Method of and device to control operation of load-lifting crane

FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.

EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

This solution relates to the field of management with cranes. A technical solution has a wide range of applications in hoisting-and-transport machines, having suspended on ropes lifting body.

A device to control the refueling machine that contains remote control unit motor control connected to the control unit of the braking torque of the motor, the power damping connected to the position sensors of the mechanisms of the machine and the block set programs [1].

A device to control the refueling machine that contains remote control unit motor control connected to the control unit of the braking torque of the motor, the power damping connected to the position sensors of the mechanisms of the machine and the unit job programs, device introduced blocks comparison, emergency shutdown and set the coordinates, the shapers of governors and emergency teams, gauges the health of the mechanisms of the machine and move the machine, the cycle counter and the switch, and remote control connected to the control inputs of the shapers of governors and emergency teams to the first control input and one of the information inputs of the switch, to the second control input, which connected the loop counter, and to others the shM information inputs - the displacement sensor of the machine and shaper control commands, the output switch connected to the control unit of the engine, connected through the unit emergency shutdown with the output of the shaper emergency teams, to the information input of which is connected sensors health mechanisms and driver control commands, one of the outputs of which are connected to the loop counter, which is connected to the unit, set the coordinates, connected to the first input of the comparison, to the second input of which is connected one of the position sensors of the mechanisms of the machine, and the outputs of the block compared to the driver control commands, connected to the unit damping and block set programs [2].

Known electronic load limiting device of the crane, containing made with interrupt input digital computer, an information input of which is connected to the output of analog-to-digital Converter, the second bidirectional - input and output digital storage unit, and the information output to the input of the synth sound, and block visual indication that n sensors analog parameters of the crane is connected to the inputs of analog-to-digital Converter, and m sensors discrete parameters and signals on the work of the crane is connected with the third information input digital computer BC the ka, and the timer output connected to the interrupt input of the digital computing unit and the digital control filter control input which is connected to the output of the timer, the information input to the mentioned information to the output of the digital computing unit, and the entrance to the Executive unit [3].

This known device determines the control method of lifting mechanisms with the fixation of their performance on pressure, geometry of the crane and its mode of operation, based on the measurement signals proportional to these characteristics, primary processing of these signals are converted into digital form, in accordance with pre-stored signals, determining the processing order, coordinate the processing of the generated pulse sequence in real-time, their display and in case they exceed the allowable values, the formation of control signals and applying the latter to the control device.

A known method of controlling the lifting mechanisms of the machine, based on the measurement signals coming from mechanisms with fixation characteristics of their work, the method is based on measuring signals proportional to these characteristics and includes the primary processing of these signals, preobrazovan the x in digital form, in accordance with pre-stored signals, determining the processing order, coordinate the processing of the generated pulse sequence in real-time, their display and in case they exceed the allowable values, the formation of control signals and applying the latter to the control device, in this case, differences of this method lies in the fact that the set time interval, and really having a place of excess signals proportional to the characteristics of the lifting mechanisms of valid values is judged when the last primary processing signal exceeding the preset threshold level in the specified time interval, when this record in long-term non-volatile memory for storage in an unchanged form the last primary processing signals proportional to the above mentioned parameters to account for the life of the crane under load, the time of appearance of these signals exceeding the preset threshold level, and the generated control signals read if necessary [4].

It is also known safety device of the valve containing block protection from hazardous voltages, unit assignments limitations coordinate protection unit digital computing module associated with the sensors the parameters and configured to signal the prohibition of traffic in the overload of the crane, the Executive unit module block movements and module alarm connected to the first input to the first output of the digital processing module, characterized in that it introduced the module analyzer signal and the logic module, the first module output signal analyzer connected to the first input of the logic module, and a second output connected to the second input module alarm output module protection against dangerous voltages associated with the input of the signal analyzer, the outputs of the block set restrictions coordinate protection is connected to the setting input of the digital processing module and the second input of the logic module, a third input connected to a second input of digital computing module, and the output - input module block movements [5].

