Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (modifications)

FIELD: heat power engineering, applicable in designing and production of heat exchangers with tube plates and in other branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the first modification, the shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a heat exchanger shell with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a lower pressure, it envelops the heat-exchanging tubes connected to the tube plate, distributor chamber separated by a partition into the inlet and outlet cavities and limited by the case with connection for delivery and discharge of the medium with a higher pressure, case cover and tube plate having a strengthening tie in the distributor chamber, the strengthening tie is made in the form of a stiffening tube fixed to the case cover of the distributor chamber and the tube plate. According to the second modification, the shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a heat exchanger shell with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a lower pressure, it envelops the heat-exchanging tubes connected to the tube plate, distributor chamber separated by a partition into the inlet and outlet cavities and limited by the case with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a higher pressure, case cover and tube plate having a strengthening tie in the distributor chamber, the strengthening tie is made in the form of a stiffening tube fixed to the case over of the distributor chamber and the tube plate, the strengthening tie in the form of a stiffening tube with the case cover and the tube plate has a through hole of a permanent or variable flow section. According to the third modification, the shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a heat exchanger shell with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a lower pressure, it envelops the heat-exchanging tubes connected to the tube plates, distributor chamber separated by a partition into the inlet and outlet cavities and limited by the case with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with higher pressure and the tube plates, in the distributor chamber the tube plates are fixed to one another by a strengthening tie in the form of stiffening rod. According to the fourth modification, the shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a heat-exchanger shell with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a lower or pressure, it envelops the heat-exchanging tubes connected to the tube plates, distributor chamber separated by a partition into the inlet and outlet cavities and limited by the case with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a higher pressure and the tube plates, in the distributor chamber the tube plates are fixed to one another by a strengthening tie in the form of stiffening tube. According to the fifth modification, the shell-and-tube heat exchanger has a heat-exchanger shell with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a lower pressure, it envelops the heat-exchanging tubes connected to the tube plates, distributor chamber separated by a partition into the inlet and outlet cavities and limited by the case with connections for delivery and discharge of the medium with a higher pressure and the tube plates, in the distributor chamber the tube plates are fixed to one another by a strengthening tie in the form of a stiffening tube, the strengthening tie in the form of a stiffening tube with tube plates has a through hole of a permanent or variable flow section.

EFFECT: idle time, enhanced utilization factor of the heat exchanger, as well as enhanced strength of the structure in static and especially dynamic modes of operation.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used in the design and creation of a shell-and-tube heat exchangers and tube sheets in other industries.

Known shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including a distribution chamber with input and exhaust the heated environment. Distributing chamber divided by a partition into input and output cavity and limited housing with hoses and flat tube sheet. Tubular grille has a large number of channels (holes) under heat-exchange tubes. For the tight connection of these tubes resultsbecause and/or welded to the tube sheet holes. Distributing chamber and tube sheets may be placed above, below or in the middle of the casing, and the heat exchanger can be vertical or horizontal [1 - "Heat exchangers, steam turbines. Directory 18-2-76. Createitems. M., 1978, page 57; 2 - "Heat exchangers, steam turbines. Part II. Directory 8-78. Createitems. M., 1978, page 137; 3 - Technical project PVD chamber for unit 1200 MW with tubes ⊘ 16×2.5 mm // Polanowski AL, maruskin V.M., Kulmukhametov TA, Antonov NM - Report No.-355. Uralte, Chelyabinsk, 1974; 4 - maruskin V.M., Ivashchenko S., Vakulenko B.F. Heaters high pressure steam turbine installation is to TPP and NPP. M, Atomenergomash. 1985; 5 - Vakulenko B.F., Zheleznyakov NI New design LDPE for NPP with VVER-1000 // power station. 1990, No. 7, 46-51; 6 - Transactions of the ASME. April 1994, 434-441; 7 - Vrbsky J. Condensers and feedwater heater surface type // Proceedings of 10-th Conference on Steam and Gas Turbine. 1994, 347-352; 8 - Vakulenko B.F. some new constructive solutions of essential components of HDPE and LDPE // Electric station, 1999, No. 6; 9 - Heaters low and high pressure. Information sheet. JSC JV "Podolsk machine-building plant". Podolsk, 1995; 10 - Kalimullin M.M. and other RF Patent №2169327, bull. No. 17 dated 20.06.2001].

