Method for steel manufacturing, steel, and products made from the same

FIELD: iron metallurgy, in particular manufacturing of hot-rolled steel and products the same.

SUBSTANCE: method includes matrix steel smelting in steel furnace, containing carbon, manganese, silicium, and iron; tapping into ladle; introducing into bottom zone of ladle mixture for microalloying and deoxidation containing aluminum, calcium, and boron with simultaneous blasting with nitrogen through the bottom jet; and simultaneous complete of mixture introducing and nitrogen blasting; steel casting, and steel ingot producing. Ingot contains (mass %) carbon 0.12-0.42; silicium 0.17-1.10; manganese 0.5-1.8; calcium 0.001-0.02; aluminum 0.02-0.05; aluminum nitride 0.01-0.0.04; boron 0.0001-0.0005; boron nitride 0.001-0.005; nitrogen 0.005-0.012; and balance: iron and inevitable impurities. Ingot is taken out, hot rolled up to desired product dimensions and thermal hardened. Optionally (for example to produce additional rolled product characteristic such as improved tensile strength, ultimate strength, wearing capacity) steel may be additionally doped with chromium, nickel, copper, molybdenum and/or vanadium. Steel of present invention is useful for production of oil pump bars of 15-40 mm in diameter and up to 8.5 m in length.

EFFECT: steel with improved mechanical characteristics.

11 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, namely the production of ingots, hot rolled steel and steel products, such as rods, oil pumps.

There is a method of production of steel, including steel production in steel-smelting unit (SPA), flow of molten steel in the ladle deoxidation and alloying of steel, while purging with nitrogen [1] to obtain steel containing carbon, manganese, silicon, chromium, Nickel, copper, vanadium and iron, which after hot rolling has a yield strength of at least 500 MPa, ultimate tensile strength not less than 600 MPa and an elongation of not less than 14%.

For the received content components the steel has mechanical properties sufficient to products operating in conditions of pulsating loads in corrosive environments, with significant differences at ambient temperature. In addition, this steel has hardenability, insufficient to obtain high mechanical properties throughout the cross section of the product after hardening heat treatment.

Known structural steel having high strength, ductility, good hardenability thermonuclear blanks, containing in wt.%: carbon 0,18-0,24; manganese 0,90-1,30; silicon 0,17-0,37; vanadium 0,01-0,08; titanium 0.01 to 0.04; aluminum 0,02-0,06; Bor 0,0005-0,0050; nitrogen 0,005-0,015, iron - rest [2]. In the village is authorized steel to ensure hardenability by protecting boron from binding in the nitrides and save more than 50% effective boron, requires the ratio of the elements:

This combination of components of steel and the traditional way of production after heat strengthening (hardening from 950°C, followed by tempering temperature not lower than 620° (C) to obtain the fine structure of martensite tempering and insufficient indicators of hardenability, relative narrowing and toughness.

Also known steel kartex 400”, used for the manufacture of parts subjected to impact-abrasive wear and operating at temperatures below minus 40°containing the following components in wt.%: carbon 0,14-0,20; manganese 1.3 to 1.7; silicon 0,2-0,7; chrome 0,3-0,8; Nickel of 0.1-0.3; copper 0.1 to 0.3; calcium 0,0065-0,075; aluminum 0,014-0,042; Bor 0,0005-0,005; nitrogen 0,007-0,014; iron - rest [3]. Steel of such composition has insufficient impact strength due to excess calcium, boron and nitrogen, as well as the lack of guaranteed protection of boron from binding to the boron nitride and the formation of chains of borides.

Similar to that proposed in chemical composition and functional purpose is steel containing, in wt.%: carbon 0,25-0,45; manganese 0,6-1,2; silicon 0,17-0,37; chrome 0,6-1,2; copper 0,04-0,40; vanadium 0,02-0,12; calcium 0,0008-0,005; aluminum 0,02-0,06; Bor 0,0008-0,005; the nitrogen of 0,005 0,012; Titan of 0.015-0.05; barium 0,0008-0,005; iron - rest [4].

Having high tensile and yield strength after quenching and tempering, the steel has a low impact strength, due to the traditional method of its production (steel smelting, casting, manufacture of ingot, hot rolling, heat-hardening of the car).

