Pneumatic hammer

FIELD: mechanical engineering; jack hammers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hammer has housing with two working chambers, upper and lower ones, arranged in tandem and divided by bridge with hole. Striker in form of rod with two pistons end ends, upper and lower ones, is installed in chambers. Striker is in contact with shank of working tool. Hammer is provided with air distributor and channels in housing. Channel along which compressed air is supplied to execute idle stroke of striker are laid only to lower part of upper chamber under upper piston. Chamber under lower piston is in constant communication with atmosphere through holes in walls of housing in zone of contact of striker with shank of working tool.

EFFECT: reduced back blow (vibration) and force to be applied to hammer at operation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to pneumatic hammers, such as the bumper, representing manual pneumatic piston machine percussion, operating under the action of compressed air.

The main disadvantage, in particular manual pneumatic hammers, is the so-called impact or vibration is determined by the principle of operation of the hammer, which is perceived by the hands of the workers, is harmful impact on their health and leads to libratarian.

The natural reaction of a person operating a pneumatic hammer, is the desire to suppress vibration by more depressing the hammer, which leads to even more fatigue.

Various methods of vibration control or protection from it. Among the latter, for example, spring and rubber shock absorbers, which are passive means, as it does not interfere in the process, generating vibration.

The number of active methods of vibration control practical application received method of reducing the diameter of the striker. So, Tomsk Electromechanical plant. Via currently available jackhammers MO-1, MO-2, MO-3A, MO-4A, in which the diameter of the striker reduced from 38 mm to 32 mm compared with hammers MO-8, m-9, m-10 and m-12, released earlier the same plant and Leningrad is dskim (then) plant “Pneumatics”. At twice the reduced mass of the striker. Thus, the same type on the basic parameters of hammers MO-10 MO-3A mass drummer respectively equal to 0.98 and 0,48 kg

It is known that with decreasing diameter of the drummer decreases not only the return (or vibration), but is reduced equally and impact energy, which is unacceptable, as the deteriorating performance of the hammer. To preserve the impact energy increases the speed of the striker, which lengthen the stroke of the striker and reduce its weight. Increase the stroke of the striker, in turn, leads to the loss of frequency shock and increase the length and mass of the hammer, and the reduced mass of the striker impact on the reduction of transmitted impact energy from the drums to the working tool. Therefore the reduction of the diameter of the striker when the condition of compensation of losses on this scheme can significantly reduce the diameter of the striker and, therefore, significantly reduce the impact (vibration) and without reducing the performance of the hammer.

The alleged invention also provides a method for reducing the diameter of the striker. However, losses from a reduction in the diameter of the striker concerning energy and frequency of strikes and mass drummer, compensated and implemented in other technical solutions, which will be described below.

Known submersible pneumatic hammer PN-20 (“the Drilling is going well, authors B. I. exaltation, A.A. furriers. State scientific and technical publishing house of literature on mining, M, 1960, S. 143)used for blast hole drilling in hard rocks, in order to increase impact and rotational capacity while maintaining the diameter of the piston and, accordingly, the diameter of the drilling string and the borehole applied to the piston-drummer with two pistons. Cylinder punch is divided by a partition of the two coupling halves into two chambers, each of which moves the piston. Each piston makes a full working cycle, i.e. compressed air through the channels from the air-distributing device is on the pistons when working stroke and under the piston in the reverse (blank) course. In the prototype the issue of reducing vibration not intended, on the contrary, through the use of a two-chamber system energy of the piston-striker when working and idle strokes increased, began to be increased and the vibration that the punch is not relevant, as it has considerable weight, not a hand tool and has no contact with the person during the operation.

In the present invention is adapted principle more impact energy due to the second piston.

We offer pneumatic hammer, as the prototype is a two-chamber. In the case of hammer you Olney two sequentially located a working camera - the top and bottom, separated by a jumper with a hole in which moves the drummer, made in the form of a rod with two pistons at the ends of the top and bottom. contact with the shank of the working tool upon impact.

The difference is that, if the prototype compressed air alternately served on both piston that with one, on the other hand, the proposed hammer compressed air through the channels from the air-distributing device is both piston only when working stroke, which ensures quick and powerful blow, and at idle compressed air through the channels from the air-distributing device is connected to the lower part of the upper chamber, is supplied only below the upper piston, the working area which is several times less than the total working area of the two pistons and is the difference of the squares of the cross-sections of the piston and rod the drummer.

Thus, reverse, idle, drummer performs at a slower rate as the force acting on it, is several times smaller, resulting in lower return on hands working.

