Method of removing lead level in blood and milk of cows in industrial zones
SUBSTANCE: method comprises introducing glauconite into diet of milk cows in ecologically unfriendly zone in amount corresponding to 0.15-0.20 g per 1 kg cow's weight once a day over a 25-30 day period.
EFFECT: reduced level of lead both in body and in blood of cows.
The invention relates to veterinary medicine and can be used to pharmacokineti feed rations animal technogenic zones to reduce and excretion of salts of lead.
In veterinary practice is known and proposed a wide variety of schemes and methods, carrying out the elimination of lead from the body of animals, which assume the use of the following tools: natural zeolites, decoction of licorice root, ferrocyanides drugs - ferrocin and BIFI®, biocomplex of Jerusalem artichoke , chitosan and Polisorb EAP.
There is a method of feeding natural zeolite at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for 15 days .
Natural zeolites are microporous framework silicates crystal structure containing channels and cavities occupied by large ions and water molecules. They have considerable freedom of movement, which leads to ion exchange and reversible dehydration. The primary building unit of zeolite framework is the tetrahedron, the center of which is occupied by an atom of silicon or aluminum, and the tops are four atoms of oxygen. Each oxygen atom is shared by two tetrahedra. Their set forms a continuous framework.
Thanks to well-defined pore sizes of the internal cavities of natural zeolites possess molecules is RNO-sieve properties, are good adsorbents for many inorganic and organic substances, including heavy metals.
However, the use of natural zeolites in the composition of the diet of animals is caused by scar digestion. In this regard, the introduction in the diet of a significant amount of minerals accompanied by a change in the active medium, the pH of the rumen of the alkaline (alkalosis) and a decrease in motor function of the rumen, leading to long a lie forage mass and low detoxification capacity of natural zeolites to the salts of heavy metals, including lead.
In this connection it is necessary to justify the recommended dose of a natural mineral, duration and frequency of their administration in the diet of ruminant animals.
The known method of eliminating lead from the body of animals by daily watering with potable water decoction of licorice root (1:20) for 45 days 470-520 ml per head . This method is quite effective, as accompanied by a pronounced detoxification property in respect of some heavy metals.
However, the main disadvantage of this method is its very low manufacturability, since the feeding of the decoction of licorice root should be implemented individually and technogenic loads affects all livestock animals, therefore, its implementation requires significant the considerable amount of time.
Known method of pharmacokineti heavy metals in animals by applying ferrocyanides drugs - ferrocin and BIFI® 5 g and 30 g per head, respectively . The basis of these drugs is ferrocin - melkodisperstnoy powder consisting of iron-hexacyanoferrate potassium F[Fe(CP)6] (5%) and iron-hexacyanoferrate Fe[Fe(CP)6] (95%). Apply another form of Fund-BIFI®representing celloidin-inorganic composition obtained by deposition ferrocyanide iron potassium cellulose media in the form of powder with particle size of 0.16-2.5 mm (contents ferracina to 10%).
However, given the fact that their production and use different specificity detoxification of radionuclides, requires a compelling scientific rationale for their application with the purpose of elimination of heavy metals.
The known method of eliminating heavy metals by applying a biocomplex of Jerusalem artichoke, which is 2.3-3 times more intense than pectins and other biological substances eliminate heavy metals. In medical practice used dosage form obtained from the leaves, stems and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, which is successfully used in diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer disease, gastroenteritis, hypertension, in some diseases of the cardiovascular system is s. Especially widely used, and increase in radioactive contamination of the environment. In this aspect revealed that amino acids, including essential (arginine, valine, histidine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine), and vitamins b and C which are at Jerusalem artichoke high percentage - give it a distinct therapeutic properties for protection from exposure to ionizing radiation.
In this regard, considering the small knowledge of the application and use of Jerusalem artichoke in the diet of farm animals, especially in regions that experience a powerful technogenic load, requires a thorough science-based research on the use of Jerusalem artichoke as farmacocinetica heavy metals and, in particular, lead.
Known method of pharmacokineti heavy metals in animals through the use of chitosan from calculation of 0.7 g per 1 kg of body weight 2 times in 2 days with an interval of 2 days . The drug chitosan is derived from chitin is a nitrogen - containing polysaccharide derived from the shells of crustaceans. Chitin and its derivatives have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, stimulate the digestive tract, strengthen the protective function of the liver. Along with this, using this method of correction requires significant eco the ohmic attachments as the production of the drug is established only in some regions of Russia.
Given the pronounced antimicrobial effect of chitosan, this reduces the advantage of the proposed method.
