Method for manufacture of meat products

FIELD: meat industry, in particular, method for salting of meat in the process of manufacture of meat products, such as sausages or products from whole muscular raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing salt brine including edible salt; activating brine by providing through processing in casing-type cavitational reactor or portion processing in casing-free cavitational reactor; mixing activated brine with raw meat material, with activation procedure being provided at ratio of maximal amplitude of acoustic wave pressure inside reactor to hydrostatic pressure inside reactor in the range of 2 to 23; mixing resultant activated brine with raw meat material in the process of grinding of raw material, or by dosed feeding of activated salt brine into preliminarily ground raw meat material, or by injecting activated salt brine into whole muscular meat, or by dipping whole muscular meat into activated salt brine. Method allows inorganic moisture-retention additives and color stabilizing additives to be excluded from salt brine and, accordingly, from ready product, or content of said substances to be reduced, content of flavor additives and preservatives, in particular, salt to be decreased.

EFFECT: reduced content of flavor additives, decreased salting time, provision for keeping of traditional taste and appearance and improved quality of ready product.

7 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the meat industry, in particular to methods of salting meat in the production of meat products such as sausages or pieces of cut material.

In the technological practices of the meat industry Ambassador of the meat is divided into short-term and long-term. The duration of the process of the Ambassador is determined by the degree of crushing of raw meat. What this degree is higher, the faster the penetration of curing substances in tissue and extraction of these salt - and water-soluble protein content in the brine defines technological properties of cured meat raw materials and consumer quality of the finished product. Thus, intermittent Ambassador is applied to the crushed material, for example, in the manufacture of sausages, and long - in the production of cut products, such as ham, ham, brisket, brisket, etc.

The main task of the Ambassador is the formation of taste, color, moisture-tie (water-holding capacity of the meat, and in the case of cooking meat for sausage - its plasticity, which depends on the consistency and the output of finished products. Adjust these properties by changing the number of input raw materials through salting food preservative, tsvetodeleniyeye and water-retaining additives(salt, nitrites, phosphates and the like), as well as the duration of exposure of the meat to the Ambassador. The Sol process includes the stages of preparation of the curing mixture and mixing it with raw meat.

Known methods of salting meat dry curing mixtures. For example, a known curing the mixture for the production of meat products “Nitrite salt, which is a mixture containing salt, sodium nitrite and sodium ferrocyanide as anticlimaxes agent [see Belov V.Y., Vagin VV Salt - universal food additive // Meat industry, No. 6, 1998]. The disadvantages of this method Ambassador is the duration of exposure of the meat to the Ambassador, as well as the content in the curing of a mixture of sodium ferrocyanide and a large number of sodium nitrite, posing a potential threat to human health.

Also known curing mixture containing salt cookbook : food, sodium nitrite, phosphate, food and maltodextrin in a ratio of 1:0,1:0,03:0,04 [patent RU 2102890 C1, 27.01.1998]. The disadvantage of using the specified curing mix is the long duration of exposure of the meat to the Ambassador, as well as content in curing a mixture of a large number of phosphates and sodium nitrite. It is widely known that used in meat products sodium nitrite (as sitosterolaemia and preservative additives), phosphates (as the holder of oderzhivaya additives), increased amounts of sodium chloride (as preservative) leads to increased environmental hazards produced meat products in spite of growing in the food industry the concept of the production of healthy food.

The known method of salting meat [patent RU 221914 C2, 27.08.2003], including the molding of meat brine containing salt, sodium nitrite, food phosphates, sugar, ascorbic acid and water, with subsequent machining of dublirovaniem for 10-12 hours cycles in the specified mode. The disadvantage of this method of Ambassador is a high-intensity, duration, Ambassador of sodium nitrite and phosphate, as well as the fact that this method is only used for salting cut of meat products.

