Method of manufacturing dielectric multilayer mirror coating

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.

EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.

22 cl

 

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a dielectric multilayer mirror coating.

The dielectric multilayer mirror coatings, i.e. mirrored coating of multiple dielectric layers, have long been used to facilitate spectral selective reflection or transmission in optical Windows and other optical elements and devices. In addition, it is known coating mirror coating on the lamp bulb. The purpose of this mirror coatings is always in the reflection of certain fractions of radiation and the transmission of certain other shares of radiation with certain other wavelengths.

Such a dielectric multilayer mirror coatings are produced usually by applying a separate dielectric layers, which in most cases consist of two different dielectric materials and have different refractive indices. Sections are in most cases sputtering or deposition from solution. The mirror coating is formed then due to the fact that the multiply layer made, for example, of two different materials double layer, so that there is a periodic alternation of different layers.

Different layers must be precisely maintained with the narrow tolerances of the optical thickness in order to achieve the required quality of the mirrors and SpectraLine characteristics of reflection and transmission.

Under an optical layer thickness is usually understood as a geometrical layer thickness multiplied by the refractive index of the dielectric material layer. The optical thickness of the layer may vary sufficiently from one of the double layer to another.

The usual process of manufacturing such a dielectric multilayer mirror coatings is complex, and is used, for example, complex and expensive installations for deposition in high vacuum. Thus, the layers must be applied consistently separately. The process of manufacturing the mirror coating can be carried out, moreover, only in the framework of the production batches. Mass production under mass production under the closed technique of sputtering in high vacuum is impossible. Next, the quality of the mirrors, achieved through the performed separately applied, is limited. As usual on a curved surface can be applied only up to a maximum of 70 of dielectric layers or dielectric 35 double layers. Thus, for a broadband mirror coatings is achieved by the reflection coefficient of 0.7. Passing around a dielectric multilayer mirror coating, for example of cylindrical objects, the usual way is technologically impossible. When this dielectric multilayer mirror coatings can the be napisany only on flat or a little curved surface, for example, the surface of the lenses.

In summary, it can be stated that with the known multilayer mirror coatings is achieved reflectance maximum of 0.7.

The basis of the present invention lies therefore the task of creating a method of manufacturing a dielectric multilayer mirror coatings, with which in a simple way can be implemented in multi-layered mirrored coating with a high coefficient of reflection.

According to the invention the task is solved by a method of manufacturing a dielectric multi-layered mirrored coating with features of claim 1 of the formula. In accordance with this first produce at least two dielectric layers, each given initial thickness. Then layers have each other to form a layer package. Finally the thickness of the layer package and, thus, the thickness of the individual layers is reduced by deformation of the layer package while maintaining the ratio of the thickness or the ratio of the thicknesses of the layers in between.

According to the invention discovered that in addition to the known methods of manufacturing a dielectric multilayer mirror coatings, namely the deposition of the individual layers or deposition of layers from a solution, there is another possibility of manufacturing a dielectric multilayer mirror coatings. the ri that the desired number of layers have a first on each other in the layer package. Thus it is essential that the layer thicknesses were chosen so that the ratio of the thicknesses of the layers in between are correct. Individual layers can be significantly thicker than in the final state of the mirror coatings. This greatly simplifies the manipulation of the individual layers. Then the thickness of the pack of layers or thickness of the individual layers, if necessary, greatly reduce through stages of deformation. When this is saved, however, the ratio of the thicknesses of the layers in between. In other words, the layer package set “macroscopically” so that at the end of a method of manufacturing it was “microscopic”.

The method according to the invention, there is no technical limit on the maximum number of layers within 70 individual layers or 35 double layers. Therefore, in the interval in which, for example, should be reflected specified wavelengths may be reflected in a significant larger number of wavelengths, which correspond to reflect individual layers or double layers. Using, for example, 400 double layers seems to be quite real. Thus there is a significantly higher reflectance than still achievable reflection coefficient of 0.7.

Therefore, a method of manufacturing a dielectric multilayer mirror coating is a JV shall own, with which in a simple way is possible to realize a multi-layered mirrored coating with a high coefficient of reflection.

In the framework of the production of dielectric layers set the initial thickness of the layers. The initial thickness of the at least two layers can be different. In the manufacture of more than two layers, all layers can be of different thickness, or group of layers may have the same thickness. Any combination, and the thickness should correspond to the wavelengths of the reflected radiation.

At least one layer is particularly simple manner can be made of glass or plastic. Thus the possible combinations of glass and plastic or the whole package of layers of glass or plastic.

For effective reflection of the desired radiation, at least two layers may have different refractive indices. However, all the layers may have different refractive indices.