Familiar with the requirements of GOST 13877-96, in accordance with which the manufacture of the pump rod, working in non-corrosive environments - from steel NM, NM, GM, and in highly corrosive conditions - steel SM. Termouprochnenija rental of these steels is the normalization or normalization and high temper - do not provide a high value of tensile and yield strength and toughness, additionally, are expensive.

Known rod oil pump, made of rod diameters 16-40 mm, heat-treated while cooling with the temperature of the hot rolling of steel with the following content of components in wt.%: carbon 0.08 to 0.14; manganese 0,9-1,6; chrome 2,0-3,2; vanadium 0,05-0,30; nitrogen 0,006-0,10; iron - rest [5]. This steel does not provide a high wear resistance rods in the conditions of abrasive wear when working in an oil well and has a high cost due to the high chromium content.

The main technical problem of the invention is to provide a method for production of steel, to ensure Iceweasel uniform distribution of alloying elements and a high level of mechanical properties across the section and the volume of rent, reduced cost of products due to a decline in the share of expensive components in the composition of steel, high corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the surface of the pump rod.

The problem is solved with the method of production of steel, including smelting in the SPA became the main composition containing carbon, manganese, silicon, iron and inevitable impurities, the issue in the bucket before filling, enter in the bottom area of the bucket components for micro alloying and deoxidation in the form of a mixture consisting of aluminum, calcium and boron in concurrent with the introduction of the mixture were blowing nitrogen through the bottom blowing tuyere and the simultaneous completion of introduction of the mixture and purging with nitrogen, the casting molds and getting steel in the ingot in the following ratio of components of steel in wt.%: carbon 0,12-0,42; silicon 0,17-1,10; manganese 0.5 to 1.8V; calcium 0,001-0,02; aluminum 0,02-0,05; a nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04; Bor 0,0001-0,0005; boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005; nitrogen of 0,005 0,012; iron and impurities - the rest. To increase the tensile and yield strength, and also toughness, wear resistance:

- when steel production in steel-making unit further added chrome and get the steel ingot in the following ratio of components (wt.%): the carbon of 0.38-0.42 and silicon 0,17-0,37, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, calcium 0,001-0,02, aluminum 0.02 to 0.05, the nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04, boron 0,0001-0,0005, boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, as is the ect and impurities - else;

- when steel production in steel-making unit further added Nickel and copper and get the steel ingot in the following ratio of components (wt.%): carbon 0,12-0,20, silicon 0,8-1,1, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, Nickel 0.5 to 0.8, copper 0,4-0,6, calcium 0,001-0,02, aluminum 0,03-0,05, aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03, boron 0,0001-0,0003, the boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, iron and impurities - other;

- when steel production in steel-making unit further added molybdenum and/or vanadium and get a steel ingot in the following ratio of components (wt.%): the carbon of 0.38-0.42 and silicon 0,17-0,37, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, molybdenum 0.15-0.25, vanadium 0,03-0,05, calcium 0,001-0,02, aluminum 0,03-0,05, aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03, boron 0,0001-0,0003, the boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, iron and impurities - the rest.

Steel containing carbon, silicon, manganese, calcium, aluminum, boron, nitrogen, iron and impurities produced by the method according to claim 1.

The steel further comprises chromium in the following ratio of components (wt.%): the carbon of 0.38-0.42 and silicon 0,17-0,37, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, calcium 0,001-0,02, aluminum 0.02 to 0.05, the nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04, boron 0,0001-0,0005, boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, iron and impurities - the rest.

The steel also contains Nickel and copper in the following ratio of components (wt.%): carbon 0,12-0,20, silicon 0,8-1,1, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, Nickel 0.5 to 0.8, copper 0,4-0,6, calcium 0,001-,02 aluminum 0,03-0,05, the aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03, boron 0,0001-0,0003, the boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, iron and impurities - the rest.

The steel further comprises molybdenum and/or vanadium in the following ratio of components (wt.%): the carbon of 0.38-0.42 and silicon 0,17-0,37, manganese 0,8-1,1, chrome 0,6-1,1, molybdenum 0.15-0.25, vanadium 0,03-0,05, calcium 0,001-0,02, aluminum 0,03-0,05, aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03, boron 0,0001-0,0003, the boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004, nitrogen 0,005-0,012, iron and impurities else.

