Process line for manufacturing fuel element cladding

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; manufacture of fuel elements and their claddings.

SUBSTANCE: each weld of cladding and its plug are tested in facility equipped with units for clamping and revolving the claddings, scanning with carriage using weld inspection piezoelectric transducer and piezoelectric transducer for measuring wall thickness in measurement region, immersion bath, ultrasonic pulse generator, ultrasonic pulse receiver, microprocessor, analog-to-digital converter switch, and random-access memory.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of fuel elements and their operating reliability in reactor core.

1 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to nuclear power and may find application in the manufacture of membranes for fuel elements (FE) for a nuclear reactor. It is known that the shells TVEL imposed the most stringent requirements on their geometrical dimensions, in particular the curvature as curb fuel material and sealed fuel Rods subjected to the Assembly in the fuel Assembly (FA), and the Fuel elements with a curvature to collect in the fuel assemblies is impossible without further destruction due to the failure placed coaxially cells of the spacer grids on the length of the fuel assemblies.

Known automatic line for the production of membranes for the fuel rod containing the tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms pieces of tubing in the size of the shell, control the length of the membrane in the form of rolling in the axial direction and fixed stops, calibration of end of the shell, baths, degreasing, rinsing, and drying of the outer and inner surfaces of the shells with the mechanisms of the rotary lever move the shells from the bath into the tub, set after the first inclined table of the second tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms pressing the calibrated plugs in the end of the shell, weighing, installation of electron-beam welding stub to oblock is, kickers shell with each mechanism and sensors interlocked with these mechanisms (see patent 2084026 on the application 94037637/25 from 06.10.94,, publ. 10.07.97,, MKI G 21 21/02).

Automatic position line segments of the tube in the size of the shell has mechanisms for clamping the tube in the lodgement of an inclined table aligned holes in the cutting machines, however, when the sliding tube by an inclined table on the position of the pieces of tubing in the size of the shell is not excluded skewed when rolling on an inclined table tube and its placement relative to the lodgement crooked, which can lead to misalignment of the tube with the holes in the cutting machine, and moving the latter toward each other, the tube rests in the body of this or that machine and deformed, and the variances of the shell curvature for fuel element is not valid.

Automatic line for the position calibration one end of the shell also has a clamp mechanism of the shell in the lodgement coaxially with one hand - the emphasis, as with the other hole of the calibration mechanism, which when moved to calibrate the end of the shell does not preclude the timely release of the calibrated end of the shell of the clamp mechanism calibration, which can lead to deformation of the shell kickers when not released the end of the shell from the sizing mechanism. Strain Belocca when this goes into a fatal marriage.

Standard sensors on the line, including in the positions indicated, where uncontrolled marriage caused by actuators do not control and do not respond to axial, not provided, the movement of the tubes at the position of the segments in the shell size and position calibration. The axial displacement that occurs when hitting the body of the cutting machine at one end of the shell or the failure unclamping mechanism calibration during the return movement to the initial position, an indication that the shell is deformed and go into a marriage.

Closest to the technical essence and the achieved effect is the automatic production line of membranes for fuel cells primarily for nuclear pressurized water reactor, containing the first tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms pieces of tubing in the size of the shell, control the length of the membrane in the form of rolling in the axial direction and fixed stops, calibration of end of the shell, baths, degreasing, rinsing, and drying of the outer and inner surfaces of the shells with the mechanisms of the rotary lever move the shells from the bath into the tub adjacent to the baths of the second tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms Zap is associ plugs in a calibrated the end of the shell, weighing the installation of electron-beam welding the caps to the shell, kickers shell of each mechanism on the tilt table and sensors interlocked with these mechanisms (see Russian Federation patent RU 2170463, IPC 7 G 21 21/02 from 29.06.1999,, publ. 10.07.2001, the Automatic production line of fuel cladding).

Automatic line-prototype eliminates the disadvantages of the known lines, but the lines analogs, and line-prototype does not reveal defects in electron-beam welding of the bottom plugs to the fuel element cladding and not rejected shell weld defects in electron beam welding of the bottom plugs with fuel element cladding.

It is known that electron beam welding the lower plug to the fuel cladding major defects in welded joints of zirconium alloys (the shell and the bottom cover are made of an alloy of zirconium) are pores and root swellings. Sources are gases, moisture, products of sublimation in microvolumes at the root of the joints (for example, under the removed from the inner side of the shell chamfers, the roughness of the surface treatment and the like). When heated, these products are expanding, moving into vapor and gaseous products of sublimation, thereby creating increased pressure in the possible nucleation sites then. Small on the s combine grow in volume. Relatively large of them get the opportunity ascent, facilitated by the existence of rarefaction on the welding bath.