For the punch, taken as a prototype, which is the machine percussion-rotary action, air supply during the reverse course only under one piston having a small footprint, is unacceptable option, so is AK at reverse motion of the piston-drummer must have not less than when working stroke, the energy for actuating the rotary mechanism and generate significant torque required to rotate the rod with the drill crown.

Returning to the description of the distinctive features of the proposed hammer, it should be noted that, as under the lower piston at idle compressed air is not available, in order to reduce the resistance to movement of the striker when working stroke arising from the compression of air in a confined space, Luggage under the lower piston is constantly communicated with the atmosphere of the holes in the body of the hammer in the area of contact of the striker with the shank of the working tool.

The latter makes the additional effect of reducing the pressure on the hammer while working them. This is because in the area of contact of the striker with the shank of the working tool air pressure is absent, the working tool is not squeezed out from the body of the hammer, which, on the contrary, takes place in a conventional single-hammers, when the air beneath the drummer for making idling and compressible drummer before impact and at the moment of impact, at the same time acts on the end face of the shank of the working tool and pushes it out of the housing of the hammer. This effect can significantly reduce the force required to compress the hammer to the collar of rabochegostola, because only when the pressure of the hammer to the collar of the tool of any hammer works effectively.

A reduction of the pressure on the hammer (Δ F) can be easily calculated, for example, a jackhammer, in which the diameter of the shank of the peaks has a standard size of 24 mm

Δ F=p· S=4 kgf/cm2·4.5 cm2=18 kgf,

where S is the cross-sectional area of the shank of the peaks is equal to

;

P is the air pressure acting on the shank peaks = 4-5 kgf/cm2.

Almost Δ F may take 15-20 kgs.

To obtain a better effect of diminishing returns the diameter of the upper piston is chosen as small as possible and is calculated from the condition of ensuring minimum impact (vibration), and the diameter of the lower piston is calculated based on the diameter of the rod and conditions provide the necessary impact energy in addition to that provided by the upper piston. It also takes into account the frequency of strokes and the stroke of the striker. When calculating the frequency of impact should be taken into account longer time idling drummer.

Given the above, a characteristic feature of the hammer is that the diameter of the upper piston is always less and significantly less than the diameter of the lower piston.

The greatest effect of diminishing returns (vibration) and provide the help needed energy parameters - the impact energy and frequency of shocks with a minimum stroke of the striker, and therefore, the minimum length and weight of the hammer, is achieved when used in the air-distributing device, a tubular or tubular slide valve, allowing additional venting to the atmosphere from cameras before moving pistons drummer when working and idle strokes after the blocking of the piston the exhaust holes in the hull. This reduces the resistance to movement of the striker in the greater part of the working and idle strokes and significantly increase the efficiency of the stroke of the striker and more efficient use of idle drummer to diminishing returns due to minimal compressed air under the upper piston.

The latter allows also significantly reduce the consumption of compressed air, because at idle the compressed air almost spent.

Two-piston fail drummer has a large mass close to the mass of the working tool, which allows the most complete energy transfer at impact the working tool.

Figure 1 and 2 shows schematically a longitudinal section of a pneumatic hammer in the initial state before the beginning of the stroke and before idling, respectively.

The hammer has a housing 1 which is made of two parts - the upper block is CA 2 and lower housing 3, interconnected, which made two successively arranged chambers - the upper 4 and lower 5, separated by a crosspiece 6, having a Central hole, through which moves the piston rod 7 of the striker 8, having at its ends the piston - upper 9 and lower 10 contact when hitting a shank 11 of the working tool. The upper piston 9 moves along the chamber 4, the lower piston 10 along the camera 5. Jumper 6 is made detachable, consisting of two polovchak.

In the lower body 3 in the area of contact of the striker with 8 shank 11 of the working tool with holes 12, permanently connecting the lower chamber 5 with the atmosphere.

Air distribution device that controls the movement of the striker up and down, consists of a higher box 13, slide 14, a cover 15 and a system of longitudinal and radial channels and holes in the walls of the higher boxes and enclosures 2 and 3.

Spool box 13 with the cover 15 is pressed against the end face of the upper shell 2 of the handle 16.

Some parts and devices, such as starter, not shown as not of fundamental importance.

Holes 17 are used to supply compressed air into the chamber 4 above the upper piston 9 when working stroke. Hole 18, the lower groove 19 on the spool 14 and the channels 20 are designed to supply compressed Vozduha chamber 5 above the lower piston 10 when working stroke.

The holes 21 in the higher box, the slots 22 and end groove 23 in the lid and the channel 24 in the higher box and the upper case are used to supply compressed air at the top of the piston 9 at idle, what channel 24 connected to the lower part of the upper chamber 4.