A method of obtaining the smoke of the drug by adsorption is carried and condensation smoke a mixture of water, including removing the smoke from the smoke of raw materials, mixing it with the aqueous component. At the same time as the water component using the activated water received by electroaparataj the original aqueous mixture in the diaphragm electrolyzer [patent RU 2130267 C1, 20.05.1999]. From the above it is known the use of activated water received by electroaparataj aqueous mixture in the diaphragm electrolyzer. Known is n the way of salting of meat using electrochemically activated water for preparation of the curing brine [Borisenko A.A. Thermogravimetric analysis of forms of communication of moisture in the salt beef // Meat industry, 2001, No. 7. - p.45-46]. The disadvantage of these methods is that the water is activated by electrolysis, which excludes the presence of mineral salts, which are electrolytes to avoid electrode reactions with the formation of dangerous for the human body products. Use to activate the pre-treated water requires significant energy costs, additional consumption of materials and chemicals, as well as the subsequent recovery of the mineral composition, which should have water that is used as part of a food product. All this makes the described methods are expensive and unsuitable for mass production of food.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a method of salting meat products such as hams, including the placement of mjasoprodukt in the vessel, the vacuum vessel, the puncturing of mjasoprodukt needles and its subsequent evacuation. When implementing the method in the capacity of the pumped brine and produce the vacuum, then the brine is subjected to ultrasonic vibrations, and the product - vibration. After removal of the product produce additional Vibracon processing mjasoprodukt [ed. St. SU 1717063 A1, 07.03.1992]. Nedostatki what this method is, the ultrasonic processing is subjected to both the brine and raw meat, along with the intensification of the process of extraction of salt - and water-soluble proteins in the brine leads to the known effects of denaturation of proteins under the influence of vibrational energy [Alpiner I.E. Ultrasound. Physico-chemical and biological action. - M: if ML, 1963. - 420 S.: ill.], that can lead to the loss of protein during subsequent heat treatment and the deterioration of consumer qualities of the product.

The technical result of the invention is the elimination of the curing brine, and hence of the final product inorganic water-holding and tsvetodeleniyeye additives or reduction of their content, the decrease in the content, flavoring and preservative additives, in particular sodium chloride, and reducing the time of Ambassador while maintaining the traditional taste and appearance of the finished product.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that when the salting of meat for cooking meat products exercise: preparation of curing brine containing salt; activating the brine flowing through the processing in the hull cavitation reactor or batch processing in die cavitation reactor; mixing of activated curing brine with raw meat.

At the same time, ACTIVIA is the W brine is carried out at the value of the ratio of the maximum inside the reactor pressure amplitude of the acoustic wave to hydrostatic pressure in the reactor in the range from 2 to 23.

For cooking sausages mixing activated curing brine meat raw material is carried out simultaneously with the grinding of the meat or by introducing activated curing brine into shredded meat. Mixing activated curing brine with cold materials can be made by extrusion cut of meat activated curing brine or by dipping cut meat in activated curing brine, including accompanied by piercing the meat. The method allows reuse of curing brine by re-activation of recycled brine described method and the described method.

Meat product obtained by the claimed method meets modern requirements of a product of a healthy diet, does not contain phosphates and nitrites at all or contains them in a smaller quantity, but also contains a smaller amount of salt. This traditional taste and appearance of the meat product does not deteriorate.

The prior art ultrasonic treatment of water in cavitational mode in the method of processing grain before putting it into storage (see patent RU 2171568 C1 10.08.2001). However, in the above method, the ultrasonic treatment of water used for improving the surveillance milling properties of grain: the total yield of flour, femalefemale shells, as well as the reduction of microbiological contamination derived from this grain flour. In addition, the proposed method of curing brine activate in the hull or without cavitation reactor, described in the book [Shestakov S.D. of the basic technology of cavitation disintegration. Theory of cavitation reactor. - M: EVA-press, 2001. - 173 C.]. The device, pictured in the description of the patent RU 2171568 C1 10.08.2001 is not cavitation reactor according to the definition given in this book, as its resonant cells are not isolated from each other to avoid mutual interference damping arising in them kontrabasnik cylindrical and plane waves, leading to reduction in the efficiency of cavitation.