The disadvantages of such analogs shell-and-tube heat exchangers with flat tube sheets are large thickness (for example, up to 500-800 mm in the high pressure heaters EDT turbines with a capacity of 500 MW and pressure of steam more than 24 MPa) and the weight of such tube sheets, the large depth of the holes with a small step of holes, a large amount of broken metal, sophisticated technology and the complexity of their manufacture.

Known shell-and-tube heat exchanger, comprising a distribution chamber with input and exhaust the heated environment. Distributing chamber divided by a partition into input and output cavity and limited housing with hoses and flat tube sheet. To reduce weight-pipe solutions is key in the heat exchanger applied strengthens the relationship between the grating and the removable cover of the camera in the form of a detachable connecting rods, which have threaded connection with the tube sheet. These rods pass through sealed holes in the lid and nuts tighten the cover with a lattice [1 - "Heat exchangers, steam turbines. Directory 18-2-76. Createitems. M., 1978, page 57].

A disadvantage of the known heat exchanger, taken as a prototype of the proposed options 1 and 2, is that the seal holes in the lid for the location zabolevaemos the end of strengthening the communication is unreliable when operated at high pressures, temperatures, thermal displacements and loads, especially significant in dynamic modes and larger dimensions of the heat exchanger. Therefore, strengthening the connection of the prototype are used, for example, heaters low pressure steam turbine units at pressures and temperatures of the environment in the distribution chambers to 4.0 MPa and 170°and when the diameter distribution of the camera up to 2200 mm

Another disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to use these links in permanent buildings distribution chambers with tube sheet and a cover or two tube sheets at the location of the camera in the middle of the heat exchanger. Therefore, the design of the prototype can be applied only in heat exchangers with split distribution chambers and removable lids, resulting in red is the need for more work on the repair of technological operations razbaltyvaniya strengthen ties the softening of their connection with the cover before each repair inside the distribution chamber and subsequent compaction and zabolevaniy links. These operations require high qualification of maintenance personnel.

Also known shell-and-tube heat exchanger, comprising a distribution chamber with input and exhaust the heated environment. Distributing chamber divided by a partition into input and output cavity and limited housing with hoses and flat tube sheet. To reduce the mass of the distribution chambers in the shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used, the location of this camera in the center of the heat exchanger, and the connection of two conventional flat tube sheets into a single distribution chamber is made through the wall of the camera housing with the nozzle inlet and outlet of the heated medium. The weight obtained by excluding the bottom of the camera, which is inevitable when the camera position at one edge of the heat exchanger ["Heat exchangers, steam turbines. Part II. Directory 8-78. Createitems. M., 1978, page 137].

The disadvantage of this known heat exchanger, taken as a prototype of the proposed options 3,4 and 5 are large thickness (for example, up to 500-800 mm in the high pressure heaters powerful supercritical turbines), the weight, the depth of the holes and the volume in sverlovenergo metal such tube sheets, sophisticated technology and the complexity of their manufacture.

The claimed design (option 1) can be used at pressures and temperatures of the environment in the distribution chambers in excess of 4.0 MPa and 170°until 45,0 MPa and 320°C, for example, in the high pressure heaters and heat exchangers, with more reliable all-in-one distribution chamber compared to the split. This strengthens the bond of the pipe stiffness is made as a unit with the distribution chamber, the number of connections can be reduced down to one, which reduces the unused hole of the tube surface of the tube, the desired diameter and thickness of the tube 5-10%. This design reduces thermal stresses in dynamic modes (starts, stops, resets loads and others). In addition, there is no need for additional work on the repair process operations connector and seal (as in split constructions strengthening ties), decreases the duration of the repair. This strengthens the relationship helps to ensure reliable control of the quality of a welded joint with the tube sheet and the cover body of the distribution chamber, and the cover of the distribution chamber and tubular bars may have any configuration (e.g., flat, e is opticheskuyu, spherical, toroidal). The above significantly improves reliability, reduces downtime, increases the utilization of the heat exchanger.

