Method of underground structure erection

FIELD: building, particularly erection of all-purpose underground structures having deep foundation pit of irregular shape.

SUBSTANCE: method involves building enclosing walls, two-stage foundation pit excavation, wherein the first stage includes anchoring of enclosing walls with cross-pieces; and assembling frame. Additionally installed within contour defined by enclosing walls is sheet-pile enclosure. Cross-pieces are arranged between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure. The first stage of foundation pit excavation is performed in thrust support between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure and then contour frame members are mounted in developed pit area. The second stage of foundation pit excavation includes developing inner pit part after which frame erection is completed.

EFFECT: improved structure stability, reduced labor inputs, material consumption and increased reliability.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used to reduce the complexity and increase reliability during the construction of underground structures for various purposes with a large and deep pit complex forms.

The prior art method of construction of underground structures, including the execution of the enclosing walls of the method of the “wall in the ground”, the development of the pit in two stages, the first of which make installation mounting enclosing walls in the form of spacers and mounting frame (SU 1786223 A1, E 02 D 5/20, 1993). The main disadvantage of this solution is the complexity and intensity as the first stage of development of the pit in which tear off the pit with free sustainable slopes, leaving the ground prisms and concreting neutral part of the bottom with the installation of spacer elements that are not suitable during the construction of subsurface structures with large pit area and depth.

The invention is directed to improving the sustainability of the enclosing walls, made, for example, the type of “wall”in the period of development of the pit and construction of internal structures, reduction of material and labor required for the construction of underground facilities and increase its reliability as a whole.

The solution of this problem provides the I, a method for construction of underground facilities, which includes the execution of the enclosing walls, the development of the pit in two stages, the first of which make the fastening of the retaining walls of the spacer elements, and a mounting frame according to the invention in a circuit enclosing walls additionally install sheet pile enclosure and spacers placed between the enclosing walls and tongue-and-groove fence, then make development of the first phase of excavation in the spacer bracket between enclosing walls, and tongue-and-groove fence and mounted in the developed part of the pit contour design of the frame, and then in the second stage, develop the inner part of the pit and erect the frame completely.

In addition, the sheet pile enclosure installed at a distance from the enclosing walls is equal to (0,6-1,2) N, where N is the depth of the pit.

This sheet pile barrier and spacer elements are dismantled after the development of the pit of the second stage.

It is possible that the first and/or second stage, the soil was removed on the ramp made between enclosing walls, and tongue-and-groove fence.

Additional sportowego fencing and spacers before carrying out the first stage reduces the thickness of the enclosing walls and to increase their stability and incremental development cotl the van with the removal of soil, first on the perimeter of the spacer in the mount between the enclosing walls and tongue-and-groove fence, and then from the inner part of the pit, significantly reduces complexity and simplifies the process of framing and buried structures in General, especially in conditions of unfettered development in the pits large area and depth.

1 schematically shows a General view of excavation subsurface structures

figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1

Recessed structure after development of the first stage contains the enclosing wall 1 made by the method of “wall” or similar technologies, sheet pile enclosure 2, the spacer elements 3, which are installed between the enclosing walls 1 and tongue-and-groove fence 2, the distance between which is=(0,6-1,2) N, where N is the depth of the pit.

The claimed method is as follows.

The circuit constructed underground construction perform enclosing wall 1, for example, by the method of “wall”, install sheet pile enclosure 2 at a distance from the enclosing walls 1, equal=(0,6-1,2) N, where N is the depth of the pit, produce their attachment by means of spacer elements 3 and the first stage develop part 4 on the periphery of the pit in the spacer bracket between enclosing walls 1 and tongue-and-groove fence 2. Then in the developed h the SRT4 pit mounted frames (not shown) with the base plate 5. Then in the second stage, develop the inner part 6 of the pit, removing sheet pile enclosure 2 and spacers 3 and erect the frame completely. In the process of developing the first and/or second stage of excavation soil can be removed from the ramp, made on the periphery of the pit between the enclosing walls 1 and tongue-and-groove fence 2, which further reduces complexity and simplifies the development of the pit. In addition, the development sportowego fences 2 and spacers 3 can be made after the installation of the framework developed in the peripheral part 4 of the pit contour as the development of the inner part 6 of the pit of the second stage.

