Straight-flow turbine

FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.

EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.

1 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of energotermometriya and is intended for use in high power installations sverhmedlennogo class with the direct use of the kinetic energy of the fluid, including wind, rivers and oceans.

Known power plants with once-through turbine to directly convert the energy of motion of the fluid propeller (wing) type with a working body (wheel) open type (see non-traditional renewable energy sources: Analytical album /edited Aigrette. - M.: Institute of GHGs and GT, NKAO - Saving, AO Asiatische, 1996. - 220, str, 130).

However, such solutions have a low value of coefficient of utilization of the kinetic energy of the stream With apthat for open working bodies is in the range Fromp=0,3÷ 0.4 andp=0,5÷ 0,6 - with specially profiled outer band, and an excessively large size.

Closest to the present invention is a straight-flow turbine with high energy qualities Withp=0,7÷ 0,85 (see Small hydropower /Lpemail, Binderman, Tkharkahov and others; Ed. by Lpereira. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1989. - 184, str, 164). Turbine with external and internal contours contains the turbine chamber, the stator resh is rigid columns, the guide device with a grating of the rotary blades, the working body (rotating impeller) with a grid of blades installed on the flanges, and the drive shaft directed downstream and connected to increase the multiplier generator, camera working body and diffuser suction pipe (pramono or S-shaped).

The disadvantages of such a turbine at sverhnegabaritnyh unit capacity is large, the height of its power nodes, due to the large diameters of the impeller D1that complicates the manufacture and subsequent maintenance of such large-scale turbines.

The technical task of the invention is to increase the utilization of the kinetic energy of the flow of liquids and gases in sverhnegabaritnyh power plants and the reduction of the dimensions of the turbine, due to the decreasing diameter of the working body (wheels).

The achievement of the technical objectives achieved by the fact that well-known straight-flow turbine with external and internal contours containing confused turbine chamber, a stator with a lattice of columns, the guide device with a grating of the rotary blades, the working body with a grid of blades installed on the flanges, and the drive shaft directed downstream and connected to the multiplier generator, the camera is working body and diffuser suction pipe, equipped with vibraslim device with grating blade located behind the working body, the mechanical chain drive that contains the drive and driven sprockets and rollers, the outer and inner contours in the cross-sections made in the form of elongated along the horizontal axis of symmetry of these sections ovals, grille blades working body in the form of periodic oval lattice crawler type, with the blades of the working body are cylindrical in shape and the hinge joint of the mechanical chain drive, a drive sprocket which is connected to the drive shaft, and the outer sprocket of the chain drive are contactors, working body, so that its active area grille blades at the top and below are able to move progressively in opposite directions, the flanges of the rotor body with supporting rollers mounted in fixed guides, and connected with the rollers of the mechanical chain of transmission at distances of two adjacent blades of the working body, while the guides are made in the form of oval belts connected to the inner rim of the turbine in the areas of their attachment to the ends of the flanges of the lattice cylindrical rotor body.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the left (right symmetric) half continue the aqueous incision flow turbine in the horizontal version of its active portion; figure 2 shows a cut-In on the vertical axis of the left trailer; figure 3 shows a plan of the turbine with a fragment of the cross section a-a of the flow part, shows a cutout in the interval active part of the gratings; figure 4 shows in enlarged scale a place M the upper area of the left contact of the working body of the turbine.

Straight-flow turbine contains confused turbine chamber 1 formed in the outer 2 and inner 3 lines at the entrance to the turbine, a stator 4, which includes external and 5 internal 6 contours and grid columns 7, for example cylindrical, a guiding apparatus 8 with grille rotary blades 9, the outer rim 10 and the inner rim 11 with the guide belt 12 on the left of his face, the camera 13 is installed on the generator 14. Vipassi apparatus 15 includes a louver blades 16, the outer rim 17 and the inner rim 18 with the guide belt 19 on its right side, the suction pipe 20 21 external and 22 internal lines, longitudinal (along the stream) ribs 23 and sealed with slots 24 (two on each of the lines 21 and 22), arranged symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the generator 14.

