Fuel rod for water-moderated water-cooled power reactor

FIELD: nuclear power engineering; fuel rods for water-moderated water-cooled reactors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel rod designed for use in water-cooled water-moderated power reactors such as type VVER-1000 reactor has fuel core disposed in cylindrical can. Outer diameter of fuel rod is chosen between 7.00 . 10-3 and 8.79 . 10-3m and fuel core diameter is between 5.82 . 10-3 and 7.32 . 10-3m and mass, between 0.93 and 1.52 kg, fuel core to fuel rod length ratio being between 0.9145 and 0.9483.

EFFECT: reduced linear heat loads and fuel rod depressurization probability, enlarged variation range of reactor power, optimal fuel utilization.

7 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to nuclear engineering and relates to improvements of the design of fuel elements included in the active zone, and can find application in various types of water-cooled nuclear reactors using fuel rods mounted parallel to each other, especially in water-water energy reactor thermal power of order (2600-3900) MW used as a heat source for power plants, power plants, etc.

The level of technology

Currently widespread in modern nuclear reactor core fuel elements. Rod TVEL fuel has a core consisting of separate tablets or rods of cylindrical shape, is placed in the shell, which is a structural bearing element (see Agibalov, Fuel elements of nuclear reactors, M., Energoatomizdat, 1985, s-107). Such designs are, for example, the fuel of VVER-1000 reactors.

The diameter of the core fuel rods in order to increase the heat exchange surface and reduce thermal stresses caused by temperature difference, is made possible smaller and varies in real designs of light water reactors pressurized water from 8.8·10-3m to 11.22·10-3m (see “Future fuel: Vattenfall''s new approach,” Nuclear Engineering International, September 1997, p.25-31). And the known cartridges provide a relatively high level of burn-up fuel and proven during operation of the domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. However, it should be noted that in case of overheating of the fuel cladding, caused by changing conditions of their cooling may occur depressurization and even the destruction of the fuel rods. The fact that the low conductivity oxide fuel used in the reactors of the VVER-1000, determines its high temperature when operating in the normal operation, a relatively large amount of accumulated heat, and, as a consequence of an accident with blackouts NPP and accident loss of coolant this leads to a considerable heating of the fuel cladding in the first few seconds.

Achieved in case of accidents with loss of coolant temperature when using regular fuel assemblies (FA) largely depends on the initial linear thermal loads on the fuel rods. So, when a large leakage of the primary circuit of the reactor VVER-1000 fuel rods with a maximum heat load for five seconds have design temperature shell ~900°C. At the same time, in the same conditions, fuel load, close to the average, heated to (550-600)°C.

Experimental and computational studies show that, from the point of view to prevent the possibility of leaks in the fuel rods in relation to accidents with loss of coolant, the maximum temperature of the shell shall not exceed the level (700-750)°C. Therefore, when the effective area of the VVER-1000 reactor to reduce the maximum heat load, possible heating of the shells would not exceed the above limit temperature. This essentially solves the problem of possible depressurization of the fuel rods at the initial stage of the accident loss of coolant. In particular, this problem is exacerbated at higher burnup fuel, when the efficiency of the fuel rods even in normal operating conditions close to the maximum allowable.

From the above it follows that to improve the safety of existing and newly designed nuclear power plants with VVER-1000 is a need to develop core fuel container designs (while maintaining the reactor power and is close to the standard fuel Assembly Vodorezova relationship of the fuel lattice), which will fundamentally solve the problem of possible leaks in the fuel rods at the initial stage of the accident loss of coolant. In addition, with the development of an advanced active zone of reactor VVER-1000, you must make a choice of the main parameters of the conditions of maximum preservation of core design and nuclear power plants, as well as providing neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic characteristics that are close to the standard characteristics of the core of VVER-1000 reactor, since the present invention is not to develop a brand new R the actor.