The claimed design (option 2) has a stabilizing connection with a through hole of constant or variable cross-section in it. This strengthens the connection can perform the function of pipe and pipe inlet and outlet environment with less pressure. This scheme allows to compose the elements of the distribution chamber and the scheme allows to compose the elements of the distribution chamber and heat exchanger. In addition, the presence of through-holes in the bracing connection provides increased structural strength in static and especially dynamic modes thermostress work.

The claimed design (option 3) with the location of the distribution chamber between the casings has a stabilizing connection between the tube sheets in the form of a rod rigidity, which is made as a unit with the distribution chamber, allows to use it at pressures and temperatures of the heated medium in the distribution chambers in excess of 4.0 MPa and 170°C until 45,0 MPa and 320°C, for example in the high pressure heaters.

The claimed structure (option 4) with the location of the distribution chamber between the casings and the strengthening communication IU the control tube sheets in the form of a pipe stiffness, which is made as a unit with the distribution chamber, allows to use it at pressures and temperatures of the heated medium in the distribution chambers in excess of 4.0 MPa and 170°C until 45,0 MPa and 320°C, for example in the high pressure heaters. Distributing chamber with a pipe stiffness has a lower complexity and higher quality pipe joint stiffness and tube sheets, and the connection will be less thermostress in dynamic modes.

The claimed design (option 5) with the location of the distribution chamber between the casings has a stabilizing connection between the tube sheets in the form of a pipe stiffness with a through hole of constant or variable cross-section in it. This strengthens the relationship may function as a pipe for flow and pressure-balancing environments less pressure between the annular spaces of both covers. This scheme allows to compose the elements of the distribution chamber and heat exchanger. A through hole in the strengthening of communication makes it possible to provide a reliable control of the quality of a welded joint with the tube sheet and the cover body of the distribution chamber. In addition, the presence of through-holes in the bracing connection provides increased structural strength in static and especially dynamic dir is the Mach thermostress works.

Proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 1), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grid, the distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure, cover and tube sheet having a stabilizing link in the distribution chamber. This strengthens the connection is made in the form of a pipe stiffness connected narashima with cover distribution chamber and tube sheet.

Proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 2), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grid, the distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure, cover and tube sheet having a stabilizing link in the distribution chamber. This strengthens the connection is made in the form of a pipe stiffness connected narashima with cover distribution chambers and tube sheet, and strengthens the bond pipe stiffness with cover and TRU is Noah grating has a through hole constant or variable orifice.

Proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 3), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure and tube sheets. When this distribution in the camera tube are connected narashima strengthening the relationship in the form of a rod stiffness.

Proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 4), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure and tube sheets. When this distribution in the camera tube are connected narashima strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness.

Proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 5), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber, R is sdelannuyu partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure and tube sheets. When this distribution in the camera tube are connected narashima strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness, and strengthens the bond of pipe stiffness and tube sheets has a through hole constant or variable orifice.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, showing:

Fig. 1 - shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 1) vertical type with one tube sheet and elliptic cover distribution chamber located at the bottom of the heat exchanger, and strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness;

Fig. 2 - shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 2) vertical type with one tube sheet and flat cover distribution chamber located at the bottom of the heat exchanger, and strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness with a through hole;

Fig. 3 - shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 3) horizontal type with two tube sheets distribution chamber located in the middle of the heat exchanger, and strengthening communication in the form of a rod stiffness;

Fig. 4 - shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 4) horizontal type with two tube sheets distribution chamber located in the middle of the heat exchanger, and strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness;