The working body 25 is located in the chamber 13 and has a grid of blades 26 mounted on the flanges 27 to the supporting rollers 28, 29 each, mechanical chain drive 30 with the rollers 31 and connecting cable Inc is mi links 32, the pins 33 of the mounting flange 27 on separate rollers 31 located at a distance of two neighboring blades 26 of the working body 25, the slave sprocket 34 mounted in their soft shafts 35, the drive sprocket 36 with the teeth 37, which is simultaneously one of the two outer stars of the contactors. In the active zone (outside contactors) the working body 25 grille blades 26 forms a moving progressively in opposite directions of the upper and lower rows of blades. The drive shaft 38 with supporting units 39, 40, located in the inner lines 11, 22, key 41 mounting thereon a drive sprocket 36 and the power cyclic (circular) element of the gearing 42, such as a sprocket, gear, pulley, etc., belt mechanical actuator 43, for example a chain, toothed belt, a belt, etc., the first stage of the transmission multiplier 44.

External lines 2, 5, 10, 21 and chamber 13 of the working body 25 forming the outer contour of the turbine, fixed by means of bearings 45 on the base plate 46.

Internal lines 3, 6, 11, 18, 22 and the flanges 27 of the blades 26 of the working body 25 to form the inner contour of straight-flow turbine. The shape of the turbine sections, transverse to the direction of the meridional flow, have oval elongated in the horizontal direction form.

The space between the contours of the turbine, and interscapular and milepost the mi channel gratings columns 7, blades 9, 16 and blades 26 to form the flow-through portion of the turbine.

The turbine operates as follows.

The flow of the working fluid (liquid or gas, usually river water, sea water, ocean currents, air and other) comes from the average meridional velocity ν1in confused the channel of the turbine chamber 1, flowing around the surface of its outer 2 and inner 3 lines.

Then the working fluid is directed into the stator 4, washing his lines 5, 6 and cylindrical columns 7. The stator perceives the transverse force load acting on the input flowing parts of the turbine, and generates an axial flow in front of guide vanes 8. Rotatable about their own vertical axes of the vanes 9 of the guiding apparatus 8 create the necessary for operation of the turbine the swirling flow at the entrance to the working body 25. Changing the positions of the blades 9 allows you to adjust the flow rate of the working fluid and rabatyvaemy turbine part of the velocity head, i.e. to change its mode of operation at a fixed angular speed ω drive sprocket 36 and the drive shaft 38. The possibility of rotation of the blades 9 is provided by a special form of their end surfaces and inner surfaces of the lines 10, 11, which are active in the area lie in planes parallel to the axes O and O1-O1turbine, and in the area of the contactors are polution the Rami diameter, close to the D1and D0. Grille blades 9 and the drive to provide full closure of the guide vanes 8 in its active part, and in the area of contactors, if necessary, stop the turbine.

Next, the working fluid enters the working body 25 which, when the flow stream is formed by the lattice of the blades 26, the flanges 27 and the camera 13 lift force occurs, the circulation component which Rki.e. component located in a plane perpendicular to the axis O, and the normal to the generatrix of the cylindrical blades 26, creates a torque on the drive sprocket 36 and actuates the grille blades 26 with the translational speed ν =ω r0in the active part of the working body 25, where r0is the radius of the pitch circle of the teeth 37 of the drive sprocket 36. Thus the top row of blades 26 is moving, for example, right - to-left, and bottom - in the opposite direction.

The movement of the chain drive 30 and, accordingly, the torque on the drive shaft 38 with supporting units 39, 40 is achieved by the transfer of forces from the grille blades 26 to the flanges 27, further from the flange 27 through the pins 33 to the rollers 31 and the connecting links 32 and then through the engagement of rollers 31 with the teeth 37 of the drive sprocket 36 through the key 41 to the drive shaft 38. When the reverse rollers 2, 29 moving in the guide belts 12, 19, perceive resulting in a force field overturning moments, axial forces and inertial loads on them in areas of the semicircles of the contactors. These efforts, together with the total frontal resistance of the turbine rolling speed ν1the working fluid flow through bearings 45 are closed on the base plate 46.