The product is made from steel produced by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 4.

The product is made in the form of round rolled diameter of 15-40 mm and a length of 10 mm

The product is made in the form of laminated, thermally and mechanically treated bars of the oil pump with a diameter of 15-40 mm and a length of up to 8.5 meters

Consider the effect of the components on the functional properties and structure of the steel.

From 0.12 to 0.42 percent.

Carbon effectively affect the mechanical properties of the steel. To achieve the desired functional properties of the proposed steel the carbon content should be at least of 0.12%. If the carbon content exceeds 0,42%, even if microregion providing fine grain structure, carbides during thermal hardening enlarges, reduces toughness of steel, increases the tendency to form cracks. Despite the fact that the increase of carbon content in steel provides increased its about the performance and durability you should limit the content of carbon in it the size of 0.42%, to prevent significant deterioration of impact strength.

Si 0,17-1,10%.

The minimum silicon content of 0.17% provides the deoxidation of the steel, increases hardenability, corrosion resistance, and in the presence of microeconomic components silicon does not cause significant deterioration of impact strength to the content in the steel is 1.1%.

MT 0,5-1,8%.

The minimum manganese content is set to 0.5 to ensure hardenability, strength, toughness. The manganese content of more than 1.8% will cause a reduction in toughness and deterioration of brittle fracture.

SG 0,6-1,1%.

Additional introduction in steel chromium enhances hardenability, strength, toughness. Corrosion resistance increases with increase in the content of chromium, Nickel and copper. The chromium content of more than 1.1% of the proposed steel will cause coarsening of carbide particles and a decrease in toughness.

Ni 0,5-0,8%.

Nickel improves the impact strength and reduces the tendency of steel to cracking during rolling and heat treatment, reduces the influence of copper on cracking during hot rolling, increases the corrosion resistance of steel. When the content of Nickel in the proposed steel 0,8% will decrease the tensile strength of steel.

Si of 0.4-0.6%.

Copper promotes increased the Yu solubility of boron and increase strength and corrosion resistance. When the content in the proposed steel less than 0.4% copper will have little impact on the properties of the steel, and when the content of more than 0.6% will manifest the tendency to cracking during hot rolling.

Sa 0,001-0,020%.

Calcium having a greater affinity to oxygen and forming nitrides, has a buffer effect for the protection of aluminum and boron from oxidation; the absorption of aluminum and boron in microregion steel in the presence of calcium is 80-85% for aluminum and 70-75% for boron. In addition, microalloying of steel in calcium promotes grinding grain and getting the globular form of sulfide, oxide and oxysulfide inclusions. When the calcium content of more than 0.02%, the steel becomes dirty inclusions of oxides of calcium, resulting in reduced ductility and toughness. When the calcium content of less than 0.001% of its positive effect is weak.

Al 0,02-0,05%.

Aluminum is typically added to steel as a deoxidizer. In the presence of nitrogen to form aluminum nitride, which prevents grain growth and ensuring improvement of the microstructure of the steel, increasing strength and toughness. The formation of aluminum nitride increases soluble boron and a significant increase in the hardenability of steel. To effectively protect the boron from binding to the boron nitride minimum aluminum content in the proposal the military steel should be of 0.02%. The excess aluminum may cause enlargement of grain and reducing the impact toughness of the steel. The maximum content of aluminum in the proposed steel should be limited to 0.05%.

In 0,0001-0,0005%.

Bor, even in small amounts, significantly increases the hardenability of steel, tensile strength, impact strength. When the boron content less than 0,0001% of its influence is negligible. When containing more than 0,0005% of the influence of borocarbides metals IU23(B,C)6, enlarging their grain and reduced toughness of the steel. Therefore, the upper limit of the content of soluble boron in the proposed steel should not be more than 0,0005%. The high chemical activity of boron at temperatures steelmaking process in combination with a small amount of alloying elements requires more complex than usual ways of deoxidation and the order of introduction of boron in steel production, ensure the effectiveness of its influence on the properties of the metal and, above all, on hardenability.

N of 0,005 0,012%.

Nitrogen, connecting with nitridebased elements (Al, B, V), facilitates the grinding of grain and nitride density and hardening steel. For the effective influence of nitrogen on the strength and durability of the proposed steel to its minimum content of 0.005%. When the content of nitrogen than 0,012% will show what I reduction in toughness due to the allocation of nitrides at the grain boundaries.