Known control system heavy-duty crane, containing sensors of the angle of elevation of the boom, the length of the boom and load mass digital computing machine, designed to calculate, taking into account the information coming from the generator constraints, the critical parameters for a given algorithm, comparing them with the utmost and view the current operator information according to the information received from the device I / o associated analog-to-digital Converter connected to the sensor weight sensor sound info is prolonged, block control relay, a decoder, connected to the indicating unit, and the information processing unit, an input connected to sensor bit information, the system differs from known systems because it is equipped with the second information-processing device, the angle sensor turntable of the crane, the sensor roll angle and connected to the device I / o boards prohibitions and lock signals of the ban, and the first-mentioned device information processing performed with an additional input connected to the temperature sensor, to the second information-processing device connected to the sensor elevation angle of the boom length and boom angle swivel platform crane and the angle sensor roll is connected to the analog-to-digital Converter [6].

A device for control loaded by a crane, comprising a load sensor, departure, turn, blocks the comparison, execution of the task coordinate hauling, correction, determine the actual coordinates and specify the valid coordinates, adders, and the correction block contains the elements of selecting the smallest value of the elements AND, NOT, OR, and other items in their entirety and the relationship with named elements, which is an instrument affecting Executive bodies with delovogo crane to prevent its collision with obstacles during operation [7].

It is also known crane safety device, which serves to provide the crane operator data on operating settings of the crane and safety guidelines in accordance with the selected mode display image that includes the feature to play a schematic diagram of some part of the crane mechanism on a two-dimensional screen dynamically during operation of the crane mechanism and image on the same screen certain working area in the form of a visually eye-catching zone of the picture, while the picture of the working area is reproduced on the screen by the command from the key, which activates the operator during a given mode of operation of the crane, together with schematic diagram of the crane mechanism, reproduced on the screen in the current time [8].

This device includes sensors status of the crane mechanism, the block information storage, management tools, processor device and other components in their relationship, providing safety and convenience of the crane.

Known control system of a crane, comprising a torque limiter, connected with it the means to control the processor to determine the weight and dynamic loads from the cargo, the adder, programming tools, which are included in the General system control the Oia [9].

Know the definition of the working cycle of the valve, which includes a set of operations associated with the movement of the crane in operation, when the crane ready to lift, until ready to lift the next cargo, while in this definition contains the elements of the process control valve in a statement undisclosed operations in sequence the movement of the crane when working from one moment it works, when the valve is ready to lift, to another moment when the crane ready to lift the next load [10].

In the definition of the business cycle [10] contains the operations connected with the movement of the crane at work”. Design, such as tower crane, provide for the movement of cargo along the boom with a stationary valve means movable along the boom cargo truck. It is obvious that the term “movement” of the crane in operation movement of the load in the cycle of operation is a generic term related to the movement of the cargo.

Obviously, all operations (except for preparatory operations are operations cargo transfer, but however it should be noted that in the case of use of the crane on the operation of the emergency shut-down) cargo (lowering the load on the support platform - lift this burden on small height - minor re edenia cargo - the lowering of the goods to the new location of the reference site), such overwind cargo can be counted as a cycle of operation of the crane.

Classification of the modes of operation of the crane [10], which defines the group of class use of crane (U0-U10or group classification of the mode of operation of the crane is measured in cycles of operation of the crane and the masses of loads. These groups are defined in accordance with the requirements of international standard ISO M, but in practice there are insufficient funds to recognize cycles and fixing the above-mentioned groups. When determining the mode of loading of the crane is entered the value of the coefficient of distribution of loads Cu-dependent average number of cycles with the private level weight, the total number of cycles with all the goods, the values of private masses of individual loads (load level) and the greatest mass of load (nominal load to be lifted by crane [11]. When this mass is the greatest of goods by force levels are determined taking into account the mentioned dynamic loads that significantly affect the reliability of the determinants of the cycles and load.

The closest technical solution is in fact and effect is achieved is a method of controlling a crane, comprising measuring the loads of the crane movements of the crane with grusome time work arrangements, registration of the data about the operation of the crane and their comparison with the regulatory performance of the crane [4].

In the source of information [4] to implement the method provided by the device for implementing the method, including load cells and horizontal displacements, connected to the processing unit, and units of comparison.

