Method for detecting the sequence of applied lesions

FIELD: forensic medicine.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect the sequence of applied lesions at availability of several wounds, scratches and ecchymoses on a cadaver one should study the activity of alkaline peptides isolated out of affected tissue by the impact of blood neutrophils of healthy donors upon phagocytosis. Moreover, the highest stimulating effect belongs to the peptides isolated out of the lesion applied earlier. The method enables to detect the sequence of applied lesions more accurately and differentiate the repeated lesion applied 5 min later, or more.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of detection.

2 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to forensic medicine, and can be used to determine the sequence of damage in the presence of the corpse several wounds, bruises and abrasions.

There is a method of determining the sequence of damage intensity hemorrhage. It is believed that the circumference of the damage first, hemorrhage is more extensive than the damage later. However, this characteristic forensic doctors is not considered reliable (1).

Known methods of determining the sequence of damage to serotonin, protein fractions, the amount of myoglobin in the damaged tissue, the complex relative permittivity and conductivity of the skin (2). However, the known methods to determine the sequence of damage is only possible on the first day postmarketing period and the accuracy of their definition varies within a few hours.

As the prototype was taken histological method for determining the sequence of damage as the most accurate of all known. Histologically, the sequence of damage is determined by the processes of inflammation and tissue regeneration: the earlier caused the damage, the longer cheloveki after the injury, the more severe the reaction of inflammation and regeneration processes. However, the accuracy of determination of the sequence of damage in the first 6 hours varies from 1-3 hours, in subsequent 7-17 hours to 5-6 hours. When old 20-30 hours up to 10 hours (3). It is not possible to determine the sequence of damage in short periods of time, which is very important in the practice of forensic medicine.

To improve the accuracy of determination of the sequence of damage from damaged tissue are allocated alkaline peptides, the activity of which is to study the effect on the phagocytosis of neutrophils in the blood of healthy donors. The greatest stimulating effect of the peptides isolated from the damage that was inflicted earlier.

The method is as follows.

The corpse take pieces of tissue from sites of injury, tissue homogenized, mixed with 3% solution of acetic acid in the ratio of 1:5 in the presence of zinc chloride 1 g/l, is extracted for 1 hour at a temperature of 4°stirring constantly, add an equal quantity of acetone, filtered through a thick cloth, the precipitate is dried, dissolved in physiological solution, add 0.1 ml to 1 ml of leukocyte suspension of a healthy donor, determine the activity of neutrophil phagocytosis, compared showing the prevalence of activity of the peptides, obtained from various damages and the degree of the incentive effect is judged on what damage was primary.

The inventive method differs from the prototype in that:

- if the prototype damaged tissue is subjected to histological examination, the claimed method of the damaged tissue secrete alkaline peptides, study their activity to influence the phagocytosis of neutrophils.

in the prototype sequence of damage is determined by the processes of inflammation and regeneration: the earlier caused the damage, the longer a person lived after the injury, the more severe the reaction of inflammation and regeneration processes. In the present method the comparison of the stimulating effect of peptides isolated from areas of damage on phagocytosis allows to judge about the sequence of their application.

Allocated us peptides are citomedines - peptide compounds, which are intercellular regulators. Tissue damage causes disruption of cell-cell interactions and naturally leads to a change in the activity of intracellular regulators.

To confirm the accurate determination of the sequence of damage carried out the following studies 10 outbred rats weighing 180-200 g Animals before death under ether addict is the way, deposited two injuries: bruises, usilenno-torn and stab wounds in 5-minute intervals. Hemorrhage in the tissue of traumatic origin were studied on the second day postmarketing period.

Selection of peptides from bleeding and wounds were made by successive stages acetic acid extraction method Wegorzewo, Whholesale (4). The content of citomedines was determined using the spectrophotometer. The biological activity of alkaline polypeptides studied by the effect on the phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils of healthy donors.

In the first group we have studied the activity of peptides isolated from hemorrhages, resulting in traumatic impact of a blunt solid object. Experimental animals were brought damage in 5-minute intervals one damage for each limb. The activity of the investigated peptides was significantly decreased (table 1).

Table 1.

Changes in the activity of the peptides from the hemorrhage
IndexhemorrhagenMMP1P2
Phagocytic15to 130.63,05<0,02<0,02
rate (%)25121,22.57 m  
Phagocytic15to 136.42,48<0,02<0,02
number (%)25123,83,48  
Note: p - significance values between the first and second damage.