Mo 0,15-0,25%.

Molybdenum improves the processes of nitridebased, grinds grain, increases the strength and wear resistance, crack resistance steel. When the content in the proposed steel less than 0.15% influence of molybdenum slightly, and when the content of 0.25% shows the decrease in toughness and appreciation of the steel.

V 0,03-0,05%.

The vanadium is introduced into the steel in small quantities, significantly increases the strength of steel. When the content is less than 0.03%, the effect of vanadium addition on mechanical properties of steel slightly. And when the content of 0.25% shows the decrease in toughness of the proposed steel.

AlN 0,01-0,05%, BN 0,0001-0,0005%.

When passing through the critical point AndC3when heated in the presence of nitride grinding grains of austenite. As the reinforcing phase, nitrides increase the strength, toughness, wear resistance of steel, but their surplus reduces its strength and toughness. Depending on the ratio of soluble and insoluble boron can improve the performance of hardenability and toughness when necessary to improve the hardenability of the number of boron is dissolved in the matrix, and the other part forms a boron nitride and, restraining the grain growth, increases toughness. The amount of soluble and insoluble boron depends on the controlled process and the sa input and interaction of aluminum and boron and nitrogen.

In the proposed method of steel production apparent synergistic effect of all alloying elements on properties of steel, so the ratio of components of steel and the order of their input in steel making, rolling and termouprochnenija, can significantly improve the impact strength of steel (50-80%) in comparison with the prototype [5].

In grades of steel produced in accordance with the present invention, there is formed a mixed microstructure with fine pearlite and banit for steel with a carbon content of 0.12-0.30% and martensite vacation or troostite for steels with a carbon content 0,31 at 0.42%. To increase the number of centers of origin of the inside and on the grain boundaries of austenite during rolling is necessary to provide a hood for the passage of not less than 1.1 and the total extract not less than 50 in the temperature range 1100-800°C. Termouprochnenija normalization for steel with a carbon content of 0.12-0.30% and normalization of the high holidays for steel with a carbon content 0,31 at 0.42%, normalization is carried out during cooling of the steel in the air.

An example implementation of the method

In open-hearth furnaces with a capacity of 120 tons smelted steel at different ratio of components (table 1) and are produced at a temperature of 1620°in filling the bucket with capacity of 6 tons, equipped with devices for purging liquid steel with nitrogen through the bottom progolosovala and to enter the powder mixtures in the form of wire for steel microalloying calcium, aluminum and boron blowing nitrogen are simultaneously input flux-cored wire in the bottom part of the bucket. The intensity of the blowing nitrogen - 10 m3/min at a pressure of 0.2-0.3 MPa, the speed of the input flux cored wires - 60 m/min; duration of venting and input wire 1 min, the content of components in one meter of wire: 0.7 kg of aluminum, 0.4 kg of calcium, of 0.017 kg ferroboron (20% FeB). Then steel is poured into ingot moulds size: 1250 mm (height), 240×240 mm (upper section), 200×200 mm (bottom section). The composition of the steel is poured into a mold, shown in table 1. After cooling, the ingot is removed from the mold, heated to a temperature of 1100°methodical in oven for 3-5 hours and rolled on the rod first billet, and then on long products mill under the hood for the passage of 1.1-1.7 and the total extract 150-170. Rod normalize when the carbon content in steel 0,12; 0,13% (formulations 1, 5), 0,20% (composition 2) or normalize and spend the high holidays when the carbon content in the steel of 0.39-0.42 percent (compounds 3, 4, 6).

The results of the study of mechanical properties of steels after normalization or normalization and high holidays are shown in table 2.

A comparative analysis of the results shows that the proposed steel surpass known for hardenability and strength of 6-10%, and toughness by 50-80%. The proposed steel 6-10% deshevle the known steels, used for the manufacture of sucker rods in accordance with GOST 13877-96.