Holes 25 and 26 are exhaust and are in the initial phase of the working and idle strokes to displace air through them into the atmosphere of the chambers 4 and 5 before moving pistons until they overlap the front edges of the pistons and in the final phase of the working and idle strokes for exhaust through them compressed air into the atmosphere from the working chambers 4 and 5 after opening their rear edges of the pistons, with the exception of the bottom of the piston 10 at idle, under which compressed air at idle is not available..

The channels 27 in conjunction with the holes 25 serve to displace the air pistons in the atmosphere of the chambers 4 and 5 through the slots 19 and 29 on the valve and the channels 20, 28 and 30 after the blocking pistons exhaust holes 25 and 26 in the working and idle strokes.

When working stroke the air is displaced from the chamber 4 below the upper piston 9 through 28, the groove 29, the channels 27 and the holes 25.

At idle the air is displaced from the chamber 4 above the upper piston 9 through the channels 30, the grooves 19 and 29, the channels 27 and the holes 25.

Also at idle the air is displaced from the chamber 5 at the bottom of the piston 10 through the channels 20, the groove 19, the channels 27 and the holes 25.

The hole 31 in the handle 16 serves for admission of compressed air from the launcher hammer (not shown) in the annular space 32 between the arm and higher box 13.

The hammer is as follows:

1. WORKING STROKE. Before the start of the working stroke of the striker 8 and the spool 14 occupy the highest position (figure 1).

Compressed air from the network through the hole 31 enters the annular space 32 between the arm 16 and higher box 13 and through openings 17 in the higher box in the camera 4 and the annular gap between the valve 14 and the piston 9 is supplied to the working face of the upper piston 9, and simultaneously through the holes 18 in the higher box, the groove 19 on the spool and the channels 20 is supplied into the chamber 5 on the working face of the lower piston 10 and sends the drummer down.

Moving down, the drummer pistons 9 and 10 displaces the air from the chambers in front of them in the first atmosphere directly through the holes 25 and 26, respectively, and after their overlap pistons through the channels 28, the groove 29 on the valve, the channels 27 and openings 25 to the upper piston, and through the openings 12 to the lower piston.

Continuing to move down, the drummer of the front edge of the top of the piston 9 overlaps the channels 28 and compressing the air in the lower chamber provided with a channel 24 with a cavity above the valve 14, which will offer its back edge of the exhaust hole 25. At the same time the lower piston 10, no resistance of the air in front of you due to the presence of holes 12, opens its trailing edge exhaust orifices 2-5 (see figure 2).

The pressure in the chambers above the pistons sharply drops to zero, and due to the presence of air pressure above the valve and no pressure under it is the crossover spool down. At the same time the drummer strikes the shank 11 of the working tool and after the rebound from the shank starts to reverse - idle.

2. IDLE SPEED. Before idling the striker 8 and the spool 14 occupy the lowest position. After perekidki slide down the compressed air through the open valve hole 21, the cavity above the valve, the grooves 22 and the groove 23 in the cover 15 and the channel 24 connected to the lower part of the chamber 4, comes under the upper piston 9 and sends the drummer up.

Moving up, the drummer displaces the air pistons 9 and 10 of the cameras in front of them in the first atmosphere directly through the holes 25 and 26, respectively, and after their overlap pistons through the channels 30, the grooves 19 and 29 on the valve, the channels 27 and openings 25 to the upper piston 9, and through the channels 20, the groove 19 on the spool and the channels 27 and openings 25 of the lower piston 10.

Continuing to move up, the drummer of the front edge of the top of the piston 9 overlaps the channels 30 and compresses the air in the top chamber - under the spool. At the same time the air from the upper chamber under the lower piston 10 continues to be released into the atmosphere until the end of idling before perekidki slide down.

After the opening of the exhaust hole 25 of the rear edge of the top of the piston 9, the pressure in the chamber below the upper piston is provided with a cavity above the valve channel 24, drops to zero, and, due to the pressure under the valve and no pressure on the valve, there is a crossover spool down, then starts working stroke.

1. Pneumatic hammer, comprising a housing in which are made two series-arranged working chamber, upper and lower, separated by a jumper with a hole in which they can move installed drummer, made in the form of a rod with two pistons at the ends of the upper and lower contact with the shank of the working tool, and the air-distributing device that compressed air in the working chamber, the working and idle strokes of the striker through the channels in the housing, characterized in that the channels through which compressed air is supplied to the implementation of the drummer idling connected only to the lower part of the upper chamber below the upper the piston and the chamber below the lower piston is constantly communicated with the atmosphere of the holes in the walls of the housing in the contact zone blow the ICA with the shank of the working tool.

2. Pneumatic hammer according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the upper piston is less than the diameter of the lower piston.



 

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