system contains the reactor chamber with a circulating fluidized layer, the primary solid particles separator, a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the primary solid particles separator to the reactor chamber, at least one surface of heat transfer of a vapor overheater or an intermediate vapor overheater, a system of the selective catalytic reduction, a dry scrubber located below on the production chain in respect to the system of the selective catalytic reduction and a means for introduction of ammonia in the flow of a smoke gas-solid particles. According to one of the offered versions the given device contains a multicyclone dust separator and a means for return of the solid particles trapped by the multicyclone dust separator to the reactor chamber. The given engineering solution ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.

EFFECT: the invention ensures low outbursts of nitrogen oxides at the minimum operational cost.

11 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices and methods for realization of the catalytic cracking processes in the fluidized layers.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the reaction chamber for catalytic cracking process in the fluidized layer and the method of realization of the catalytic cracking in the fluidized layer. The reaction chamber contains in its upper part a means for separation of the catalytic agent particles from the product of the diluted phase delivered through a vertical pipe of the reaction chamber. The means of the separation are connected by the fluid medium to the pressure branch pipe of the vertical pipe of the reaction chamber and also are connected by the fluid medium to the devices for withdrawal from the chamber of the purified product delivered through a vertical pipe of the reaction chamber and are connected by the fluid medium to the devices for withdrawal of the separated catalytic agent into the lower part of the chamber. The reaction chamber in its lower part contains the devices for withdrawal of the catalytic agent from it. Between a side wall of the reaction chamber and a means for separation of the catalytic agent there is a protective jacket placed so, that it forms an external space between the reaction chamber wall and the protective jacket and the internal space inside the protection jacket. The internal space is freely communicating with the lower part of the reaction chamber, and the external space and the internal space communicate to each other through a hole. The reaction chamber has the gears feeding into the chamber external space a gas with a small amount of materials, which may form a carbon deposit. The invention also offers two versions of the method of realization of the catalytic cracking in a fluidized layer with utilization of the indicated reaction chamber.

EFFECT: the presented reaction chamber ensures an effective separation of the catalytic agent particles from the product of the diluted phase and feeding into the chamber external space a gas with a small amount of materials, which may form a carbon deposit.

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18 cl, 8 tbl, 7 dwg

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