This approach leads to some constraints on the choice of the main parameters of the upgraded active zone of reactor VVER-1000, which are as follows:

- step (236 mm) between the axles FA and the height of the upgraded fuel assemblies must be the same as in the standard design of the VVER-1000;

- the size of the "turnkey" and the height of the fuel cores modernized FA, compared with the standard design of the VVER-1000, should not differ by 1.5% and 2.83%, respectively;

- the diameter of the rods and their number in the upgraded fuel assemblies should ensure the reduction of linear thermal loads in the fuel rods modernized active area;

- reduction of fuel loading in the upgraded FA, compared with the standard design of the fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor should not exceed ~10%;

- increase of the hydraulic friction losses in the upgraded FA compared with the standard design FA must not exceed the available resources at the head of the main circulation pump (MCP) of VVER-1000 reactor;

- placing agencies of the control system and protection system (CPS) should be the same as in the standard design of the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000.

With increasing burnup of nuclear fuel or to improve the safety of operation at a given load, due to limitations associated with the valid fact is the temperature value of the fuel and the conditions of the heat sink, strive to increase the ratio of the surface of a fuel rod to the weight of the fuel, which reduces heat flow by increasing the specific surface cooling. The decrease of specific heat loads on the fuel rods can be achieved through the use of fuel with a reduced diameter, namely rods with diameters of 6.0·10-3m and 6.80·10-3m (see Beck Mrs x, Gorokhov V.F., Dubansky A.S., Kolosovsky VG, Lunin GL, Panyushkin A.K. and Proshkin AA “improving the fuel performance of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors by reducing the diameter of the fuel elements,” paper presented at the conference “Top Fuel-97”, Manchester, 1997). However, because fuel loading (U235in modernized FA compared with the standard fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor is not increased, a U235boots on (5-6) % less, despite the fact that the upgraded fuel assemblies with fuel rods with a diameter of 6.8·10-3m with initial enrichment of selected equal to the enrichment of the regular FA, achieved a burnup of fuel more than regular TVs, it does not compensate fully for the loss in the duration of operation of the fuel load compared with standard TVs. Therefore, the above limitations should also add the following:

- to ensure the design and operation time of the fuel load FA reduction in load and fuel modernized FA compared with the standard design of the fuel assemblies must be compensated for by increasing the burnup in the upgraded fuel assemblies in relation to the same value of standard fuel assemblies.

The closest in technical essence to the described technical solution in the present invention is a rod fuel element fuel assemblies of water-cooled power reactor containing the fuel core, placed in a cylindrical shell, and the end parts (EN 2143142, G 21 3/00, 20.12.1999).

The use of such fuel rods in the upgraded fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor allows for the reduction of heat loads to ensure the possibility of extending the range of the maneuvering capacity of the reactor, to increase the allowable burnup of the fuel and reduce the likelihood of leaks in the fuel elements.

However, a comparative assessment of the costs of standard fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor (diameter rods 9.1·10-3m) and modernized FA (thusly reduced diameter 6.8·10-3m) showed that the factory cost of the upgraded fuel assemblies for VVER-1000 reactors increased by 18%, which is one of the reasons why these fuel rods have not yet found practical application.

The invention

The present invention is the development and creation of new rod fuel elements of water-cooled power reactor VVER-1000 with improved characteristics, in particular high safety and reliability of operation of the newly designed and operating reactors, allowing compenstate increased the cost of the upgraded fuel assemblies and to obtain the increase of economic efficiency of VVER.

The solution of this task, the invention can be obtained by technical results, a reduction of linear thermal loads of fuel elements, reducing the likelihood of leaks in the fuel cladding, reducing the non-uniformity of energy deposition, expanding the range of control of reactor power and improving fuel consumption by increasing the allowable burnup of nuclear fuel.

These technical results are achieved by the fact that in rod fuel element for fuel assemblies of water-cooled power reactor containing the fuel core, placed in a cylindrical shell, the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 7.00·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m, the fuel core has a diameter from 5.82·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m, respectively, and the weight of 0.93 kg to 1.52 kg, and the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of the fuel element is 0.9145 to 0.9483.