The closest analogue is the way the correction of the excessive content of toxic elements in the body of animals by introducing Polisorb EAP (veterinary oral) 150 mg/kg 2 times in 2 days with 5-day intervals . Polisorb - highly dispersed pyrogenic silica, procainamidesee properties which provide the binding and excretion of exogenous and endocrinol, including salts of heavy metals. The method is quite effective, but very time consuming, as the dosing is done for every kilogram of body weight, and the use of large amounts of the drug contributes to the structuring of water in the rumen of ruminants, which is accompanied by a decrease scar digestion.
The aim of the present invention is to improve the efficiency of elimination of lead from the body of the lactating cow.
This goal is achieved by the fact that dairy cows in ecologically unfavorable areas in the composition of the feed ration mixed with concentrates enter glauconite at a rate of 0.15-0.20 g/kg body weight once a day for 25-30 days.
Comparable analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the claimed ability is b differs from the known that as farmacocinetica use natural mineral glauconite.
Thus, the claimed method meets the criteria of the invention of "Novelty."
The analysis of the prototype and other methods in the field of veterinary medicine did not reveal any sign, similar to the claimed solution, which allows to make a conclusion on compliance of the way the criterion of "substantial differences".
The method is implemented as follows. Glauconite at a dose of 0.15-0.20 g/kg body weight once a day for 25-30 days introduced into the diet of dairy cows.
Glauconite refers to the natural minerals from the class of silicates and is a powder blue-green color, insoluble in water and other liquids. It is a good natural adsorbent toxins with active absorption area (a few hundred meters in 1 g). The composition of glauconite includes a large number of macro - and microelements, which are as needed is retrieved by the body and are included in the metabolism. Glauconite slows the promotion of food through the GI tract, thus contributing to more efficient absorption of nutrients, reduces peristalsis.
Glauconite has pronounced adsorption, ion exchange, and catalytic detoxification properties, displays the body of some toxic elements (heavy metal is low, radionuclides, nitrites, nitrates, products of metabolism of toxins). It is not toxic, does not cause irritation and allergic effect .
Given all of the above information, a test was performed of glauconite as enterosorbent that reduce the level of lead in the organism of animals.
Scientific and experimental studies have tested various doses of glauconite and the duration of their administration in the feed ration of dairy cows.
So, was tested doses of mineral based 0,05; 0,1; 0,15; 0,20, 0,25; 0,30 g/kg body weight once daily for 25-30 days. It was found that to achieve rapid pharmacological and therapeutic effect of removing lead from the body of the cow must be used in animal diets glauconite mixed with concentrates at a rate of 0.15-0.20 g/kg body weight once a day for 25-30 days. The use of glauconite in the proposed scheme improved the performance of the rumen contents.
So, on the 30th day of research in the contents of the rumen of the animals of the experimental group revealed an increase in the total number of AGV's (volatile fatty acids) and percentage increase in acetic and propionic acid at reliable increase in the total number of infusoria.
In addition, in the laboratory revealed the adsorption properties of glauconite is in vitro in relation to the salts of lead, while subcutaneous injection of a solution of lead white mice after 24-hour exposure in it glauconite with subsequent filtering suggests that the mineral has expressed detoxification ability.
For the implementation of the proposed method experimental study was conducted on the basis of the collective farm "Drobysheva" Trinity district of Chelyabinsk region.
The collective farm "Drobysheva" is located in the area of emissions Troitskaya GRES, which works on brown Ekibastuz coal of high ash content. Smoke emissions in the composition of the ash contain many toxic elements in concentrations in the tens, hundreds, thousands of times their natural content in soils, waters and animals. According to Aierroc  Troitskaya GRES in the composition of the ash daily throws (kg): copper - 17,3; lead - 2,7; zinc - 10,3; Nickel - 6,6; strontium - 40,0.
In the study of lead levels in the trophic chain management found that in soil samples taken from various fields of the economy, the lead content 25.3-38,9% exceed the maximum allowable concentration in water from natural reservoirs of lead was more MPC 16 times. High levels of lead contained forage crops agriculture: the level of lead in the Seine was above the MRL by 3.61 and haylage - 47.6%.
In research and production experience was included 24 head of milk cows on 2-3 third month of lactation, the average daily the full productivity of 7.5 - 8,0 kg of milk.
Cow black-motley breed at the age of 5.5-6 years of age live weight 450-480 kg
The animals were kept in the model barn 200 head, milking, care and feeding of all animals were similar.
According to the principle of analogues of the experimental cows were divided into 3 groups. The first group served as control, it analyzed the level of lead content in the blood and its excretion with milk. Cows in the second group once a day for 30 days in the feeding ration mixed with concentrates was introduced glauconite at a rate of 0.15 g/kg body weight.
Cows of the third group were injected Polisorb EAP, the correction method of the level of lead content, which is used as a prototype declared.