A significant disadvantage of the known and the closest technical solution to the stated is that known technical solution does not meet domestic and international requirements classification of loading cranes mode, as it allows to reliably determine the number of cycles of operation of the crane and the weight of loads, resulting in distorted information about the work of the crane.

Solved and achieved technical problem of this invention is the provision of the possibility of obtaining reliable data on the technical condition of the crane and improving the safety of his work.

The technical problem is solved in that in the method of controlling a crane, comprising measuring the loads of the crane movements of the crane with the load and working time arrangements, registration of the data about the operation of the crane and their comparison with the regulatory performance of the crane, in the measurement process to determine the cycle of operation of the crane recognize n the roan cycle to enable any other mechanism after activation of the lifting mechanism of the cargo, provided that G> Gdand L>Ld, where G is the actual load from the load on the crane hook, Gd- load with no load on the crane hook, L - move the center of gravity of the hook of the suspension relative to the center of gravity of the load, Ld- the maximum allowable displacement of the center of gravity of the hook of the suspension relative to the center of gravity of the load, recognize the end of the cycle at the beginning of the next cycle, and the beginning of the next cycle recognize after fulfilling the conditions of lifting in the absence of load on the crane hook at G<Gdand the operation of any mechanism for horizontal movement of cargo, provided that L>Ldsimultaneously with the actions of the recognition of the beginning and end of the cycle measured at the beginning of the lifting for the period from the excess load Gdand before the inclusion of any other mechanism for horizontal movement of the load, calculate the current average load time interval Δt and determine the largest value of the current average load in the mentioned period, then the largest value of the current average load determine the weight of cargo and register cycle of the crane with the received weight of the cargo, then summarize cycles with the corresponding mass of the cargo and the data obtained are classified crane group class, compare the data obtained for each group class is and with normative data tap on the appropriate classification and comparison results allow, warn or prohibit operation of the crane.

Ldset in a time-dependent mechanism of the crane horizontal movement of the load.

The goal of the project is achieved through a device for implementing the method, which includes the load sensor horizontal movement is connected to the processing unit, and the units of comparison, and the device was introduced blocks recognition of the cycle of operation of the crane, determine the mass of the cargo, the evaluation unit of the state of the valve, the first and second blocks And and OR, the block classification of the crane group class, with blocks And connected with recognition block cycle, which is connected to the block data logging cycle and through him with the evaluation unit of the state of the crane, and the data processing unit is connected to the block definition load mass the first block And through an inverter to the second unit And sensors horizontal movement is connected with the first block And a second block OR with the data processing unit through the first block OR.

The device for implementing the method is a device, the function of which includes the accumulation of data about the operation of the crane, the recognition of the beginning and end of the cycle, classification of the crane group class permission, warning or prohibition of the operation of the crane. Such an apparatus is installed on the faucet and it throughout the period when Urby crane is its integral part, moreover, the apparatus is installed on the crane in such a way that without it or without it, impossible to activate any movement of the crane.

The drawing shows a block diagram of a device for implementing a method of controlling a crane on the example of its use in the design of the tower crane. The device for implementing the method includes a sensor 1 load sensor 2 vertical movement of cargo and sensors 3-5 horizontal movement of cargo. Block 6 data through the first block of 7 OR connected with the above-mentioned sensors, units 8-10 comparison with the second unit 11 OR the first and second blocks 12 and 13 I.

The device includes a block 14 to determine the mass of the cargo, the unit 15 evaluating the state of the crane, block 16 recognition of the cycle of operation of the crane, block 17 data logging cycle. The latter is connected to the block 16 recognition cycle, block 14 to determine the mass of the cargo and the unit 15 evaluating the state of the crane. Block 16 recognition cycle through the first and second blocks 12 and 13 And is connected with the second unit 11 OR and unit 6 of the data processing. Block 14 to determine the mass of the load connected to the unit 6 of the data processing. The evaluation unit of the state of the crane through the block 17 data logging cycle and the block 14 to determine the mass of the load connected to the unit 6 of the data processing. The inverter device 18 is connected to the blocks 12 and 13 And the block 11 OR.