Alternatively, two layers to make a double layer. In another implementation can be stacked at least two of the double layer, and the optical thickness can vary from one double layer to another.

The arrangement of the layers on top of each other may represent a specific stacking layers. Alternatively, this arrangement may include winding layers, being the m for example, one on top of another stack first two layers, and then braid them together. Due to this, it is possible to achieve a uniform rotation of one and the other layers.

To improve the mechanical stability of the mirror coating layer package may be located before the deformation between two carrier layers. The thickness of the bearing layer determines the subsequent thickness of the deformed material of the package layer and bearing layer, and a material sandwich. Use thick load-bearing layers, which at the end of the manufacturing process also deform, guarantees the required tolerance on the thickness of the individual layers after deformation, since the achievable tolerance on the thickness of the layers in the deformation process should be attributed to the thickness of the material after deformation.

To simplify the manipulation of the carrier layer, at least one supporting layer can be formed by several separate layers. Such layers can be sequentially located behind the process of partial deformation, mainly surfaced.

Bearing layers or individual layers can be made simple by way of the glass. Thus, one supporting layer may also have the form of a bearing blocks.

For reliable optical connection layers, they can be connected after their location to each other is GE through fusion. To avoid the formation of air bubbles between the individual layers fusion can occur in a vacuum. The junction temperature should be, however, achieved quickly, and then be supported in order to avoid diffusion or convection of the various components of the layers in different adjacent layers and thereby erase the differences of the refractive indices of the different layers.

In relation to the deformation of the layer package and, if necessary, load-bearing layers of different ways. First, deformation may occur through the pressing process. Alternatively, this deformation can occur through a process of rolling, and it also applies type of pressing. As another alternative, the deformation can occur through a process of drawing a layer package. By all means the thickness of the layers can be reduced to very small values, preserving the ratios of the thicknesses of the layers.

Simplified deformation can occur under the action of heat. However, you should pay attention to that used temperature not much higher than the temperature of the mechanical yield stress of the material layers, so that unwanted material transfer, for example, by diffusion or convection, did not lead to penetration or mixing is the materials of the layers and keep the geometric limits have not been violated or involuntarily strained.

In order to avoid substantially any of the processes of diffusion or convection deformation can occur without supplying additional heat.

In relation to the economic interest of the application can be produced from the deformed layer package tube or curved glass. The tube can be, for example, the raw material for lamp bulbs. Curved glass can be used in the automotive industry.

In the presence of load-bearing layers is favorable, if the layer package or actually the entire dielectric layer is very close at one surface of the material, namely near the inner surface of the tubes or curved glass. Due to this, it is possible to achieve a high degree of reflection produced, for example, inside of infrared radiation, and residual absorption of infrared radiation in the entire material of the bearing layer and a layer package is minimized.

Multi-layered mirrored coating can be implemented in the framework of the multilayer mirrors. This package layers is almost self-supporting without additional load-bearing layers.

Alternatively, this multi-layered mirrored coating can be implemented in the framework of multi-layered mirrored coating based. This package layers situated mainly on the substrate or delinom host layer.

As a third alternative to the above described possibility of the location of the package layers between two carrier layers. With both sides of the layer package provides the supporting structure.

By the way, according to the invention, it is possible to produce a mirrored coating that can be subjected to further uniform the processing, such as the manufacture of cylindrical tubes or curved window glass without breaking the reflective properties or relations of dielectric layers. Thus, can be manufactured, for example, a dielectric multilayer mirror shell, for example, for cylindrical bodies or bulbs lamps. This provides a separation process of applying a mirror coating, for example, on the lamp as part of the manufacturing process the manufacture of lamps. In addition, can be produced, for example, flat glass, automotive glass, glass automobile headlight or lamp bulb, which already possess inherent in the material desired reflective properties, so that the process of applying a mirror coating on such objects as a special stage of production disappears. The reflective properties set by the arrangement of layers of almost any thickness and with almost arbitrary periodic alternation.

In respect of the application of dielectric m is ololololol glass material in the technology of glass have been carried out extensive research. The process of manufacturing the dielectric mnogosloinogo glass material can be optimally divided into three stages. At the first stage of manufacture of laminated glass. In the second stage, this package is rolled into a sheet glass, and in the third stage of the sheet glass material produce tubes for the production of lamps or lamp bulb.