In accordance with the requirements of method Polisorb the EAP was introduced based 150 mg/kg of body weight 2 times a day for 2 days with 5-day intervals. Blood and milk of cows from the experimental and control groups were investigated for the presence of lead on the 7th; the 15th and 30th day of the experiment and compared with values obtained before the experiment.
The results are presented in tables 1 and 2.
Dynamics of the level of lead content mg/l in blood of cows (M±m; n=8)
|Group||Norma||To experience||Day research|
|2 the claimed method||0,25||0,60±0,11||0,51±0,17||036±0,21||0,24±0,12|
Analyzing the data of table 1, it should be noted that the lead levels in the blood of all animals greatly exceeds the limits of the maximum standards.
During the experimental period, the level of lead in the blood of the animals of the control group slightly increased compared with the data before the experience. So, on the 14th day of studies level amounted to 0.62±0.13 mg/l, which is 6.8% above the control value to the experience. On the 30th day the level of lead in blood of animals exceeded the norm by 14.0%.
Introduction in the diet of dairy cows of glauconite has led to a natural significant reduction of lead in blood. Thus, a significant decrease was observed on the 14th day of research. During this period, the level of lead in blood of cows decreased by 42.0% compared with the control group. On the 30th su is key continued its decrease to a value of 0.24± 0,12 mg/l, 60.0% lower than in the control group of cows. It should be noted that the 30-day studies after application of glauconite level of lead content in the blood of the animals corresponded to the index rules.
In the third group of animals, which used Polisorb VP, was the reduction of lead in blood of dairy cows. So, on the 7th day level fell by 7.1, 14th - 24,2, 30th to 46.7% in comparison with the figures of animals in the control group. It should be noted, that after the application of Polisorb VP lead levels exceeded standards on 28,0%.
High level of lead in the body of the lactating cows was significantly associated with taking it with milk. So, before conducting experimental research in the milk of cows of all experimental animals lead levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration), 2.5-2.7 times (table 2).
Dynamics of the level of lead content in cow milk (mg/l); M±m; n=8)
|Group||MAC||To experience||Day research|
|2 the claimed method||0,1||0,24±0,09||0,19±0,41||0,17±0,38||0,11±0,07|
Analyzing the data of table 2, it should be noted that the increase of lead levels in milk of cows of the control group wore an undulating character, and on the 30th day of research, its level was 0.25±0.19 mg/l, which is 150,0% higher than the MPL.
In the third experimental group using Polisorb EAP helped to reduce lead levels in milk. So, on the 7th day the level of toxicant decreased by 4.2, 14-s - 23,1, the 30 - 40,0% compared with control animals. However, the level of its content on the 30th day of research was higher than the MPL 50%. The use of glauconite in the second experimental group led to a decrease in the content in the milk of cows during all periods of experimental studies. So, on a background of application of mineral on the 7th day level fell by 20.9; 14th - 34,7; the 30 - 56% compared to control animals.
Elimination of lead from the body of all experimental groups of cows was determined by examination of the feces and urine (table 3).
Dynamics of excretion of lead from the body of the cow faeces (mg/kg) and urine (mg/l) (M±m; n=8)
|Group||To experience||Day research|
|Excretion of feces|
|2 the claimed method||to 11.61±0,27||13,9±0,35||19,8±0,4||26,4±0,13|
Table C shows that the level of excretion of lead from the body with feces and urine of animals from the control groups were on the bottom level.
The use of Polisorb EAP in the third experimental group increases the elimination of lead, mainly from the feces.
So, on the 30th day of studies, the level of lead content in the feces was 49.2 percent higher than in the control group of animals.
The use of glauconite more efficiently adsorb lead in the gastrointestinal tract that prevents the flow of toxicant in the blood.
Elimination of lead in the second experimental group was observed in all periods of the studies. So, by the end of the treatment period, the level of lead in the feces of animals was 106,2% higher than in animals of the control group.
Summarizing the obtained results, we can conclude that at high levels of lead in animals using glauconite is much more effective than Polisorb EAP adsorbs toxicant and removes it from the body mostly in the feces, thereby reducing its level in blood and in milk.
Thus, the advantages of the inventive method compared to the prototype and the other suggestions in this area allow us to recommend glauconite for use in veterinary practice in areas with high levels of lead in the food chain, along with the blood and milk of dairy cows at a rate of 0.15-0.20 g/kg body weight once a day for 25-30 days for the removal of toxin from the body and reduce the content of its milk.>
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The way to reduce lead levels in blood and milk of cows technogenic zones, including the introduction in the diet of animals mineral that has absorbent properties, characterized in that the adsorbent of lead used glauconite of 0.15-0.20 g/kg body weight once a day for 25-30 days.