Sensor 1 load to perform yet the transfer function of the weight of the load on the crane hook in the signals, the sensors 2-5 fulfil the function of translation in the signal values of all cargo movements, unit 6 processes corresponding to the load on the hook signals and determines the maximum and average current values of the loads. Units 8-10 compare the sensor signals 3-5 move the crane, cargo truck, turning the faucet with preset standard values, in case of excess of which blocks 8-10 comparison output to the second unit 11 OR that generates signals for the first and second blocks 12 and 13 And. In the presence of the signal at the input of the first block 12 And the latter produces a signal in block 16 of the detection cycle and the signal unit 16 sets the loop counter event of the beginning of the cycle. The second block 13 And in the presence of signal from the inverter 18 and the second unit 11 and outputs the signals in block 16 of the detection cycle that recognizes the end of the cycle and ensures readiness for the recognition of the next cycle. Unit 14 determines the mass of the load on the crane hook and emits a corresponding signal in block 17 data logging cycle.

A device for implementing the method in the following way. At the time of operation of the lifting crane signal from the sensor 1 load and sensor 2 lifting enters the block 6 data processing, where these periodic signals are processed and compared with the allowable load value Gd. If the maximum allowable on the power unit 6 of the data processing is to determine the current average value and the maximum value of the loads in accordance with the following example.

For example, with the crane hook connected load weight is 5 tons At the rise of the cargo during its separation from the ground or from a support point by block 6 data read in the time interval of Δt 3 seconds with a certain step, for example in increments of 1 sec., sensor 1 three signals corresponding to the load of 0.5 t 0.75 t and 1 t, summarize them, issue and remember the average value Gcp.1=(0.5 t +0,75 t +1 t):3=0,75 so

At the next readout of the signal load in the range of Δt 3 sec receives the following signals from the sensor 1, while the previous signal corresponding to a load of 0.5 t is not counted, because instead of signal count signal corresponding to for example load 0,75 so In this case Gcp.2=(0,75 t +1 t +1.5 t):3=1,08 so

At each subsequent survey of sensor 1 performs the replacement of the initial values of the loadings of 0.5 t 0.75 tonnes... and actually there is a shift in the load interval of 3 seconds of time at the above-mentioned step of 1 sec. These operations are performed by the processing block 6, and comparing obtained when reading data on the allocated loads maximum current load value in the range of Δt.

To include any mechanism for horizontal movement of the load, a survey of sensor 1 is ongoing and constantly stands out the current average value of the load, the switching on of the second is echanism is carried out after separation of cargo from earth with fixing the last of the current average load Gcp.n=(4.9 +5,1 t +5 t):3=5 t, where 5,1 t is the current maximum value of the load. This part of the load includes all resistance to the lifting associated with dynamic loads on the crane hook is in the process of isolation of the load from the platform.

Block 6 data or signals remembers the average current value of the load on the crane hook and displays this value in the form of signals in the first block 12 And block 14 to determine the mass and the inverter 18.

On the maximum value of the load signal at the site Δt unit 6 determines the weight of the lifted load. Due to this definition of the weight of the cargo, with the exception of the dynamic component of the load and maintaining the same conditions of fixed loads (when the normal mechanisms of horizontal movement of the load and the working mechanism of a lift) in all cycles of operation of the crane, is provided to improve the accuracy of determining the mass of the cargo.

At the beginning of any horizontal movement of the load signal from the sensors through the first 3-5 block 7 OR supplied to the second input unit 6 of the data processing unit 6 terminates the current processing signal from the sensor 1 load and begins to determine the maximum average current value of the load, after determining which unit 6 transmits this value in the block 14 to determine the mass of the cargo and the second output crying relay the signal to the inputs of the PE the first unit 12 And the inverter 18.

When exceeding the horizontal displacements valid related displacement, the signal from the first unit 12 And supplied to the block 16 recognition of the cycle of operation of the crane by which the block 16 determines the start of the cycle. When reducing the load on the crane hook is shorter than normal or valid values, unit 6, data processing removes the signals from inputs of the first unit 12 And the inverter 18, the signal of which is fed to the input of the second block 13 And horizontal movement of the load, the second block 13 And outputs a signal in block 16 of the detection cycle in which the block 16 produces a signal in block 17 of the registration data of the cycle and then the unit 16 is shown in its initial position for the next cycle.

