Method for heat strengthening of reinforcement, plant for performing the method and cooling apparatus

FIELD: ferrous metallurgy, namely heat strengthening of reinforcement of carbon and low-alloy steel, mainly of reinforced-concrete sleepers.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of heating moving reinforcement at least in one inductor until temperature exceeding austenization temperature by value up to 300 C; heating reinforcement until termination of austenite conversion before introducing it in flow of cooling fluid; intensified cooling successively in air flow, water flow, water-steam mixture flow for super-cooling reinforcement until temperature of beginning martensite conversion and preferably lower than 100 C. Plant for performing the method includes two inductors for heating before quenching; pairs of drive rollers arranged in front of first inductor, between inductors and after last inductor; apparatus for intensified successive cooling of reinforcement by means of air, water and water-steam mixture in nozzle unit placed inside quenching reservoir; inductor for tempering and straightening apparatus.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat strengthening process, significantly improved mechanical properties of reinforcement.

10 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular to thermal hardening rods reinforcement of carbon and low alloy steel, and can be used in thermal hardening steel.

The known method for continuous heat treatment of wire made from carbon and low-alloy steels, in which the wire moving with a speed of 5 m/min, heated in a continuous muffle furnace to a temperature of austenization are determined, cooled in a bath of molten salt at a temperature of 250-300° C for 15-25, then cooled stream of air to 140-160° With, then with water to a temperature not higher than 80° C, followed by tempering at 400-540° C for 1-3 minutes [1].

The disadvantage of this method is low productivity due to the duration of exposure as when cooled in a bath at a temperature of 250-300° and tempering at a temperature of 400-500° C.

Also known is a method of thermal processing hot-rolled rod or wire having the following components in wt.%: carbon 0,30-0,80; silicon 0,20-0,50; manganese 0,30-0,80; chrome 0-0,80; copper 0-0,50; vanadium 0-0,15; niobium 0-0,06; titanium and boron or Nickel not more than 0.80 separately or in combination, iron and impurities - the rest, including quenching when the cooling water temperature 860-1060° With, at which martensitic transformation p is riverine zone of the rod, and then tempering at a temperature of 300-500° during the period of time from 1 to 6 depending on the diameter of the rod [2].

The disadvantage of this method that achieves the ultimate tensile strength of not more than 1300 MPa, and the energy intensity of not more than 123,6 MJ/m3. The closest to the essential features is the method of thermal hardening rod in its movement, comprising heating the coil to a temperature of austenization are determined and restraint, intense cooling of the first air / water mixture, and then water in the chamber rapid cooling, then heating the second inductor to the final heat treatment [3]. The disadvantage of this method is that the poor performance is due to its versatility, providing for not only quenching and tempering, but also drawing and annealing at low speed movement of the rod.

The closest analogue to the invention, the installation for implementing the method of thermal hardening of the valve is a device for processing a calibrated steel [3], including straightening and feeding device, the push, the inductor heating for austenization are determined steel, cooling, induction heating to leave and receiving U.

A disadvantage of the known installation is that it does not provide high performance, as necessary provide the food at a temperature of austenization are determined is provided by the low speed of the pulling rod. Installation is not suitable for thermal hardening of the measuring rods, as it is not provided for limiting the radial displacement of the rod due to elongation when heated in the inductor and distortion during cooling. In the description of the installation is not disclosed to the device cooling design features which would allow intensive cooling of the valve without significant leakage of coolant or water.

A device for cooling the valve pressurized water when its thermal hardening, consisting of a body with a Central hole for moving and cooled therein of the rod and the ring cavity, extending to the Central opening, and with a pipe for supplying water, attached to a ring cavity [4].

A disadvantage of the known device in that it cooling heated to 1000° With rod water pressure occurs at high speed, up to 300°/sec. rod fittings, heated in an induction furnace to a temperature exceeding the temperature of austenization are determined, at such a high cooling rate for the formation of a martensitic structure in the surface layer may have cracks, which is unacceptable.

It is also known a cooling device for cooling the air / water mixture moving valve rod, heated to 950-050° C. the Device consists of a housing with a Central hole for moving the rod and the first annular cavity filled with water, which merges into a conical cavity into which air is supplied under pressure from the second annular cavity [5].

The first disadvantage of this device is the lack of capacity to collect water and protection from the expiry of the period along the armature. The second disadvantage is the possibility of cracking during cooling of the surface of the rod is heated in the coil to a temperature of 1150° C.

Closest to the proposed invention is a device for heat treatment of long items, consisting of hardening capacity, in opposite side walls which are holes for the passage of rods valve with cooling unit in the form of a manifold located inside the hardening capacity [6].