1. The method of construction of underground structures, including the execution of the enclosing walls, the development of the pit in two stages, the first of which make the fastening of the retaining walls of the spacer elements, and the mounting frame, characterized in that the contour of the enclosing walls additionally install sheet pile enclosure and spacers placed between the enclosing walls and tongue-and-groove fence, then make development of the first phase of excavation in the spacer bracket between enclosing walls, and tongue-and-groove fence and mounted in the developed part of the pit contour design of the frame, and then in the second stage develop vnutrenniy is part of the pit and erect the frame completely.

2. The method of construction of underground structures according to claim 1, characterized in that the sheet pile enclosure installed at a distance from the enclosing walls is equal to (0,6-1,2) N, where N is the depth of the pit.

3. The method of construction of underground structures according to any one of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the sheet pile enclosure and spacers dismantled after the development of the pit of the second stage.

4. The method of construction of underground structures according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the first and/or second stage the soil remove the ramp is made between enclosing walls, and tongue-and-groove fence.



 

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FIELD: building, particularly erection of all-purpose underground structures having deep foundation pit of irregular shape.

SUBSTANCE: method involves building enclosing walls, two-stage foundation pit excavation, wherein the first stage includes anchoring of enclosing walls with cross-pieces; and assembling frame. Additionally installed within contour defined by enclosing walls is sheet-pile enclosure. Cross-pieces are arranged between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure. The first stage of foundation pit excavation is performed in thrust support between enclosing walls and sheet-pile enclosure and then contour frame members are mounted in developed pit area. The second stage of foundation pit excavation includes developing inner pit part after which frame erection is completed.

EFFECT: improved structure stability, reduced labor inputs, material consumption and increased reliability.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect building structures in permafrost areas and thick snow cover.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises trench in which load-bearing enclosing structure partly submersed in ground below natural ground surface is arranged. The enclosing structure defines space for transport passage structure location. Nonfrost-susceptible ground layer is arranged under the passage structure. Total height of the nonfrost-susceptible ground layer between passage structure bottom and lower trench surface is to be not less than season thawing depth. Ground prism is created above natural ground surface having axis coinciding with tunnel axis. Width B of ground prism determined along trench top, ground prism width Bp, ground prism height he at edges thereof and ground prism height ha along structure axis are determined from given correlations.

EFFECT: reduced costs of motor road and rail road erection in permafrost ground and increased ability of ground retaining in permafrost condition.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect building structures in permafrost areas and thick snow cover.

SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises trench in which load-bearing enclosing structure partly submersed in ground below natural ground surface is arranged. The enclosing structure defines space for transport passage structure location. Tunnel built in permafrost ground comprises longitudinal embankment having axis coinciding with longitudinal tunnel axis and defining combination of trapeze and triangle located above trapeze in cross-section. Triangle base coincides with upper trapeze base. Above load-bearing enclosing structure is arranged within the bounds of longitudinal embankment and back-filling ground below natural ground surface and may partly project over the embankment and back-filling ground. Nonfrost-susceptible ground layer is arranged under the passage structure. Total height of the nonfrost-susceptible ground layer between passage structure bottom and lower trench surface is to be not less than season thawing depth. Width B thereof is determined along trench top. Trapeze height ht, maximal ground embankment height he along passage structure axis, upper trapeze base width Bu, total ground embankment width Be are determined from given correlations.

