Device for controlling parts apertures

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has, serially placed at one optical axis, light source, collimator, ring optical mark forming means and multi-element photo-detector, connected to photo-detector signal processing block, as well as assembly for displacing part along axis. At optical axis before photo-detector ring mark projector is mounted with optical localizer of its position.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed and precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to control the internal openings of critical components and internal surfaces of pipes.

It is known that the accuracy of the firing of shotguns is determined mainly by the quality of manufacture of the barrel, in particular, such characteristics as:

- the deviation of the axis of the barrel from straightness;

- the deviation of the shape of the bore from the circle.

- quality processing of the inner surface of the barrel (the presence of burrs, dents, defects and the like).

A device for monitoring the quality of the surface of cylindrical holes (see A.S. USSR №938010, CL G 01 B 11/30, 1982), containing sequentially arranged on the same optical axis of the laser pickup lens, a deflecting element in the form of axicon installed to meet the radiation, as well as multiple ring light guide, the front face of which is beveled and is directed toward the deflecting element and the rear connected with the annular radiation photodetector, connected to the processing unit, the signal of the photodetector.

The known device as it moves along the axis of the hole relative to the measured surface allows to detect defects on the surface, but it has three significant drawbacks.

First, the device does not p is positioned to measure the deviation of the axis of the hole from linearity, since the light guide allows you to take only the diffuse on the surface defects of the radiation.

Secondly, for the same reason, the device does not allow to measure the deviation of the shape of the bore from the circle.

Thirdly, for inspection of long holes, long circular waveguide, when the diameters of the holes up to 10 mm represents a technical challenge.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed technical solution (prototype) is a device for quality control processing part holes containing sequentially arranged on the same optical axis of the light source, the collimator, the shaper ring optical label (made in the form of an annular diaphragm and cone with a mirrored outer surface) and a photodetector, provided with a removable annular diaphragm connected to the processing unit, the signal of the photodetector (see A.S. USSR №577399, CL G 01 B 11/30, 1977).

The known device allows the quality control part holes through the forward and backward movement of the carriage and controlled by the item. With the direct course of the carriage take off the detachable annular aperture and write the chart surface roughness of the hole, while the opposite course - record chart with a removable annular aperture. Comparison of the two charts allows determination is whether the tolerance on hole diameter and surface finish quality.

The main disadvantages of the known devices are, firstly, that it is not possible to measure the deviation of the axis of the hole from linearity, which is associated with the low sensitivity of this optical scheme to the specified deviation.

Secondly, the device is inefficient, since one item requires two measurements and then comparing the two results.

Thirdly, the accuracy of the device is determined by the accuracy of the alignment of surface points for forward and reverse motion of the carriage part. It is known that over time, the mechanical systems appears backlash, which will determine the accuracy of the measurement.

The aim of the present invention is to remedy these disadvantages, namely extending the functionality of the device while improving the accuracy and performance of the device.

The objective in the device control part holes containing sequentially arranged on the same optical axis of the light source, the collimator, the shaper ring optical label and a photodetector connected to the processing unit, the signal of the photodetector, and a host of moving parts along the axis, is achieved by the fact that on the optical axis before the sensor is installed, the projector ring marks with optical centralizer her Polo is to be placed, and the photodetector is made on the basis of multi-element two-dimensional matrix.

A specified embodiment of the device through the use of the projector ring marks with optical centralizer of its position and two-dimensional multi-element photodetector allows high accuracy to control the deviation of the axis of the hole from linearity, deviation of the shape of the holes from the circumference and quality of processing the inner surface of the hole at any point.

It is advisable to ring projector labels to perform in the form of a conical mirror, the cone of which is directed toward the photodetector, and at its top to install an optical centralizer as a stand-alone point source of radiation, for example, LEDs.

You can also perform optical centralizer with passive illumination, for which the projector ring marks are in the form of the conical mirror, the cone of which is directed toward the photodetector, and inside mirrors perform end-to-end axial hole. In this case, the centralizer is carried out in a light-scattering element mounted on the optical axis. In this embodiment, there is no need for supplying the supply voltage to the radiation source.

To simplify device driver ring optical labels can be made in the form of conical mirrors, set of cages, the Noi in the direction of the light source, inside of which is a through axial hole.

To improve the accuracy of the measurements as a shaper ring optical label advantageous to use a diffraction plate. Precision manufacturing it is significantly higher than the precision surfaces of the conical mirror.

The proposed device allows simultaneous high-precision measurement of the main parameters of the hole parts, such as the deviation of the axis of the hole from linearity, deviation of the shape of the holes from the circumference and quality of processing the inner surface of the hole that has no analogues in the measuring technique, and therefore meets the criterion of “inventive step”.