In modern technology tube production favorably, if lamp bulb large portion radiated by a thread or wire filament thermal radiation again reflects on the thread or wire filament. This provides a reverse heating of the filament or wire filament, allowing to achieve the same temperature filament or wire tension can lead to a thread or wire filament less electrical energy than regular bulbs without reflecting bulb. The more thermal radiation can be reflected from the inner side of the lamp bulb, the higher the conversion efficiency of the summed electrical power is measured and noise visible light filament or wire filament. Therefore, modern lamps desirable high reflectivity for thermal radiation, i.e. radiation in a certain wavelength range. Thanks manufactured by the method according to the invention, a multilayer mirror coating is achieved on the Yan high reflectivity at the desired wavelength range.

This laminated glass is manufactured in accordance with the characteristic of the reflection or transmission. The spectral transmission range must lie between, for example, lengths λ0and λ1waves. The spectral range of the reflection should be, for example, between the lengths of λ1and λ2waves. For broadband reflection, high reflection coefficient between the lengths of λ1and λ2waves of thickness d1the individual layers continuously or stepwise increase in the range d1=kλ1/(4n11and d2=kλ2/(4n21) with the corresponding refractive indices n1both used different varieties of glass, and here λ/4 is the condition of the optical path, k denotes the magnification ratio of the thickness of the glass during the rolling process.

For the limit d2the thickness of the layers and thereby the bandwidth of the reflection there is, however, a boundary condition d2<k3λ0/(4n01), because otherwise the maximum noise light with a maximum length of λ0wave maximum is recorded. For the refractive index of the average of n0=1,59 when short-wave limit bandwidth λ0=0.4 µm long wavelength limit of the reflection with adopted here, the average refractive index n=1,53 at &x003BB; 2=3 λ0is n2/n0=1,15 mm.

This applies, however, only a fraction of radiation with the normal fall on the layer mirror coating. For the fractions of radiation with a different angle of incidence on the mirror layer covering the short wavelength limit of the reflection is shifted towards shorter wavelengths, and the long-wavelength limit reflection towards larger wavelengths. For this reason, when the desired transmission range from 400 to 700 nm can be achieved, in General, ranges reflections from approximately 700 nm to approximately 2 μm with high reflectivity.

In the proposed method of manufacture it is possible to apply a very large number of dielectric layers, which may consist, mainly, of more than 50 and is typically several hundred. Due to this, you can use a smaller difference in the refractive indices of the glass types with a low refractive index, since the largest possible number N of dielectric double layers compensates for small differences in the refractive indices, so you can expect a high reflection coefficient R2N+1=(1-n1/n

2N
2
)2/(1+n1/n
2N
2
)2. For example, for 400 double layers 10 speed packages with both the average refractive indices in the spectral range of the reflection 1.5 for Crohn's and 1.6 for heavy Krona compared to the air with a refractive index of 1 is possible to estimate the maximum reflection coefficient as 0,98.

For fusion of laminated glass used vacuum melting method in order to eliminate the formation of air bubbles between the glass layers. The junction temperature should be, however, achieved quickly, and then be supported in order to avoid diffusion or convection of the various components of the layers in different adjacent layers and thereby to suppress the blurring of the differences of the refractive indices of different glass layers.

The laminate glass, which determines the characteristic of the reflection, is placed between the two bearing blocks, the thickness of the layers which determine the subsequent thickness of the rolled sheet glass material or material of lamp tubes. Arises material sandwich. The application of thick layers, roll out later, provides the necessary tolerances on the optical thickness of the individual layers at the end of the process rolling, because the achievable tolerance on thickness of layers in the process of rolling should be attributed to the thickness of sheet glass is about the end of the process rolling.

Tolerance Δdioptical λ/4-layer is Δdi=Δdk. The achievable tolerance Δd in manufacture of sheet glass already has an absolute value of 0.03 mm, for example for coating glass microscopes. For block-sandwich with 400 dielectric double layers double, on average, the thickness of the cover glass, i.e. 0.3 mm thickness of the double layer before rolling, and the required thickness of the double layer, which equals twice, on average, the thickness 2di=0,33 mcm λ/4-layer at a wavelength of 1 µm and the corresponding refractive index of glass is 1.5 - after rolling and the desired thickness of the sheet of glass 1 mm after rolling observe the tolerance is about 30 nm on each of the optical layer.

Multilayer package is positioned between the top and bottom bearing glass. The top and bottom of the carrier glass have in front of you, first of all, the task of determining the subsequent thickness of sheet glass, and secondly, the capture surface distortion of the layers in the process of rolling, so that the intermediate dielectric multilayer area remains free from interference due to boundary distortion in the process of rolling. The entire unit-the sandwich has a layer thickness D=d/k, where k denotes the coefficient of expansion, a d the desired thickness of the sheet of glass after rolling.