A distinctive feature of the present invention is that the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 7.00·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m, fuel ser is echnic has a diameter of from 5.82· 10-3m to 7.32·10-3m, respectively, and the weight of 0.93 kg to 1.52 kg, and the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of the fuel element is 0.9145 to 0.9483 that characterizes the new concept of fuel of VVER-1000 reactor, and, accordingly, the fuel assemblies of WWER-1000 reactors with improved performance, both in normal conditions and in emergency conditions and is conditioned by the following. As the fuel core is placed in the shell, made with an outer diameter 7.00·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m, the fuel core has a diameter from 5.82·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m, respectively, and the weight of 0.93 kg to 1.52 kg, and the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of the fuel element is 0.9145 to 0.9483, the average linear load on the fuel of VVER-1000 can be reduced in (1.19-1.42) times, while maintaining the rated power of the reactor and providing the neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic characteristics that are close to the standard characteristics of VVER-1000 reactor. Or Vice versa, you can increase the heat capacity of the active zone, while maintaining the required operational safety of the reactor, by up to 2.9%, which may be necessary to compensate for the increased cost of modern TVs.

The outer diameter of the shell teleshop the knowledge to choose from 7.00· 10-3m to 7.50·10-3m, and fuel core should have a diameter of from 5.82-10-3m to 6.24·10-3m, respectively, and the weight of 0.93 kg to 1.11 kg or the outer diameter of the casing, it is necessary to choose from 7.60·10-3M. to 8.30·10-3m, and fuel core should have a diameter of from 6.32·10-3m to 6.91·10-3m, respectively, and the weight of 1.10 kg to 1.36 kg or the outer diameter of the casing, it is necessary to choose from 8.55·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m, and fuel core should have a diameter of from 7.11·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m, respectively, and a weight of 1.39 to 1.52 kg kg And radial clearance between the fuel core and the shell is made not less than 0.05·10-3m

Most appropriate to perform the heat-generating element, in which the outer diameter of the sheath is selected 7.50·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter of 6.24·10-3m and the mass of 1.07 kg to 1.11 kg, respectively, or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected 8.30·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter of 6.91·10-3m and a weight of 1.31 kg to 1.36 kg, respectively, or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected 8.70·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter 7.24·10-3m and a weight of 1.44 kg to 1.49 kg, respectively.

In addition, the fuel core can be dialed from tablets with an average of platnost the Yu uranium dioxide from 10.4· 10 kg/m3to 10.8·103kg/m3. The length of each tablet is selected from 6.90·10-3m to 12.00·10-3m, and the tablets can be made the center hole diameter of 1.07·10-3m to 1.45·10-3m

It should be emphasized that only the whole set of essential features provides a solution to the problem of the invention and obtaining the above-mentioned new technical results.

Indeed, the known fuel rods with an outer diameter of sheath 6.0·10-3m or 6.8·10-3m for fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor. However, selecting only the values of the outer diameter of the sheath of the fuel element without specifying the ranges of the values of the diameters of the fuel core and its mass and their relationship, and without specifying the range of values of the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of a fuel rod (which involves a combination of their constituent specific values) does not allow to implement new technical results. In addition, combinations of values that make up the observed ranges of the outer diameter of the shell, the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of a fuel rod and core diameter without selecting a value of the mass of the fuel core (uranium dioxide), leads to the possibility of non-compliance allowable value changes Vodorezova relationship of the fuel lattice and/or GRE the overall surface of the fuel rods, which make it possible to solve the problem.

List of drawings

1 shows a variant of the longitudinal incision described fuel for VVER-1000 reactor, figure 2 presents curves, characterizing the change of the maximum temperature of the shell most energonapryazhennosti staff and the described fuel for VVER-1000 reactor during the accident with rupture of the pipeline DN 850, figure 3 presents curves, characterizing the change of the maximum temperature of the shell srednenapryazhennyh staff and described TVEL VVER-1000 in the accident with rupture of the pipeline DN 850.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

Fuel element 1 includes a fuel core is made with a diameter from 5.82·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m in the form of tablets 2 with a Central hole 3 (or solid) with a diameter of from 1.07·10-3m to 1.45·10-3m (or rods) and a length of from 6.90·10-3m to 12.00·10-3m placed in the shell 4, which is a structural bearing element and to which are attached end part 5 (see figure 1). The ratio of the length of the fuel core (column of fuel pellets 2 or rods) to the length of the fuel element is 0.9145 to 0.9483. The shell 4 during operation experiences stress due to expansion and RA is pujaniya fuel and also due to the outgassing of fuel, especially in places corresponding to the boundary of tablets or rods. The elimination of these negative aspects is carried out by profiling the form of 2 tablets (or rods), in particular by performing their ends concave or conical shape of the side surface near the ends (not shown).