As is known, for initiating cavitation in the liquid, the amplitude Andppressure antinodes of the elastic acoustic wave must be above a certain to each the fluid threshold, dependent on thermodynamic, mechanical, and chemical properties of this fluid and the hydrostatic pressure Phit. The primary dynamic indicator of cavitation the pressure pulse generated by cavitation bubble in the phase of its collapse, which is the interval of time in which the bubble radius is less than its radius at Ph. This pokazateljima function, obtained by solving the system of differential equations pulsations of cavitation bubble in the external acoustic field [see Knapp R., Daly, J., Hammit F. Cavitation. - M.: Mir, 1974. - 348 S.: ill.]. In turn, the maximum time between phases of the collapse of a cavitation bubble, expressed in fractions of the period of the elastic acoustic wave T is a function Andp[see Physics and engineering of power ultrasound. Powerful ultrasonic fields // ed Ludwigsburg. - M.: Nauka, 1968. - 265 S.: ill.]. The smaller the duration of the phase of collapse with respect to T, the higher is the value of the pressure pulse, and hence the efficiency of cavitation exposure. From the above sources it is also known that if the bubble for the first time generating cavitation acoustic wave kropivieca earlier the end of this period, the remaining time to the end he continues to oscillate with small intervals between multiple collapses.

All of the above is the level of contemporary knowledge in the field of the subject invention.

The following was established during the research process of cavitation activation solutions of curing substances for salting meat, which is the subject of the present invention.

First, the duration of the phase of the collapse of the Tcexpressed in relation to the sustained fashion units for the duration of the period T of an acoustic wave, weakly depends on the radius of the rest of cavitation bubbles and sufficient for practical use precision proportional, with the proportionality equal to 0,04 first derivative relative pressure amplitudethe maximum between the collapse time (see figure 1).

Secondly, one of all of the pressure pulses generated by cavitation bubble at time T, becomes significantly greater than the other largest in this period, since the pressure amplitude Andp=2·Ph. Hence the conclusion that the regime is effective cavitation is within the values of the amplitudes in the antinodes of the acoustic pressure wave that generates it, which is the duration of the collapse does not exceed the value corresponding to a pressure of 2·Ph. From figure 1 it is seen that this range is Ap: {2·Ph<Ap<23·Ph}.

Thirdly, within the specified range of the cavitation effect is almost independent on the value of the total energy dissipated in the reactor, as its variation due to changes Andpchanging only the ratio of potential and kinetic energy that occurs when significant changes are made to the values of the kinetic energy and insignificant potential. Therefore, it is assumed that the number of the STV energy, necessary to activate within the specified range, depends on the duration of exposure τ and the relaxation time of the active non-stationary States of brine t. Because the mechanism of energy transfer in the liquid when the cavitation effect is “neteplovoi” character, the degree of dissociation contained dissolved salts increases compared to thermodynamic equilibrium. If we assume that the measure of the salinity of water, its conductivity, the increase in the degree of dissociation of NaCl molecules under the influence of the cavitation energy will manifest itself in the form of the apparent increase in the content of sodium chloride ΔCNaClto the actual content of ΔCNaCl. The dynamics of change indicatorwas investigated experimentally. Typical graphs of attenuation shown in figure 2. By the two-parameter approximation of the identified empirical dependences were obtained expression:

where: α0=-0,4821; α1=0,3827; α2=-0,0354; α3=-0,0006, and all time values are in seconds. It can be assumed that with sufficient precision function ∂·100% indicates how much percent can be reduced content of salts in aqueous solutions exposed to cavitation activation with the period of the m acoustic wave T, during the time τso that after a time t is the content maintained on conductivity. The function is true for saturated NaCl solution, and saturated solutions of all salts of the form A+B-with ion bond type.

Because sensory evaluation of flavor and preservative properties of salt are not their General content, and the content of ions, on which these salts dissociate, the amount of salts in the manufacture of meat products using Ambassador cavitation-activated brines can be reduced and made equal to (1-∂·100%. At the same time, food storage will not decrease, their taste will not deteriorate, and environmental safety will increase.