Fig. 5 - shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 5) horizontal the IPA with two tube sheets of the distribution chamber, located in the middle of the heat exchanger, and strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness with a through hole.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 1) includes a casing 1 of a heat exchanger with pipes inlet 2 and outlet 3 environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes 4, is attached to the tube sheet holes 5, the distribution chamber 6 separated by a partition 7 to input 8 and output 9 of the cavity and limited housing 10 with the nozzle inlet 11 and outlet 12 environment with high pressure, the cover 13 of the housing 10 and tube sheet 5, having a stabilizing link 14 in a distribution chamber 6. This strengthens the link 14 is in the form of a pipe stiffness 15 connected narashima with cover 13 of the housing 10 of the distribution chamber 6 and tube sheet 5.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 2) includes a casing 1 of a heat exchanger with pipes inlet 2 and outlet 3 environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes 4, is attached to the tube sheet holes 5, the distribution chamber 6 separated by a partition 7 to input 8 and output 9 of the cavity and limited housing 10 with the nozzle inlet 11 and outlet 12 environment with high pressure, the cover 13 of the housing 10 and tube sheet 5, having a stabilizing link 14 in a distribution chamber 6. This strengthens the link 14 is in the form of a pipe stiffness 15, which is connected closely the roadways with the cover 13 of the housing 10 of the distribution chamber 6 and tube sheet 5, moreover, strengthening the link 14 in the form of a pipe stiffness 15 with the cover 13 of the housing 10 and the tube plate 5 has a through hole 16 a constant or variable orifice.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 3) includes a heat exchanger casing 1 with the nozzle inlet 2 and outlet 3 environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes 4, is attached to the tube grids 5, the distribution chamber 6 separated by a partition 7 to input 8 and output 9 of the cavity and limited housing 10 with the nozzle inlet 11 and outlet 12 environment with high pressure and tube sheets 5. In the distribution chamber 6 of the tube 5 are connected narashima strengthening the link 14 in the form of a rod stiffeners 17.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 4) includes a heat exchanger casing 1 with the nozzle inlet 2 and outlet 3 environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes 4, is attached to the tube grids 5, the distribution chamber 6 separated by a partition 7 to input 8 and output 9 of the cavity and limited housing 10 with the nozzle inlet 11 and outlet 12 environment with high pressure and tube sheets 5. In the distribution chamber 6 of the tube 5 are connected narashima strengthening the link 14 in the form of a pipe stiffness 15.

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 5) includes leather is x heat exchanger 1 with the nozzle inlet 2 and outlet 3 environment with less pressure covering the heat-exchange tubes 4, is attached to the tube grids 5, the distribution chamber 6 separated by a partition 7 to input 8 and output 9 of the cavity and limited housing 10 with the nozzle inlet 11 and outlet 12 environment with high pressure and tube sheets 5. In the distribution chamber 6 of the tube 5 are connected narashima strengthening the link 14 in the form of a pipe stiffness 15, and strengthens the connection 14 in the form of a pipe stiffness 15 and tube sheets 5 has a through hole 16 a constant or variable orifice.

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers for options 1-5 are as follows.

In the heat exchanger according to the variant 1 Wednesday with high pressure is fed into the input cavity 8 of the distribution chamber 6 through the supply pipe 11, where through the channels in the pipe grate 5 is distributed over the heat exchange tubes 4, which is connected to the output cavity 9 and is discharged from it through the exhaust pipe 12. Surrounding the tube 4 from the outside environment less pressure enters the annulus of the casing 1 through the pipe 2 and extends from the housing 1 through the pipe 3.

In the heat exchanger according to option 2 principle of operation is similar to option 1. The difference lies in the fact that the environment is less pressure from the annulus of the casing 1 extends through the hole 16 and the pipe stiffness 15 of the criminal code of aplause connection 14 and is discharged from the heat exchanger through the outlet nozzle 3, which is both a continuation of the pipe stiffness 15 firming connection 14.

In the heat exchanger according to option 3 principle of operation is similar to option 1. The difference lies in the fact that the environment is with great pressure from the input cavity 8 of the distribution chamber 6 through the channels in the two tube plates 5 are distributed in parallel to two bundles of heat exchange tubes 4, whence it falls into the output cavity 9. Environment less pressure through the nozzles of the input 2 is supplied in parallel to both the annulus of the two housings 1, washes the outside of the tube 4 and out of enclosures 1 through the nozzle outlet 3.

In the heat exchanger for option 4 principle of operation is completely the same as option 3, as different designs strengthen ties 14 in the form of a rod stiffeners 17 and pipe stiffness 15 does not define the principle of operation of heat exchangers for options 3 and 4.