As an example, the dimensions of the block-sandwich with 400 dielectric double loamy, which should be rolled into sheet glass with a thickness of 1 mm, before and after rolling.



The dimensions of the block-sandwich
Before rollingAfter rolling
The thickness of the individual layers0,15×10-3m0,167×10-6m
The thickness of 400 double layer0.12 m0,1336×10-3m
The thickness of the base layer0,78 m0,8664×10-3m
The thickness of the sandwich0.9 m1×10-3m
The absolute tolerance on the thickness of the layer0,03×10-3m33,3×10-9m
The coefficient of expansion1/9001/900

In order to manipulate large, specified here as an example, the initial thickness of the layers of block-sandwich 90 cm in the process of rolling, the blocks bearing glasses can be replaced with multiple glass sheets of the same total thickness that gradually following the proper process of partial rolling alloy with a sandwich.

Further processing of the material of the mirror glass for tube production can be carried out using available technology p is izvodstva sheet glass. The resulting laminated glass can be at the end of the manufacturing process is minimized and collected in a glass tube for lamp production. In this case, the dielectric multilayer layer being, for example, very close at one surface of the sheet glass may lie in the direction of the inner surface of glass tubes. This significantly reduces the residual absorption of infrared radiation subsequent lamp bulb.

Previous layer mirror coating deposited on the outer surface of the lamp bulb, first from the inside out Shine the base material before the infrared radiation reaches the layer mirror coating and is reflected. The residual absorption in the material basis leads here to an increase in power losses in the energy balance of incandescent lamps with spectral mirror coating.

Further processing of the mirror glass tubes for tube production is non-critical. Even the reflow or sealing tube flasks provided for in the manufacturing process of the lamp leads at most to the settlement and expansion of various glass layers, resulting in the short-wave limit reflection also shifted towards shorter wavelengths and, thus, does not increase noise spurious radiated who I am.

Possible increased cost of manufacturing multi-layered tube material compared with conventional lamp material with a separate coating of the mirror layers can be considered economically acceptable due to production in large quantities, due to the lack of specific cost of applying a mirror coating and because of the more favourable from the point of view of production technology, possible optimization of constructive forms of lamps. Other applications of the mirror glass can be glazed buildings and automobiles. Also, here is desirable spectral characteristics of reflection and transmission, for example, the shielding of thermal radiation.

All the advantages of the invention provide for the fabrication of dielectric multilayer mirrors or mirror coatings, which, from the point of view of formation, until now, were impossible.

In other preferred executions and improvements technical solutions according to the invention, reference should be made to the accompanying claims.

In conclusion, it should be emphasized that purely arbitrarily taken as an example running, for example with 400 dual layer, serves only to illustrate the technical solutions according to the invention, but is not limited to this example implementation.

1. The method of manufacture of the population of the dielectric multilayer mirror coatings, includes the following stages: production of at least two dielectric layers specified initial thickness; arrangement of layers on top of each other to form a layer package; reducing the thickness of the layer package, and thus the thicknesses of the individual layers by deformation of the layer package while maintaining the ratio of the thickness or the ratio of the thicknesses of the layers in between, and a layer package before deformation feature between two carrier layers, and at least one supporting layer is formed of several individual layers, wherein the individual layers of the base layer have consistently each at the end of the process of partial deformation on the previous separate layer bearing layer.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the individual layers of the base layer sequentially napravlyayut each at the end of the process of partial deformation on the previous single layer base layer.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the initial thickness of the at least two layers of different.

4. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that at least one layer made of glass.

5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that at least one layer is made of plastic.

6. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that at least two layers have different refractive indices.

7. The method according to od the WMD one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that two layers produce one dual layer.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that at least two double-layer stack.

9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the optical thickness of the layers from one double layer to another may vary.

10. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the arrangement includes stacking and/or winding layers.

11. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the bearing layers or individual layers are made of glass.

12. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the layers after their location on each other are connected by fusion.

13. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the alloying is carried out in a vacuum.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformation is realized by means of the pressing process.

15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformation is realized by means of a flattening process.

16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformation is carried out through a process of drawing.

17. The method according to one of claims 1, 14-16, characterized in that the deformation is carried out under the action of heat.

18. The method according to one of claims 1, 14-16, characterized in that the deformation is carried out without the supply of additional heat.

19. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformed layer package produce tubes or krevolin inye glass.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the layer package feature near the inner surface of the tubes or curved glass.

21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the multi-layered mirrored coating implement in the framework of the multilayer mirrors.

22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the multi-layered mirrored coating implement in the framework of multi-layered mirrored coating based.



 

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FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.

EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.

22 cl

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