Thirdly, the time τnecessary for a significant increase in the degree of dissociation of salts in the brine, not more, and the time t recombination “excess” of ions is much less than the corresponding figures of the destruction process (which is accompanied by cavitation treatment and subsequent recovery of the hydrogen bonds of water molecules. Dehydration of water in the brine under the influence of cavitation provides its high hydration activity in raw materials, which allows to exclude from the meat product traditionally used inorganic water-binding components type is Olga phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid, without reducing the water-holding capacity.

The invention is directed to a method of salting of meat, including meal and meat for sausage that meets modern requirements of a product of a healthy diet - a low content in them potentially dangerous to human health inorganic preservative, tsvetodeleniyeye, flavoring and water-retaining additives.

In figure 1 are shown by points a discrete duration of the phase of the collapse of a cavitation bubble Twithin a saturated solution of sodium chloride from the relative pressure amplitude of the acoustic waves αpgenerating cavitation. Many obtained by setting the numerical experiments by the method of numerical integration of differential equations pulsations of cavitation bubble type Hickling-Plesset in the external acoustic field harmonic wave for each value of αpwith a rough calculation:

where r is the dimensionless radius of the bubble;

t - dimensionless time.

The scatter of the obtained values is caused by the error of the numerical integration using the Runge-Kutta method with variable step in the iterative procedure of gradual approximation of the solution.

Dashed curve - approximately polynomial 5thover the and, smoothing a point set Twith=f(ap), built by the method of least squares. The solid line is the empirical function:

where: Te- the duration of the extension phase, when the bubble radius is greater radius of rest or r>1.

Thin dashed lines shows the graphical calculation of the study a selected range of relative amplitudes of the pressure antinodes of the acoustic wave generating cavitation in the reactor.

Figure 2 shows a point set obtained experimentally is calculated for a saturated solution of sodium chloride, treated at T=22000-1with and different values of τindicated on the drawing, and also obtained by the method of least squares graphics smoothing functions ∂C=f(τ,t).

The proposed method can be illustrated by the following example implementation.

In an apparatus for preparing a saturated solution of table salt can be used colorstotal brand HSR-3-0,6R to transport food centrifugal pump model CM-22-120, and to enable the apparatus cavitation disintegration of liquid food media type “Syrinx 4000” (SITB. 443146.002 TU). Joint use of these devices helps to ensure the preparation of a concentrated solution of common salt, PTS is STCU it from insoluble impurities, as well as cavitation disintegration. Cavitation disintegration of brine leads to the collapse of the conglomerates of molecules of salts associated in a freshly prepared solution by van-der-Waals forces, on separate molecules. Action are also associates of the water formed by hydrogen bonds of monomolecules each other. As a result, they are destroyed, which increases the dissolving and dissociating the water capacity. The cavitation effect is also accelerates the dissociation of molecules of salts and further increases the chemical activity of water due to the formation of ions H3C+and HE-. This also occurs separation of electrons from the outer orbits of the molecules of salts under the action of energy of cavitation, which prevents their further integration associates. Free electrons, acquiring a hydration shell of water monomolecules, behave as solvated ions, and can exist long enough until you give their charge grounded parts cameras cavitation reactors. Such effects cannot be obtained by alternative means of activation, for example by electrochemical activation. In the process of energy metabolism of the activated components of the brine with the raw material there are formed a complex ions with increased positive charge that allows you to associate in their hydration shells more monomolecules in the s. Monomolecules water, remaining free from these ties, hydratious proteins of raw materials. Salt activated brine, less able to join in associates and conglomerates, better distributed in raw materials. In water under the action of cavitation is also synthesized hydrogen peroxide which is decomposed by the enzymes of raw materials emitting energy, improves its quality by accelerating maturation, offset pH in the alkaline region, and also leads to reduced activity of the bacteria. Direct impact on microbial body potential energy of cavitation in the activation process of brine leads to the destruction of their cell membranes. Thus, cavitation processing of brines allows to reduce time of Ambassador, to improve the quality of raw material and final product, to suppress the vital activity of harmful microorganisms, increase the amount of bound moisture in the product, thereby reducing the amount of salt, nitrites and phosphates or exclude nitrites and phosphates from the product at all.