The disadvantage of this device is that the cooling rate of the moving rod depends on the temperature of the cooling medium, the heat from which is given slowly with cooling to its collector. With this design, the cooling rate can be changed in a very narrow range, in addition, rapid heat dissipation and intensive cooling is difficult due to the vaporization around the rod and lack of quick removal of steam.

In the invention the technical problem with the Denmark method of thermal hardening of the valve, installation for implementing the method and device cooling for high efficiency process valves from carbon and low alloy steel, high tensile strength steel tensile, and elongation and specific energy consumption.

The first task is solved in such a way that during the movement of the valve rod carry out heating at least one inductor to the temperature exceeding the temperature of austenization are determined (AC3) by up to 300° C, heating to complete austenite transformation before entering into the flow of the cooling medium, consistent cooling streams of air, water and water-air mixture to a temperature below 100° and the final heat treatment - tempering by heating the coil to a temperature 390-600° C. High performance with high strength properties of the valve is achieved when the duration of its heat in the inductor above the temperature of austenization are determined (AC3) 1,2-6,0 with depending on the diameter of the rod and the speed of its movement, and when the ratio of the durations of heating, heating, cooling and heat in the inductor for a vacation as (1-4):2:3:1.

One of the distinguishing features of the proposed method that reinforce fittings made of steel in the following ratio com is onenew in wt.%: carbon 0.4 to 0.8; silicon 0,17-2,8; manganese 0.5 to 1.0; chrome 0,2-1,2; Nickel to 1.7; copper up to 0.3; tungsten to 1.2; vanadium to 0.2; aluminum, up to 0.05; calcium to 0.005; to 0.005 boron, iron and impurities - the rest.

During thermal hardening of the reinforcement of these steels proposed method are banana-martensitic structure with a limit of tensile strength not less than 1500 MPa with a relative elongation to break of not less than 0.06 and the value of specific energy consumption, equal to

σin·δ5=90-180 MJ/m3,

where σin- ultimate tensile strength, MPa σin=500-1600 MPa;

δ5-elongation before breaking, δ5=0,06-0,12.

Speed intensive cooling regulate the change of the flow of air and water and the speed of movement of the bars.

Distinctive features of the process according to the invention are: heat in the inductor until the surface temperature of the rod is greater than the temperature of the end of austenization are determined (AC3) by an amount up to 300° during 1,2-6 (with known methods [1, 2] heating at 40-180° exceeding the temperature AndC3); the heating of the rod cross section prior to entry into the flow of the cooling medium provided by high temperature differences in the surface and Central parts of the rod. (If known how warming may not be provided, since when n is large temperature difference in the cross section of the rod, it may be cooling over the whole cross section after exiting the inductor; intensive sequential cooling streams of air, water, water-air mixture, providing education Benito-martensitic structure of the rod and high values of mechanical properties at high performance.

The second technical challenge is the creation of an installation for the implementation of the proposed method of thermal hardening, provides high-speed movement of rods through the heat treatment device, intensive heating to a temperature exceeding the temperature of the austenitic transformation (AC3) by an amount up to 300° With intensive cooling for the formation of a martensitic steel structure with a minimum of residual austenite and intensive heating to a temperature of vacation 390-600° providing banana-martensitic steel structure consisting of martensite tempering and ferritic-carbide mixture. Distinctive features of the proposed installation, the following: the induction heating device includes at least two inductors with pairs of drive rollers located before the first inductor between the inductors and after the last along the rod inductor, before the inductor vacation and after him; an intensive cooling of the rod valve air, water and water-air mixture located between the device inductive load, the VA and the inductor vacation.

The third technical objective is to create in the installation of devices intensive cooling of the moving rod from the heating temperature in the coil to a temperature below the temperature of the beginning of martensitic transformation of carbon and low-alloy reinforcing steel containing 0.4 to 0.8 wt.% of carbon.

The problem is solved in the invention device serial intensive cooling air, water and the air / water mixture from hardening containers with holes in the side walls to promote valves and unit injectors, located along the axis connecting the centers of the holes in the side walls consisting of the first air nozzle located near the left side wall, at least one water nozzle located behind the air nozzle and the air / water nozzle located at a water injector. To prevent discharge of water from the air / water nozzle through the hole in the right side wall of the quenching tank near the right wall can be additional air nozzle.

The hallmark of the proposed device for cooling the valve is the presence of a block of air, water, and air nozzles arranged in series along the axis connecting the centers of the holes in the side walls hardening capacity.

Pricing the causal link between performance and distinctive features of the proposed invention is as follows. Performance thermal hardening of the bars of reinforcement depends on the speed of their movement in the machine

P≈ υ , m/s,

where P is performance,

υ - the speed of movement of the rod, m/s,

where L is the length of the installation, m,

t - the duration of the processing bar install, C.