Torque on the shaft 38 through the power of the cyclical element of the gearing 42 mechanical tape drive 43, passed through a sealed slot 24 in the lines 21, 22, is transmitted to increase the multiplier 44, and from there to the rotor of the generator 14, the angular velocity of rotation which is generally several times more than the ω .

Of the working body 25 flows into vipassi apparatus 15, which stabilizes the flow coming out of the working body 25 at high pressure working fluid, and it eliminates the residual twist in the direction of the velocity v, which reduces hydraulic and circulation losses in the output stream from the turbine. Lines 17, 18 are identical to lines 10, 11 and vanes 16 create axial (along the O-O) input of the working fluid in the suction pipe 20.

In the suction pipe 20 is recovered, the pressure in the working body to levels close to the pressure in the environment, by reducing it near the STI thread receiving output from the turbine is ν2<<ν1. Lines 21, 22 is formed extending to the output channel with the corresponding angle of his erection and the longitudinal size of the turbine, i.e. its length L.

The height H of the turbine installation is determined by the parameters of the working medium flow, the specific conditions of inception, feasibility calculations.

Theoretical NTand useful N the power developed the proposed turbine is determined by the following relations:

T=2(B+π r0)/ω r0,

Cp=μ η ,

where τ - time; T is the time period of one cycle of movement of the blade 26; B - width of the active part of the upper and lower arrays of blades 26; υkand n is the speed of the k-th blade 26 on the shoulder lkthe force Rkand their number; F, D1D0and l - area flow area of the working body 25, without hesitation flow blades 26, the height and the distance in height between the inner ends of the blades 26 and departure, respectively, ρ is the density of the working fluid;ρ , μ and η - utilization of the kinetic energy of the flow, flow, and efficiency of the turbine, respectively.

Settings μ , η and , consequently, Withρ measured at their values obtained from the experimental and operational data for full-scale flow turbines. Statistical processing of these materials shows that the proposed technical solution and the expected average values of energy efficiency are η =0,84, μ =0,86,ρ =0,72. The resulting value of the coefficient Withρ approximately two times higher than the similar indicator of the power plants with the working bodies of open type. This change In width of the working body 25 height D1and , consequently, the departure of the blades 26 can be obtained in several times smaller impeller diameter and departure blades power plants known solutions with the same installed capacity and technologically acceptable overall performance of the turbine.

So, for ocean currents with the estimated parameters υ1=2.25 m/s, N=60 MW for the proposed turbines have the height and width of the active part of the working body. D150 m,≈ 325 m

The use of the present invention will improve in power plants sverhmedlennogo class utilization of energy flows of liquids and gases and to reduce their size.

Straight-flow turbine with external and internal contours containing confused turbine chamber, a stator with a lattice of columns, the guide device with a grating of the rotary blades, the work is s body with a grating blade, mounted on the flanges, and the drive shaft directed downstream and connected to the multiplier of the rotor of the generator, the camera working body and diffuser suction pipe, characterized in that it is provided vibraslim device with grating blade located behind the working body, the mechanical chain drive that contains the drive and driven sprockets and rollers, the outer and inner contours in the cross-sections made in the form of elongated along the horizontal axis of symmetry of these sections of the ovals, and the lattice of the rotor body in the form of periodic oval lattice crawler type, with the blades of the working body are cylindrical in shape and pivotally United mechanical chain transmission, a drive sprocket which is connected to the drive shaft, and the outer sprocket of the chain drive contactors are working body so that its active area grille blades at the top and bottom are able to move progressively in opposite directions, the flanges of the rotor body with supporting rollers mounted in fixed guides, and connected with the rollers of the mechanical chain of transmission at distances of two adjacent blades of the working body, while the guides are made in the form of oval bands connected with internal obvo the om turbines in areas of their attachment to the ends of the flanges of the lattice of the rotor body.



 

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