A source of acoustic oscillations in the reactor apparatus of the type “Syrinx 4000” is an electroacoustic magnetostrictive transducer type PMS-15-22 working frequency 22000 Hz and with an amplitude of oscillatory displacement of the working end Andξequal to 11 μm. In a cylindrical reactor of a plane wave oscillations is eredita through the acoustic waveguide transformer with a transformation ratio of 0.33. Hence, the amplitude of oscillatory displacement of its end equal to 11·0,33=3,6 mm.

Given that the electroacoustic efficiency of the magnetostrictive transducers is ~50% [Bergman L. Ultrasound and its application in science and technology. - M: PII, 1956. - 726 S.: ill.], using the known value Andp=ωCPAξ, it is possible to calculate the amplitude of the pressure Andpin the antinodes of the acoustic wave in the reactor at the angular frequency oscillations ω=2πƒ, fluid density ρ and the speed of sound C. It is equal to 2π·22000·1074·1189·3,6·10-6=10·105PA or 10·Phthat satisfies the essential characteristic of the invention.

Rated capacity Q of the apparatus for cavitation disintegration by activating up to 250 l/h, volume Vrcylindrical tank cavitation reactor of a plane wave in the apparatus 9.5·10-4m3. The length L of the line of feed brine with diameter D=9·10-3m from the reactor to the size of the raw materials is 2.4 meters from Here you can calculateSubstituting the obtained values and the value of T, which for the apparatus type “Syrinx” is 22000-1since, in the expression (1), we obtain the limit value possible reduction of the salt content in the product is equal to 19%.

As a device for cavitation is integratsii you can also use the device type Ultramix 4000” (SITB. 443124.004 TU)containing planar cavitation reactor. In this case, the brine to activate will be poured rationed in the amount of 0.09 m3in the mixing tank of the device.

Below are examples of specific use of the invention with different ways of mixing raw meat with the brine.

Example 1. Ambassador meat activated saturated solution stone sodium salt according to GOST-R 51574-2000 in the grinding process in comparison with traditional Ambassador of dry salt. The product according to GOST 23670-79 - cooked sausage “Doctor”, the highest grade.

Grinding lump of meat and mixing it with the brine was carried out in emulsifer FD 2/70 projectors. Karl Schell, followed by processing with the other formulation ingredients, including solution of sodium nitrite, and the vacuum in the cutter To 324 projectors. Seydelmann. The heat produced in the heat chamber technology. Fessmann. The amount of water flowing into raw materials with brine, was calculated as the ratio of the content of salt in the recipe to weight salt, saturating 1 kg of water at a temperature of +4°equal to 0.263 kg, as 2,09:to 0.263≈8 [kg]. The quantity of water supplied when preparing meat, reduced in case of wet Ambassador to 5 kg table 1 shows the average data for the 10 quantities of the weight of the material to 100 kg

That is person 1
 Salting METHOD
INDICATORSdry saltactivated brine
Raw materials (composition, performance)
Beef Giovanna, top grade, kg2525
Pork Giovanna, bold, kg7070
Egg powder, kg0,8220,822
Dry milk, kg22
Sugar, kg0,20.2
Salt, kg2,091,78
Spices and flavorings, kg0,10,1
Sodium nitrite, kg0,00710,0035
Phosphates, kg0,3no
Water, kg2528
The finished product
Mass fraction of moisture, %65,7±1,465,9±1,0
Mass fraction of NaCl, %2,1±0,22,1±0,1
Mass fraction of NaNO2, %0,0055±0,00050,0025±is 0.0002
Organoleptic characteristicsNormaNorma
Mafan product, CFU/gadmissionadmission

Example 2. Ambassador shredded raw meat activated with saturated solution of salt (sodium food according to GOST-R 51574-2000) in comparison with the traditional Ambassador of dry salt.

The product according to GOST 23670-79 sausage cooked “Milk”, the highest grade.