In the heat exchanger for option 5 principle of operation is similar to option 3. The difference lies in the fact that through the hole 16 and the pipe stiffness 15 firming connection 14 flows are made the environment less pressure between the annular spaces of the casings 1 to equalize the pressure and flow of this medium in the casing 1.

1. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 1), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat exchanger trunk is, attached to the tube grid, the distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure, cover and tube sheet having a stabilizing link in the distribution chamber, characterized in that strengthens the connection is made in the form of a pipe stiffness connected narashima with cover distribution chamber and tube sheet.

2. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 2), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grid, the distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure, cover and tube sheet having a stabilizing link in the distribution chamber, characterized in that strengthens the connection is made in the form of a pipe stiffness connected narashima with cover distribution chambers and tube sheet, and strengthens the bond pipe rigidity of the cover and tube the lattice has a through hole constant or variable orifice.

3. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 3), comprising a casing taproom is nice with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure and tube sheets, characterized in that the distribution chamber tube connected narashima strengthening the relationship in the form of a rod stiffness.

4. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 4), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection with high pressure and tube sheets, characterized in that the distribution chamber tube connected narashima strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness.

5. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (option 5), including the casing of the heat exchanger with pipes for supplying and discharging the environment with less pressure, covering the heat-exchange tubes connected to the tube grids, distribution chamber separated by a partition on the input and output cavities and limited housing with a nozzle inlet and outlet environment with a large davlenie tube sheets, characterized in that the distribution chamber tube connected narashima strengthening communication in the form of a pipe stiffness, and strengthens the bond of pipe stiffness and tube sheets has a through hole constant or variable orifice.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, inner pipe is fitted into outer pipe after shape-treatment of at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe, and after fitting inner pipe outer pipe, inner pipe is expanded to bring outer surface of inner pipe in tight contact with inner surface of outer pipe, and shape-treatment of surface forms at least one channel to reveal leakage between two pipes. Before fitting in pipes at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe is coated with layer of solder, for instance, tin, and inner pipe is expanded so that outer pipe also expands, and solder layer between inner and outer pipes is melted. Outer pipe is expanded so that melted layer of solder is forced out from space between inner and outer pipe at least intone channel to reveal leakage. Such heat exchange pipe contains assembly unit consisting of outer pipe and inner pipe fitted at tight contact in between and at least one channel to reveal leakage passing in contact surface and near the surface between inner and outer pipes. Thin film-like layer of solar material, such as tin, is provided in place of contact between inner and outer pipes which, owing to melting, connects with inner pipe and outer pipe, inner and outer pipes adjoining with displacement. Invention makes it possible to increase heat transfer to value equal to or practically equal to that of solid heat exchange pipe and channel to reveal leakage remains free from filling medium, thus providing accurate and reliable revealing of leakage.

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FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, inner pipe is fitted into outer pipe after shape-treatment of at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe, and after fitting inner pipe outer pipe, inner pipe is expanded to bring outer surface of inner pipe in tight contact with inner surface of outer pipe, and shape-treatment of surface forms at least one channel to reveal leakage between two pipes. Before fitting in pipes at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe is coated with layer of solder, for instance, tin, and inner pipe is expanded so that outer pipe also expands, and solder layer between inner and outer pipes is melted. Outer pipe is expanded so that melted layer of solder is forced out from space between inner and outer pipe at least intone channel to reveal leakage. Such heat exchange pipe contains assembly unit consisting of outer pipe and inner pipe fitted at tight contact in between and at least one channel to reveal leakage passing in contact surface and near the surface between inner and outer pipes. Thin film-like layer of solar material, such as tin, is provided in place of contact between inner and outer pipes which, owing to melting, connects with inner pipe and outer pipe, inner and outer pipes adjoining with displacement. Invention makes it possible to increase heat transfer to value equal to or practically equal to that of solid heat exchange pipe and channel to reveal leakage remains free from filling medium, thus providing accurate and reliable revealing of leakage.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

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FIELD: heat power engineering, applicable in designing and production of heat exchangers with tube plates and in other branches of industry.

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