This problem of porosity in electron beam welding of zirconium alloys is very serious (see “Development, production and operation of fuel cell power reactors”. Book 2. Edited Fgurative - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1995, S. 210).

It is also known that the Fuel cladding work in very difficult conditions:

1) powerful radiative forcing all kinds of irradiation;

2) high temperature fuel core, reaching the center 2100-2500°C;

3) high pressure coolant, reaching 16·106PA;

4) the effects of corrosion of the coolant from the outside, as well as fuel and gaseous fission products from the internal;

5) tight contact of the shell with the fuel due to its swelling;

6) long-term campaign of Fe - 3-5 years (see ibid., book 1, S. 126).

All of the above working conditions of a fuel rod in the core of a nuclear reactor in conjunction with undetected defects weld electron beam welding the lower plug to the shell of the fuel rod can lead to depressurization of the fuel rod in the core of a nuclear reactor with all the consequences of radioactive contamination of the coolant.

T the political object of the invention is to improve the quality of fabrication of fuel elements and their reliability in the core of a nuclear reactor.

This technical problem is solved in that in the automatic production of membranes for fuel elements of a nuclear reactor containing the first tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms: pieces of tubing in the size of the shell, control the length of the shell, calibration one end of the shell adjacent to the inclined table bath degreasing, rinsing, and drying of the shell adjacent to the baths of the second tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms: pressing the calibrated plugs in the end of the shell, weighing shell, electron-beam installation welding the caps to the shell, kickers shell of each mechanism on the inclined tables and sensors interlocked with these mechanisms, and the vehicle wiring membranes; according to the invention the vehicle wiring shell provided with a reversible motor wiring control and output shell weld inspection of electron beam welding with nodes clamping and rotation of the shell about its axis, the scanning carriage mounted on it with a piezo-weld inspection and piezo measuring the wall thickness of the shell in the zone of measurement, immersion bath, ultrasonic pulse generator is in, the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, the microprocessor, the switch, analog-to-digital Converter and a memory device, the microprocessor is connected with all actuators and sensors of the first and second inputs of the switch is connected to the piezoelectric tranducers, the third input to the generator of ultrasonic pulses, and the output of the switch is connected to the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, the analog-digital Converter connected to the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, and the output from the microprocessor, the input and output random access memory connected to the microprocessor, the vehicle is equipped with raspakovyvaya with the withdrawal of defective membranes of the line.

The proposed line production of fuel cladding improves the quality of fabrication of fuel elements due to the scanning of the weld along the generatrix of the shell, measure the height of lack of fusion defects, if any, to measure the thickness of the shell in the zone of the weld, to produce at each point control measurement of propagation time of ultrasonic vibrations from the piezoelectric transducer to the surface of the shell with a calculation of the distance from the piezoelectric transducer to the surface of the shell with the adjustment of the gain of the ultrasonic gene is operator-receiver in accordance with this distance. Determining a distance between the surface of the membrane and the piezoelectric transducer and adjusting the receiver gain of ultrasonic vibrations allows to take into account individual geometrical parameters of each shell, such as the deflection of the shell and out of round shell, and defining the thickness of the shell allows you to find a local reduction in thickness in the area immediately to the weld. Detection of weld defects shell and timely rejection to equipment last pelletized fuel will improve the quality of the produced fuel elements and the reliability of their operation in the active zone of the nuclear reactor.

The drawing shows the automatic production line of fuel cladding.

The automatic production line of membranes for fuel cells primarily for nuclear reactor VVER-type contains the first tilt table 1, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms 2 pieces of tubing in the size of the shell 3, control the length of the shell 3 in the form of rolling 4 in the axial direction and fixed 5 stops, calibration 6 one end of the shell 3, 7 baths degreasing, rinsing, and drying of the inner and outer surfaces of the shell 3 with the mechanisms of the rotary lever move the shells from the bath into the tub (not the CSP is explained), second, adjoining bath 7, the tilt table 8, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms pressing 9 stub 10 in the calibrated end of the shell 3, weighing 11, 12 installation electron beam welding stub 10 to the shell 3, kickers 13 shell 3 with each mechanism on the tilt table and the sensors 14 interlocked with these mechanisms.

Mechanisms 2 pieces of tubing in the size of the shell 3 is made with the possibility of axial movement towards each other, and axial rotation.