EFFECT: reduced costs of motor road and rail road erection in permafrost ground and increased ability of ground retaining in permafrost condition.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: road construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground excavations and can be used for big-section transport tunneling under railway embankments as well as for conduit pipes' construction under railway embankments. Method of tunnel piercing under railway embankment includes boring of a number of wells along the outline of tunnel being constructed with subsequent concreting and soil removal from outline resulted from boring process. Wells are bored step by step in horizontal plane, with portal frames with conductor guides preinstalled on two sides of embankment slopes along their external outline. Leading small well is bored by means of determining boring direction by hole provided in conductor. After the leading well is bored, end of small boring tool is hinged to end of big boring tool arranged in casing pipe. Big boring tool moves in leading well behind small boring tool together with casing pipe, which is installed in well after boring is completed, and boring tools are removed. After required number of casing pipes is installed along outline of portal frames, soil is removed from their cavity and they are filled with concrete mix. Soil is removed from outline formed by continuous rows of casing pipes along the whole section and throughout the length of tunnel.

EFFECT: reduction of risk of integrity damage, protection of railway embankment from deformations and breakage without road traffic stop when piercing a tunnel.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, road engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction of tunnels and may be used in creation of earthquake-proof tunnel design. Earthquake-proof tunnel consists of rigidly fixed metal and elastic, for instance, rubber, elements installed one after another, at that elastic elements are made of two types: autonomous longitudinal rectangular in shape, equal in length to metal element and in width also equal to width of metal element with symmetrically arranged holes in number equal to number of fixtures in metal elements of tunnel and round in external diametre equal to external diametre of tunnel and by thickness that makes 1.618 of metal element end height and holes with identical pitch, which are located in transverse plane and along axis of elastic element symmetry and in number equal to number of fixtures installed in metal elements of tunnel. At the middle of every half-wave of average length of earthquakes wave observed in this area, under their maximums compensators are installed, which consist of elastic material with length of 1.618 Lm, where Lm is longitudinal size of metal element arranged in the form of ring with symmetrically installed holes in its ends with identical pitch at ring end surface, and two springs are installed inside these holes: one compression spring of the largest diametre, and inside of it - tension spring with two horizontal threaded ends fixed by nuts on opposite ends of tunnel metal elements with a close fit. Similar springs are installed also in holes of autonomous longitudinal rectangular elastic elements.

EFFECT: increased strength and reliability of tunnel during earthquakes.

4 dwg

FIELD: road construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground construction and can be used for building large tunnels under traffic arteries for organising traffic intersections at cross-roads, as well as at railway crossings. Method of constructing tunnel for organising traffic intersections at cross-roads, which are formed with traffic arteries located at one and the same level, involves horizontal drilling performed in series and in steps by pre-installing a portal frame with conductor guides along external outline of tunnel for drilling leading wells of small diametre. The method is implemented so that after drilling of leading wells is completed, the end of the boring tool of small diametre is connected to the end of boring tool of large diametre, which is placed in casing pipe. Boring tool of large diametre is moved in the leading well after the boring tool of small diametre together with casing pipe, which is left in the well after drilling is completed, and boring tools are removed. After the required number of casing pipes is fixed along the outline of portal frames, soil is removed from cavity and it is filled with concrete mixture. In secondary traffic artery, by using slurry wall method, there reinforced are installation places of portal frames and ramps are made, which provide the access to organisation of works on construction of tunnel under the main traffic artery. Then upper tunnel covering is installed, after that, side tunnel walls are made by means of the above described method, then wall in the soil which covers tunnel portal is demolished, and soil is removed from the whole internal space of tunnel.

EFFECT: reducing the time required for traffic interruption during construction and labour input during work execution when constructing tunnel.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to formwork for developing reinforcing covering of the construction made from corrugated steel plates. That formwork installed on one surface of corrugated steel plate and forming the reinforcing covering after inner space of formwork is filled with concrete and hardening of the filled concrete, which contains a lot of individual formworking panels, each of which includes rectangular front part of the panel and two side parts of the panel, which are made as an integral part of front panel part and located along opposite edges of the above front part throughout its length; at that, a lot of individual formworking panels are attached in series to corrugated steel plate by means of many anchor bolts and nuts along external surface of corrugated steel plate in its longitudinal direction.