By the received signal block 16 recognition cycle unit 17 data logging cycle, taking into account information received from block 14 to determine the mass of the load, determines the class of the crane for the loading conditions and sends the result to the unit 15 evaluating the state of the crane, which compares the data with valid normative values of the group class and remembers them. If necessary, the unit 15 evaluating the state of the crane can be obtained at any given time information to assess the condition of the crane, and if it is connected to the control system of the crane, the unit 15 evaluating the state of the tap outputs the signals RA is the solution warning or prohibition of the operation of the crane.

If possible definitions of cargo movements as a function of time from moving, moving Ldreplaced by the time interval td- minimum permissible running time of the mechanism of the crane horizontal movement of the load.

In this case, the resulting value Δt is compared with Δtdabove which blocks 8-10 comparison output to the second unit 11 OR before a time equal to zero.

All signals from the sensors are displayed on the display screen. When exceeding the permissible load on the hook on the sensor signal 1 load device issues a command to terminate the operation of the crane. In this case, the device performs the functions of the load limiting device, the main function of this device is the accumulation of reliable data on the technical condition of the crane, in accordance with which the device enables safe operation of the crane from the date of its putting into operation before the date of cancellation. Thus the device provides the possibility of diagnostics of the crane at all times during its operation.

Sources of information

1. SU 352825, 66 13/18, 1970

2. SU 693341, 66 13/18, 1977.

3. DE 3019385 A1, 66 13/18, 1980.

4. EN 2116240, 66 23/90, 1997.

5. EN 2151732, 66 15/00, 1999.

6. EN 2129524, 66 23/88, 199.

7. EN 2058929, 66 23/90, 1992.

8. EN 2093452, 66 13/18, 1989.

9. EP 0187772, 66 23/90, 1985.

10. Rules for design and safe operation of cranes PB 10-382-00. Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia, M., PIO MBT, 2000, p.129.

11. Rules for design and safe operation of cranes PB 10-382-00. Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia, M., PIO MBT, 2000, s.

1. The method of controlling a crane, comprising measuring the loads of the crane movements of the crane with the load and working time arrangements, registration of the data about the operation of the crane and their comparison with the regulatory performance of the valve, characterized in that the measurement process to determine the cycle of operation of the crane with the recognition of the beginning of the cycle to enable any other mechanism after activation of the lifting mechanism of the cargo, provided that G>Gdand L>Ld, where G is the actual load from the load on the crane hook, Gd- load with no load on the crane hook, L - move the center of gravity of the hook of the suspension relative to the center of gravity of the load, Ld- the maximum allowable displacement of the center of gravity of the hook of the suspension relative to the center of gravity of the load, and the recognition of the end of the cycle at the beginning of the next cycle after the conditions of lifting in the absence of load on the crane hook at G<Gdand the operation of any mechanism l is the volumetric displacement of the cargo, provided that L> Ldsimultaneously with the actions of the recognition of the beginning and end of the cycle measured load G at the beginning of the lifting for the period from the excess load Gdand before the inclusion of any other mechanism for horizontal movement of the load, calculate the current average load time interval Δt and determine the largest value of the current average load in the mentioned period, then the largest value of the current average load determine the weight of cargo and register cycle of the crane with the received weight of the cargo, then summarize cycles with the corresponding mass of the cargo and the data obtained are classified crane group class, compare the data obtained for each group class with normative data tap on the appropriate classification and comparison results permit operation of the crane, warn the operator or prohibit operation of the crane.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the Ldset in a time-dependent mechanism of horizontal movement of the load.

3. The device for implementing the method, including load cells and horizontal displacements, connected to the processing unit, and the units of comparison, characterized in that the device entered the block recognition of the cycle of operation of the crane, the block data logging cycle unit definition mA the son of the cargo, the first and second blocks And and OR, the evaluation unit of the state of the crane, with the blocks And outputs connected with recognition block cycle, which is connected to the recording unit of the data cycle, and through him with the evaluation unit of the state of the crane, the data processing unit is connected to the block definition load mass of the first block And through an inverter to the second unit, and sensors horizontal movements of the load connected across the first block OR the data processing unit, and through the units of comparison and the second block OR two blocks I.



 

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