Mechanism 6 calibration performed with move-hitting at the end of the shell 3.

Between the sensors 14 to position the segments of the tube in the size of the shell 3 and between the sensors 14 at the position calibration 6 one end of the shell 3 horizontally placed sensors 15, interacting with a counterweight 16 is vertically installed the support roller 17 with the groove 18 forming interacting with the shell 3, where the counterweight 16 is made of metal equal to the diameter of the horizontal sensor 15 and the housing - support roller 17 is made of polymeric material. Horizontal sensor 15 is electrically connected with an electric circuit disconnect mechanisms 2 pieces of tubing in the size of the shell and calibration 6 one end of the shell 3, interruptible at offset around the axis of the support roller 17 and the deviation of the counterweight 16 supporting what about the roller 17 from the horizontal axis of the sensor 15. On the positions of the segments 2, 6 calibration, pressing 9 automatic mounting shell 3 to the inclined tables (not shown).

Vehicle 19 wiring shell 3 provided with a reversible motor 20 to the control device and the output of the shell 3 with weld inspection of electron beam welding with the pressure roller 21, provided with a hub clamp and rotation 22 of the casing 3 around its axis, the scanner unit 23 with the carriage 24 mounted on it with a piezo-25 weld inspection and piezoelectric transducer 26 measuring the wall thickness of the shell 3 in the measurement zone, immersion bath 27 28 ultrasonic generator pulses, the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses, the microprocessor 30, a switch 31, an analog-to-digital Converter 32 and a random access memory device 33. When the microprocessor 30 is connected with all actuators and sensors of the first and second inputs of switch 31 is connected to the piezo-transformers 25, 26, the third input is connected to generator 28 of the ultrasonic pulses, and the output of the switch 31 is connected to the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses, the analog-digital Converter 32 is connected to the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses, and the output of the analog-to-digital Converter 32 is connected to the microprocessor 30, the input and output memory condition the device 33 is connected to the microprocessor 30. Vehicle 19 is equipped with respecively 34 with the output of defective membranes of the lines in a collection of 35 and vehicle wiring 36 of suitable membranes 3 operation of their equipment.

The automatic production line of fuel cladding works as follows.

On the first inclined table 1, the tube is rolled to the position of the pieces of tubing in the size of the shell 3, where with the help of mechanisms 2 segments, moving towards each other, staying at a specified distance, and the tube is cut in the size of the shell 3.

The kickers 13 by the signal of the sensor 14, the shell 3 is discharged from the cutting position on the tilt table 1, which rolls on the testing length, where with the help of a rolling stop 4 and the fixed stop 5 is measured by the length of the shell 3.

The kickers 13 by the signal of the sensor casing 3 is discharged from the position monitoring length on the tilt table, which is rolled to a position 6 calibration one end of the shell 3, which uses the mechanism 6, which is moved to calibrate the end of the shell 3, and perform the calibration at one end of the shell 3.

The signal sensors 14 kickers 13 shell 3 is discharged onto an inclined table 1, which moves in the bath 7, where the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane are subjected to degreasing, industrial the ke and drying.

Then on the second inclined table 8 shell 3 arrives at the position 9 in the mounting stub 10 in the calibrated end of the shell 3 and after fitting to the position of the weighing 11 and electron-beam welding 12 stub 10 to the shell 3. The operations of the automated manufacturing of the shell 3 are carried out using sensors 14, 15 with the use of the support roller 17 with the groove 18 and the counterweight 16, kickers 13 and inclined tables 1, 8 wiring shell 3 from mechanism to mechanism. Vehicle 19, the shell 3 is directed to ultrasonic inspection of shell 3.

Ultrasonic quality control of welded seams of the shell 3 is as follows.

Before measuring, ultrasonic testing is subjected to a standard sample with known parameters of the weld and the thickness of the shell. Weld standard sample is scanned through the switch 31 by the piezoelectric transducer 25. In the scanning process are emitted ultrasonic pulse generator 28 of the ultrasonic pulses, and the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses is accepted. Using analog-to-digital Converter 32 connected to the output of the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses, converting the received ultrasonic pulses into digital form. The microprocessor 30 performs the measurement of the amplitude of the received ultra audible pulses, measurement of propagation time of ultrasonic pulses between the piezoelectric transducer 25 and the surface of the standard sample, calculating the distance from the piezoelectric transducer 25 to the surface of the standard sample and determining the level of inspection at each inspection point. Data about the amplitude of the received ultrasonic pulses and the distance between the piezoelectric transducer and the surface of the standard sample is stored in the memory device 33.