Grinding meat to the meal with a particle size of ~15...20 mm was performed on the top of RM-3000. The meal was loaded in a paddle mixer, where in the process of mixing was filed activated brine or dry salt. Stirring was carried out for 2 to 3 minutes Prior to the preparation of minced meat dry Ambassador was kept for 12 hours, wet - 4 hours. Further grinding and preparing meat produced in the cutter To 324 projectors. Seydelmann, and heat treated in a heat chamber technology. Fessmann. Table 2 shows the average data for the 10 quantities of the total weight of the material to 100 kg

Table 2
 Salting METHOD
INDICATORSdry saltactivated brine
Raw materials (composition, performance)
Beef Giovanna, first grade, kg35 35
Pork Giovanna, bold, kg6060
Egg powder, kg0,5480,548
Dry milk, kg33
Sugar, kg0,120,12
Salt, kg2,091,78
Spices, kg0,310,31
Sodium nitrite, kg0,00710,0035
Phosphates, kg0,3no
Water, kg3033

The finished product
Mass fraction of moisture, %

Mass fraction of NaCl, %

Mass fraction of NaNO2, %

Organoleptic characteristics of Mafang product, CFU/g
67,2±1,7 2,1±0,2 0,0053±0,0006 norm

admission
67,4±1,2 2,1±0,1 0,0023±0,0003 norm

admission

Example 3. The Ambassador cut of meat by extrusion activated brine in comparison with the conventional brine.

Product - loin “Jubilee” pork bold. The molding was performed on the injector PRESTOMAT P1 24/48 and massaging on the massager VACOMAT 750 projectors. Eller.

Table 3 shows the average data for 30 prod the M.

Table 3
INDICATORSSalting METHOD
 conventional brineactivated brine
The composition of the brine (100 kg brine)
Water, kg

TAREE Set P kg

Salt, kg
86,687,5
5,05,0
8,47,5
The finished product
Mass fraction of NaCl, %

Organoleptic characteristics
2,5±0,3

Norma
2,6±0,2

Norma

Thus, the above data indicate the possibility of carrying out the invention use described in the application or previously known means and methods, as well as the possibility of achieving the above technical result in the embodiment of the totality of the features of the invention.

1. Method of salting meat, characterized by the fact that carry out the preparation of the curing brine containing salt, the activation of brine flowing through the processing in the hull cavitation reactor or batch processing in die cavitation reactor, mixing enabled what about the curing brine with raw meat, thus the activation of brine is performed with the maximum inside the reactor pressure amplitude of the acoustic wave to hydrostatic pressure in the reactor in the range of 2 to 23.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for the preparation of sausages mixing activated curing brine meat raw material is carried out in the grinding process raw meat.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for the preparation of sausages mixing activated curing brine meat raw material is carried out by introducing an activated curing brine to pre-shredded raw meat.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mixing of activated curing brine meat raw material is carried out inside cut of meat activated curing brine.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mixing of activated curing brine meat raw material is carried out by immersion of the cut of meat in activated curing brine.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that for salting meat raw materials use recycled curing brine after its re-activation in the cavitation reactor.

7. Meat product obtained according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6.



 

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SUBSTANCE: meat-and-vegetable paste includes liver, pork cuttings, dry protein semi-finished product, dry milk, lentils, rice, beet, marrow, CO2-extracts of laurel leaves, eugenol basil, dill, preparation produced from Mortierella spinosa var. sterilis micromycet biomass by predetermined process, edible salt and water.

EFFECT: soft taste and aroma, improved assimilation of nutritive substances.

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of canned meat food.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing raw material and cutting it into pieces; salting; holding; introducing binder additive; charging cans with resultant material and exposing to thermal processing. Binder additive is animal fat aromatized with smoke flavoring preparation, which is preliminarily saturated with raw plant material of adaptogenic nature and introduced into cans after charging of said cans with thermally processed meat material.

EFFECT: provision for enrichment of canned meat food with flavoring compounds imparting more harmonizing aroma and taste to ready product.

2 cl, 3 ex

The invention relates to the production of sausages without casings
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