Table 1
No.The content of components in wt.%
 MnSiCrNiCuMoVBBNAlAlNCaSP
10,120,570,570,720,600,48--0,00030,00040,050,030,0010,0350,028
20,200,600,590,810,520,42--0,0001is 0.00020,030,010,02 0,0300,021
30,351,300,250,65---0,05is 0.00020,00030,050,030,010,0290,025
40,420,830,221,06--0,220,030,00030,00040,030,010,0010,0310,029
Steel produced without microalloying
50,120,600,890,800,590,45-------0,0340,020
60,420,850,291,00-0,25------0,0290,026
Table 2
 Mechanical properties after thermal hardening
 Thermal hardeningThe heating temperature, °σIn, MPaσT, MPaδS, %ψ, %KSV, j/cm2
1Normalization9308006202969230
2-“-9208106302567215
3Normalization and tempering900 and 650 7926512165201
4-“-870 and 6309007602262156
Steel produced without microalloying
5Normalization9306204903171168
6Normalization and tempering870 and 6307206152964106

Sources of information:

1. EN 2175359 C1, With 22 38/12, 27.10.2001.

2. EN 2127769 C1, With 22 38/14, 20.03.1999.

3. EN 2124575 C1, With 22 38/54, 10.01.1999.

4. EN 2025534 C1, With 22 38/32, 30.12.1994.

5. EN 2094519 C1, C 22 C 38/12, 27.10.1997.

1. Method for the production of steel, including steel production in steel-smelting unit, release the bucket, introduction to the bucket component for alloying and deoxidation while blowing the Tali nitrogen, steel casting molds, cooling, removing the cooled ingot, heating of the ingot, hot rolling and heat hardening rental, characterized in that after filling the bucket in its bottom part is injected mixture components for micro alloying and deoxidation consisting of aluminum, calcium and boron, are drawn steel with nitrogen through the bottom blowing tuyere and get a steel ingot in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,12-0,42

Silicon 0,17-1,10

Manganese 0,5-1,8

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,02-0,05

The nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04)

Bor 0,0001-0,0005

The boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the steel in the steelmaking unit further added chrome and get the steel ingot in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,38-0,42

Silicon 0,17-0,37

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,02-0,05

The nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04)

Bor 0,0001-0,0005

The boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the steel in the steelmaking unit further added Nickel and copper and get the steel in the ingot when the next zootoxin and components wt.%:

Carbon 0,12-0,20

Silicon 0,8-1,1

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Nickel 0,5-0,8

Copper 0,4-0,6

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,03-0,05

The aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03

Bor 0,0001-0,0003

The boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the steel in the steelmaking unit further added molybdenum and/or vanadium and copper and get the steel ingot in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,38-0,42

Silicon 0,17-0,37

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Molybdenum 0,15-0,25

Vanadium 0,03-0,05

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,03-0,05

The aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03

Bor 0,0001-0,0003

The boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

5. Steel containing carbon, silicon, manganese, calcium, aluminum, boron, nitrogen, iron and impurities, wherein the steel produced by the method according to claim 1.

6. The steel according to claim 5, characterized in that it additionally contains chromium in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,38-0,42

Silicon 0,17-0,37

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,02-0,05

The nitride of aluminum, 0.01 to 0.04)

Bor ,0001-0,0005

The boron nitride 0,0001-0,0005

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

7. The steel according to claim 6, characterized in that it further contains Nickel and copper in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,12-0,20

Silicon 0,8-1,1

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Nickel 0,5-0,8

Copper 0,4-0,6

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,03-0,05

The aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03

Bor 0,0001-0,0003

The boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

8. The steel according to claim 6, characterized in that it further comprises molybdenum and/or vanadium in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,38-0,42

Silicon 0,17-0,37

Manganese 0,8-1,1

Chrome 0,6-1,1

Molybdenum 0,15-0,25

Vanadium 0,03-0,05

Calcium 0,001-0,02

Aluminum 0,03-0,05

The aluminum nitride 0,01-0,03

Bor 0,0001-0,0003

The boron nitride is 0.0002 to 0.0004

The nitrogen of 0,005 0,012

Iron and impurities Else

9. The product is made of steel, characterized in that it is made of steel, produced by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 4.

10. The product according to claim 9, characterized in that it is made in the form of round rolled diameter of 15-40 mm and a length of 10 mm

11. The product according to claim 9, characterized in that it is made in the form of laminated, termites and and machined rod oil pump diameter 15-40 mm and a length of up to 8.5 meters



 

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