EFFECT: increasing labour efficiency, decreasing labour input, providing repeated use of removed formwork.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for reinforcement of structure from corrugated steel sheets with application of shell located on surface of corrugated steel sheet, in which the following stages are executed: stage of anchor bolt installation, in which hole is created for insertion of anchor bolt on surface of corrugated steel sheet, and anchor bolt is installed in hole for insertion of anchor bolt so that upper end of anchor bolt protrudes over surface of corrugated steel sheet by specified height. Stage of armature rod installation, in which armature rod is fixed to anchor bolt, which protrudes over surface of corrugated steel sheet, with application of wire sections. Stage of curb assembly, in which curb is attached to anchor bolt with application of nut so that armature rod located over surface of corrugated steel sheet is closed with this curb. Stage of concrete filling, in which concrete is filled inside curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet. Stage of curb dismantling, in which curb is removed after concrete filled inside this curb hardens. Besides on stage of curb assembly, the following operations are carried out: placement of seal between curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet and mentioned surface of corrugated steel sheet, and reinforcement of curb arranged on surface of corrugated steel sheet, using support rod, at opposite ends of which there are areas with internal thread, onto which according fastening nuts are screwed.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity of structure, increased reliability and strength of structure.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: lining of underground structure from reinforced metal blocks comprises internal metal insulation with stiffening ribs and concrete. Reinforced metal blocks are made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds, which consists of metal sheet, working armature rods welded to it with length by 20 mm less than length of metal sheet and stiffening ribs in the form of two or more diagonal metal trusses, upper belt tops of which are located in the same plane, and armature lattice made of longitudinal armature rods, with number equal to doubled number of trusses and cross armature rods with pitch equal to pitch of truss diagonal, at the same time tops of upper belts of trusses serve as support elements for fixation of armature lattice on them, and arranged so that metal sheet, welded working armature rods, diagonal trusses and longitudinal rod armature of lattice fixed on tops of truss upper belts, create lower and upper diaphragms of vertical rigidity of reinforced metal block, transverse armature of grid creates upper diaphragm of horizontal rigidity, and metal sheet - its lower diaphragm. Length of longitudinal rods of lattice exceeds length of metal sheet on each side by value 1, and created extensions of longitudinal rods are bent according to radius, equal to distance between metal sheet and armature lattice h, and from one side at least half inserted into tubular cartridges with length of 10-20 diametres of armature rods, which are bent in the form of knee along the same radius as longitudinal armature rods, having holes in middle part of length for filling of fast-hardening cement-sand solution and equipped with fastening bolts. Cross rods of armature lattice, length of which on each side is equal to width of metal sheet, on one side at least half inserted into tubular straight cartridges, equipped with fastening bolts and holes in a manner similar to bent cartridges. Exceeding of length of longitudinal rods of lattice over length of metal sheet 1 is identified using given dependence.

EFFECT: improvement and unification of reinforced metal block for expansion of application field and simplification of structure lining assembly technology.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to construct multistorey underground structures in weak water-saturated soils in districts of existing development, including arrangement of vertical walls, arrangement of floor ceilings and subsequent removal of soil from the foundation pit, differing by the fact that position of vertical walls is reliably fixed in their lower part with a concrete diaphragm laid at the bottom of the foundation pit without extraction of soil; in the upper part the vertical walls are fixed with spreader beams laid onto soil foundation at the elevation of upper ceiling of the structure along the external contour of the foundation pit, and a frame installed along the external contour of the foundation pit onto soil foundation also at the elevation of the upper ceiling; spreader beams, in their turn, are supported with a system of horizontal longitudinal and transverse beams, which are mounted at the level of the ceiling, afterwards the soil mass is removed from the foundation pit to the elevation of the ceiling of the lower floor; at the level of the lower floor the similar technological operations are carried out to arrange spreader beams and a system of longitudinal and transverse beams that support spreader beams; afterwards the soil mass is removed to the level of the ceiling of the next floor below, and all technological operations are repeated; finally the soil mass is removed from the foundation pit to the diaphragm that closes the foundation pit bottom, afterwards the diaphragm surface is levelled, and ceilings are assembled, in the "bottom-up" order.

EFFECT: invention provides for higher reliability of all elements of a structure and a facility as a whole.

2 dwg

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