After that there is the wall thickness measurement of the standard sample and the data stored in the memory device 33.

On a signal from the microprocessor 30 shell reversible motor 20 with the pressure roller 21 is served in the immersion bath 27, where it hub 22 of the clamp and turn clamped.

Next weld the shell is scanned using a piezoelectric crystal 25 node 23 scan of the reciprocating movement of the carriage 24 and the rotation of the shell 3 with the given step. At each point of the control run the generator 28 of the ultrasonic pulses. The output signal from generator 28 of the ultrasonic pulses through the switch 31 is supplied to the piezoelectric transducer 25, which converts electrical pulses into ultrasonic and focuses them in the zone of the weld. Reflected by the surface of the shell 3 ultrasonic pulse PR is focused on the same piezoelectric transducer 25, is converted into an electrical pulse and is fed to the input of the receiver 29.

The converted electrical impulse from the output of the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses received at the input of analog-to-digital Converter 32 is installed in the microprocessor, where it is converted into digital form, and the microprocessor determines the propagation time of ultrasonic pulses between the piezoelectric transducer 25 and the surface of the shell 3, calculates the distance between the piezoelectric transducer 25 and the surface of the shell 3 and compares this distance with the configuration data obtained when setting the standard model. If these values differ, then the adjustment of the receiver gain of ultrasonic vibrations, then again are sounding this point of the weld, the amplitude of the received signal is converted into digital form and compared with the level of presorting obtained when setting the standard model.

After that there is the wall thickness measurement. The shell 3 is scanned by the transducer 26 of node 23 scanning with a stationary slide and rotate 360°.

An ultrasonic pulse from the output of the generator 28 of the ultrasonic pulses through the switch 31 is supplied to the piezoelectric transducer 26 mounted on the carriage 23 24 knots scan that the conversions is t electric pulses into ultrasonic and focuses them directly in the zone of the weld. Reflected external and internal surface of the shell 3 ultrasonic pulses are accepted by the piezoelectric transducer 26 is converted into electrical impulses and sent to the receiver input 29 of the ultrasonic pulses.

The converted electrical impulse from the output of the receiver 29 of the ultrasonic pulses received at the input of analog-to-digital Converter 32 is installed in the microprocessor 30 where it is converted into digital form, and the microprocessor 30 determines the propagation time of ultrasonic pulses between the piezoelectric transducer 26 and the surface of the shell 3, calculates the distance between the piezoelectric transducer 26 and the surface of the shell 3 and compares this distance with the configuration data obtained when setting the standard model.

Then moves piezoelectric tranducers one step and scan cycle to the next point of control. By comparing the results of all control points microprocessor system decides on the validity of the shell 3 weld seam and the wall thickness of the shell 3.

The shell 3 after controlling the reversible motor 20 with the pressure roller 21 is returned to the vehicle 19, where respecively 34 defective shell 3 is discharged into the collector 35, and suitable shell 3 by the conveyor 36 are sent to the equipment tab is edami uranium dioxide.

The line has been tested, the test results are positive.

The automatic production line of fuel element cladding of a nuclear reactor containing the first tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms: pieces of tubing in the size of the shell, control the length of the shell, calibration one end of the shell adjacent to the inclined table bath degreasing, rinsing, and drying of the shell adjacent to the baths of the second tilt table, along which technological sequence posted by mechanisms: pressing the calibrated plugs in the end of the shell, weighing shell, electron-beam installation welding the caps to the shell, kickers shell with each mechanism on sloping desks and sensors interlocked with these mechanisms, and vehicle wiring membranes, characterized in that the vehicle wiring shells equipped with a reversible motor wiring control and output shell weld inspection of electron beam welding with nodes clamping and rotation of the shell about its axis, the scanning carriage mounted on it with a Converter control of the weld and the piezoelectric transducer measuring the wall thickness of the shell in the zone of measurement, immersion bath, generator ul is rozwojowy pulses, the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, the microprocessor, the switch, analog-to-digital Converter and a memory device, the microprocessor is connected with all actuators and sensors of the first and second inputs of the switch is connected to the piezoelectric tranducers, the third input to the generator of ultrasonic pulses, and the output of the switch is connected to the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, the analog-digital Converter connected to the receiver of ultrasonic pulses, and the output from the microprocessor, the input and output random access memory connected to the microprocessor, the vehicle is equipped with raspakovyvaya with the withdrawal of defective membranes of the line.



 

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