In the next series of experiments examined the activity of peptides isolated from wounds. The activity of the studied compounds on the reaction of phagocytosis was significantly decreased (table 2).

106,43,71
Table 2.

The effect of peptides of the muscles of the wounds on the phagocytosis
IndexwoundnMMP1P2
Phagocytic15118,45,2  
rate (%)25to 102.94,5<0,02<0,02
Phagocytic15to 123.56,18  
number (%)25<0,02<0,02
Note: p - significance values between the first and second damage.

Thus, the application of the proposed method allows to determine the sequence of damage caused by difference in 5 minutes, which is much more accurate than in the prototype (1-3 hours).

Resolution of the question about the sequence of damage can help in determining the true picture of the incident, to establish the degree of fault of each defendant, to assist in addressing a number of other issues.

Examples.

Gr-well X when the robbery, during a short time interval were caused by: (a) knife-cut wound of the chest to the left, srednechrochnoy line, level 5 intercostal space; b) stab wound of the chest on the right anterior axillary line at the level of the 7th intercostal space. Given the fact that the damage caused by various citizens, had the necessary sequencing of damage. This order was made on histological examination of the Russian Academy of Sciences (prototype) and the determination of the biological activity of alkaline polypeptides (the proposed method). When forensic histological examination, on the basis of nonspecific vasomotor will nosplit the school and the proliferative response was established, that the histological pattern of both RAS practically identical and correspond to the limitations of causing 6-10 hours before death. To decide on the sequence of damage was not possible. The study of biological activity of alkaline polypeptides isolated from the area of damage, it was found that the phagocytic index corruption "and" equal to 103%, b - 117%, phagocytic number of wounds "and" - 105%, b - 119%. This study has allowed to establish that the damage was "b" caused by the first. Further investigation of the criminal case on the murder of Mr. X has confirmed the validity of this opinion.

Gr-well Have to kill suffered multiple blunt hard objects, including on the head. Damage was caused during a short time interval. When the examination has been necessary to establish the sequence of formation damage: a) hemorrhage in the soft tissue of the head to the left in the parieto-occipital region b) hemorrhage in the soft tissue of the head right fronto-temporal region. This purpose was histological examination of hemorrhage (prototype) and the determination of the biological activity of alkaline polypeptides (the proposed method). When forensic histological study found, togitogiga picture of both hemorrhage practically identical and corresponds to the limitation of causing up to 1 hour before death. To decide on the sequence of damage was not possible. The study of biological activity of alkaline polypeptides isolated from the area of damage, it was found that the phagocytic index corruption "and" equal to 121%, "b" 110%, phagocytic number of wounds "and" - 124%, "b" -114%. That is, the damage "and" caused the first, which was confirmed by further investigation of the circumstances of the criminal case.

LITERATURE

1. Belikov VK, Mazurenko PPM Forensic diagnosis of lifetime and age of mechanical damage. - INF. Letter to Bureau Chief court. the honey. examination of the RSFSR Ministry of health. No. 01-04 from 25.06.1990, - 21 C.

2. Diagnosticum mechanisms and morphology of soft-tissue injuries in blunt trauma. So 6: Mechanisms and morphology of soft tissue lesions. / V.N. Hooks, B.A. Sargsyan, WE Jankowski. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2001. - 142 S.

3. A.V. Permyakov, Viter VI Forensic histology. A guide for physicians. - Izhevsk: Expertise, 1998. - 208 S.

4. Kuznik B. I., Morozov V.G., Khavinson V.H. Cytomedines: 25 years of experience in experimental and clinical studies. - SPb.: Science, 1998. - 310 C.

The way to determine the sequence of damage, consisting in the study of wounds and bruises on the body, characterized in that the produce from damage alkaline p is tidy, determine their biological activity the effect on the phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils of healthy donors and decrease in phagocytic activity establish the sequence of damage.



 

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FIELD: forensic medicine.

SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect the sequence of applied lesions at availability of several wounds, scratches and ecchymoses on a cadaver one should study the activity of alkaline peptides isolated out of affected tissue by the impact of blood neutrophils of healthy donors upon phagocytosis. Moreover, the highest stimulating effect belongs to the peptides isolated out of the lesion applied earlier. The method enables to detect the sequence of applied lesions more accurately and differentiate the repeated lesion applied 5 min later, or more.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of detection.

2 ex, 2 tbl

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