With a high speed of movement of the rod to reduce the length of the heating and cooling devices need to accelerate the process of austenization are determined by heating the martensite transformation during cooling, the transformation of unstable martensitic steel structure and residual austenite in a more sustainable banana-martensitic structure while maintaining the elastic properties of steel. This is achieved by intensive induction heating rod for 1.2-6 to a temperature exceeding the temperature AndC3an amount up to 300° C, fast cooling 2.3-10 with air, water and water-air mixture and tempering at a temperature 390-600° for 1.2-6 that provides high quality fittings with high efficiency of the installation.

Figure 1 shows the General layout of an installation for implementing the method of thermal hardening of the valve, figure 2 - design of the device for cooling the valve, figure 3 - design nozzle.

The installation consists of consecutive (1) of the roller conveyor 1, the clamping device 2, the induction heating device 3 with the inductors 4 and pairs of drive rollers 5, are placed before the first inductor heating, between the inductors and the last inducer, significantly limiting the sagging of the heated rod; a cooling device 6, the inductor vacation 7 with two pairs of drive rollers, the correct device 8, scissors 9 and skladanowski device 10. The cooling unit 6 is composed (figure 2) hardening of the tank 11 with holes 12 in the left and right side walls 13 and 14, block 15 of nozzles located along the axis passing through the centers of the holes 12, consisting of air nozzles 16 and 17, one of which is located near the left wall 13, and the other near the right wall 14, the water nozzles 18 and the air / water nozzle 19, is composed of a water pipe 20 and attached to the ends of the air nozzles. Each nozzle (figure 3) consists of a body 21 with a Central hole 22 for moving and cooled in the injector rod 23, a sleeve 24 with a Central hole 25, in alignment with the hole 22. The body 21 of each nozzle is fixed in the quenching tank and has a pipe 26 with the inlet hose 27. The speed control to the expiration of the cooling medium is carried out by rotation of the sleeve 24 in the housing 21.

The device operates as follows (figure 1). With the roller 1 rod served in t is causee device 2, captured drive rollers 5 of the induction heating device 3 and includes a first inductor 4, which is heated when the moving speed is selectable from the range 0.1-0.5 m/s and infinitely adjustable, and the following inductors warms up all the cross section of the rod to a temperature exceeding the temperature of austenization are determined (AC3). Depending on the speed of the rod and its diameter include 1, 2 or 3 of the inductor. The higher the speed and the diameter of the rod, the greater the number of inductors include. At the entrance to the block 15 of the nozzles of the cooling device 6 (2) of the first rod is cooled by air in the nozzle 16 with a small speed required to cool the finned surface without excessive stress, and then in water nozzles 18 is cooled at high speed to the temperature of the surface of the rod, the smaller 100° required for cooling of austenite. After exiting the water spray is an intensive martensitic transformation, followed by cooling the air / water mixture in the nozzle 19. Cooling water-air mixture avoids excessive internal stresses in the martensitic structure of steel. In the inductor 7 is the holidays are upon heating the rod to 390-600° education Benito-martensitic structure with martensite vacation. When you exit, and is the fountain roller 7 rod cools the air within 2-10 with up to a temperature not higher than 200° With and subjected to the edit in the correct device 8, and then, if necessary, is cut by the scissors 9-to-length blanks that come in sladerous apparatus for forming packages for shipment.

The creation and testing of thermal hardening of the valve with the above-described cooling device that implements the proposed method proved its high performance and quality reinforcement for concrete products, including railway sleepers. Technical characteristics of established and proven installation are shown in table 1. The results of the tests of valves made from carbon and low-alloy steels (table 2), are shown in table 3.

From the test results it follows that the valve, thermally hardened proposed method outperforms the achieved limit of tensile strength and specific energy fittings, made known method [2], and achieved specific energy consumption exceeds the high-strength valve, manufactured by known methods [1, 7]. The performance of the method implemented on the installation according to the invention is superior in 2-3 times achieved in a known manner [1].

In comparison with valves, heat-strengthened with rolling heating [4], valves, fabricated by the proposed method, from ICUMSA high stability of mechanical properties along the length of the rod, and various bars in the party.