Figure 1 shows the optical scheme of the invention with illuminated optical centralizer and a diffraction plate as a shaper ring optical labels, comprising: a laser 1, a collimator 2; shaper ring optical labels in the form of a diffraction plate 3; the investigational item 4; a conical mirror 5; Autonomous optical centralizer 6; the photodetector 7, and the image processor 8, the node moving parts 9.

Figure 2 shows the optical scheme of the invention with a passive optical centralizer and with conical mirror as a shaper ring optical labels, d is further comprising: a shaper ring optical labels in the form of an annular diaphragm 10 and the conical mirror with an axial channel 11; passive optical centralizer in the form of Matt reseaches 12.

Figure 3-5 shows drawings for explaining the principle of measurement devices:

- figure 3 illustrates the principle of measuring the deflection of the axis of the hole from straightness;

- figure 4 illustrates the principle of measuring the quality of the inner surface of the hole;

- figure 5 illustrates the principle of measuring the deflection shapes from the circle.

The inventive device (figure 1) works as follows. The light beam from the laser 1 enters the collimator 2, which forms a wide parallel beam. Further, the beam illuminates a diffraction plate 3, which forms on the inner surface of the studied part 4 narrow annular optical tag. Ring optical mark is projected on the photodetector 7 by using a conical mirror 5. The geometric center of the ring optical label is highlighted Autonomous optical centralizer 6 (point light source, e.g. a led). Optical centralizer 6 allows to determine the origin of coordinates on the photodetector matrix. The image sensor 7 is transmitted to the image processor 8. The transfer node 9 produces the moving part 4 along the axis thereby effecting scanning of the inner surface along the entire length.

Another variant of the measuring circuit is presented in figure 2. Here K is the number of shaper ring optical label uses circular aperture 10 and the conical mirror 11. For centering the optical scheme in the annular aperture 10 and conical mirrors 5 and 11 are made of the axial bore and in front of the mirror 5 has a matte reseating 12. The advantage of this method is that there is no need to supply the supply voltage for zapisywania offline centralizer 6.

The principle of measuring the deflection of the axis details from linearity shown in figure 3. In position I (figa) axis part 4 coincides with the axis of the measuring system and the image ring label (figb - I) multi-element matrix represents a circle with center 6 on the optical axis. In positions II and III (Figo) axis part does not coincide with the axis of the system due to the curvature. In position II the curvature is Δ1in position III - Δ2(figa). As a consequence, the image will be distorted: the edge will be displaced by the amount Δ1·k in the second case (figb - II) and Δ 2· k - in the third (figb - III). The coefficient k in the first approximation takes into account the angle of the illuminating beam and the increase in the system. For more accurate measurements, you must take into account the perspective of the optical system, the inclination of the measured surface and other phenomena. At low bias the measured surface image of the ring label practically does not differ from the circle, so the deviation of the linearity can't take the distance from the center offset of the circle to the origin. With significant offsets the difference image ring marks from the circumference significantly, and it is therefore necessary to use more complex calculations.

The principle of quality control of the inner surface are presented in figure 4. The measuring part 4 is moved along the Z-axis (figa). The processing unit is deploying the image ring label (figb) in line, get a scan of the internal surface part in a narrow region. Next scan with many sections sequentially formed in a digital frame (pigv). It scan the entire inner surface of the inspected part. Thus, the defect 13 on the inner surface is easy to detect and to determine its position and shape.

Figure 5 illustrates the principle of measuring the deflection shapes from circles. If the measuring part 4 is perfectly round (figa - I), the image ring marks will be a circle (figb - I). When the tension profile of the workpiece 4 on the Y-axis by the value of Δ3(figa - II), the image tag will be compressed on the same axis at a specific value (figb - II). Conversely, if the compression profile of the workpiece 4 on the X-axis by the value of Δ4(Figo III) the image of the label is stretched on the same axis (figb - III). By analyzing the image to determine the profile details in this section.

So about the time, the proposed device allows for one pass details to measure the deviation of the axis of the hole from linearity, to measure the deviation of the shape of the channel from the circumference, and to determine the quality of processing the inner surface of the hole.

1. Device for controlling hole parts that contain consistently located on the same optical axis of the light source, the collimator, the shaper ring optical label and a photodetector connected to the processing unit, the signal of the photodetector, and a host of moving parts along the axis, wherein on the optical axis before the sensor is installed, the projector ring marks with optical centralizer of its provisions, and the photodetector is made on the basis of multi-element two-dimensional matrix.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the projector circular tags made in the form of a conical mirror, the cone of which is directed toward the photodetector, and the top of the installed optical centralizer as a stand-alone point source of radiation, for example, LEDs.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the projector circular tags made in the form of a conical mirror, the cone of which is directed toward the photodetector, inside of which is a through axial hole, with light-scattering element is installed on the optical the axis of the device.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaper ring optical label is made in the form of a conical mirror, mounted in the top side of the light source, inside of which is a through hole.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaper ring optical label made in the form of a diffraction plate.



 

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