Sources of information

1. A.S. No. 1296610, 27.05.85.

2. EP 0260717 B1, 19.09.86.

3. EN 2070582 C1, 25.11.92.

4. EN 2149906 C1, 27.01.99.

5. EP 0132249 B1, 18.07.83.

6. EN 2009216 C1, 14.04.92.

7. EP 0761825 A2, 24.08.95.

Table 1
Technical characteristics of the installation
No. p.pName parameters hardened rods and installationThe value of the parameterUnit
1Material rods - structural carbon and low-alloy steel  
2The dimensions of the heated rods are round, square or hexagonal cross-sections:  
 length2-4m
 round, diameter10-20mm
 square (square side)9-18mm
 hex (the diameter of the circumcircle)  
3Temperature (max)1250° C
4The speed of movement of rods through heater0,1-0,5m/s
5The number of inductors:  
 for heating for hardening3pieces
 to leave1pieces
6Current frequency8000Hz
7The power Converter stations:  
 network 8000 Hz1000kW
 network 50 Hz1600kW
8Water consumption for cooling setup122m3per hour
9The water pressure200-300kPa
10Compressed air consumption2,5m3per hour
11Air pressure400-600kPa
12Dimensions: length11,34m
 width5,2m
 h is the 1,4m

Table 2
The chemical composition of tested steels
No.MarkContent in wt.%
  MnSiCrNiCuWVAlCaBPS
1-0,400,52,81,21,70,3-0,20,050,0050,0050,0140,022
2SA0,550,611,720,200,090,1-----0,0150,021
3SA0,580,831,500,220,140,18-----0,0240,025
4SF0,59/td> 0,601,61,20,20,2-0,2---0,0210,024
5NA0,580,701,80,91,70,18-----0,0210,023
6SV0,630,902,00,20,25-1,2----0,0170,022
7SA0,720,802,40,30,250,2-----0,0180,021
8-0,800,800,30,250,240,180,8----0,0230,024
The carbon content outside the declared
9850,840,8 0,360,250,230,19-----0,0150,025
Prototype method: cooling water-air mixture and water
10SA0,540,701,660,190,130,14-----0,0180,024

Table 3
The mechanical properties of the tested steels
No. Mechanical properties 
 σin, MPaσt,MPaδ10, %HRC
1185016209,044
2152014508,045
3153814468,045
4159715088,546
5Values at the Eden for 3 samples cut from different sections of the rod length
 151514508,042
 152214437,043
 151614527,043
615881290to 12.042
7156914957,546
8162015446,047
9Cracks on the surface of the rod valve
10Cracks on the surface of the rod valve

1. The method of thermal hardening of the reinforcement of carbon and low-alloy steel, including continuous movement of the valve, heating at least one inductor to a temperature above the temperature of austenization are determined, warming up prior to the completion of the austenitic transformation, the cooling flow cooler, vacation with the heating coil and the cooling after the holidays, characterized in that the heating is conducted to a temperature higher than the temperature of complete austenization are determined, by an amount up to 300° C, heating is carried out at constant motion ARMA is URS to enter the flow of the cooler, then carry out cooling in sequence, air flow, water, water-air mixture to a temperature below 100° and tempering is carried out at a temperature of 390-600° C.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the duration of heating of the valve above the temperature of austenization are determined is in the range of 1.2 to 6, depending on the cross-sectional area of reinforcement, and the duration of heating above the temperature of austenization are determined, warm, intense cooling and heating when you leave correlated as (1-4):2:3:1.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that reinforce the armature of steel containing the following components in wt.%: carbon 0.4 to 0.8; si 0,17-2,8; manganese 0.5 to 1.0; chrome 0,2-1,2; Nickel to 1.7; copper up to 0.3; tungsten to 1.2; vanadium to 0.2; aluminum, up to 0.05; calcium to 0.005; to 0.005 boron, iron and impurities - the rest.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the structure of thermally-hardened steel is bainite-martensite.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that thermally-hardened steel has an ultimate tensile strength not less than 1500 MPa.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that thermally-hardened steel has a tensile elongation of not less than 0.06 and energy intensity

σin·δ5=90-180 MJ/m3,

where σin- tensile strength tensile reinforcement, MPa;

δ5- elongation after rupture.

7. Installation for thermal hardening of the reinforcement of carbon and low alloy steel consisting of the correct device, the clamping device with pairs of rollers actuators, site induction heating device for cooling the valve, inductor leave and receiving schlagermusik device, characterized in that the site of induction heating has at least one additional inductor with additional pairs of drive rollers located in front of each inductor, the inductor vacation has the two pairs of rollers located in front of the inductor and for him, and the correct device is located between the inductor leave and receiving schlagermusik device.

8. Device for cooling the valve, consisting of a quenching tank, opposite side walls which are holes for the promotion of the valve, and a cooling unit placed in the hardening tank, characterized in that the cooling unit consists of air, water, and air nozzles located in the quenching capacitance in series and coaxially with the holes in the side walls.



 

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