As the material of the tablets 2 the most appropriate use of pressed and sintered uranium dioxide and/or plutonium dioxide with an average density (10.4·103-10.8·103) kg/m3but it can also use thorium oxide and carbides of uranium, and mixtures of these fissile materials. The mass of uranium in the fuel rods is (0.82-1.34) kg

When choosing the thickness of the membrane of a fuel rod modernized active zone is most appropriate to maintain the ratio of shell thickness to the outer diameter of the described fuel rod is the same as in a regular fuel of VVER-1000 reactor that maintaining a pressure filling with helium 2.0 MPa helps to ensure stability of shells modernized active zone no less than for regular fuel. In addition, one must also consider the requirement that the radial gap between the 2 tablets of the fuel core and the shell 4 in the described rods shall not be less than 0.0· 10-3M. This condition is due to technological difficulties in the Assembly of fuel elements.

Due to the low thermal conductivity of the material of the tablets 2 fuel core, and also taking into account the above conditions, the sheath 4 core fuel elements must have an outer diameter from 7.00·10-3m to 8.79·10-3M. the fact that the first three of the above conditions, it follows that the relative spacing between the fuel rods must ensure Vodorezova ratio for the upgraded active zone, close to Vodorezova relation gratings operating VVER-1000. Taking into account all the above conditions, and the results of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical calculations and, above all, the results of the analysis of accidents VVER-1000 leakage of the coolant from the primary circuit, they defined the boundaries of the ranges of the main characteristics of the described fuel rod for a modernized active zone of reactor VVER-440 and history:

- the outer diameter of the shell of the described fuel element selected from 7.00·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m;

the diameter of the fuel core of the described fuel element selected from 5.82·10-3m to 7.32-10-3m;

is the mass of the fuel core of the described fuel element selected from 0.93 kg to 1.52 kg;

- the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of a fuel rod is 0.9145 to 0.9483.

De is, in fact, the implementation described TVEL VVER-1000 outer diameter of less than 7.00·10-3m, for example 6.9·10-3m, and, therefore, execution of the fuel core diameter and weighing less than 5.82·10-3m and 0.93 kg and failure to follow the above range, the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of a fuel rod (0.9145-0.9483) leads to failure to comply with conditions relating to the provision of the project the duration of the operation of the fuel load due to reduction of fuel loading in the upgraded FA, compared with the standard design FA (which must be compensated for by increasing the burnup in the upgraded fuel assemblies in relation to the standard FA), and the implementation of a fuel rod outer diameter greater than 8.79·10-3m, for example 8.90·10-3m, and, therefore, execution of the fuel core diameter and mass of uranium is more 7.32·10-3m and 1.52 kg and failure to follow the above range, the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of a fuel rod (0.9145-0.9483) leads to failure to comply with conditions relating to the possible increase of the hydraulic friction losses in the upgraded fuel assemblies of VVER-1000 reactor in comparison with the standard design of the VVER-1000.

It should be noted that the first four of the above conditions allow you to specify the preferred bounds of the ranges of the main x is the new described TVEL for modernized the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000, namely:

- the outer diameter of the shell of the described fuel element selected from 7.00·10-3m to 7.50·10-3m or from 7.60·10-3M. to 8.30·10-3m or from 8.55·10-3m to 8.79·10-3m;

the diameter of the fuel core of the described fuel element selected from 5.82·10-3m to 6.24·10-3m or from 6.32·10-3m to 6.91·10-3m or from 7.11·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m;

is the mass of the fuel core of the described fuel element selected from 0.93 kg to 1.11 kg or from 1.10 kg to 1.36 kg or from 1.39 to 1.52 kg kg

In addition, the first two and last two of the above conditions, it follows that for modernized the active zone of the VVER-1000 is the most appropriate execution of the fuel rods with the following characteristics:

- the outer diameter of the shell described TVEL selected 7.50·10-3m or 8.30·10-3m or 8.70·10-3m;

the diameter of the fuel core of the described TVEL selected 6.24·10-3m or 6.91·10-3m or 7.24·10-3m;

is the mass of the fuel core of the described fuel element selected from 1.07 kg to 1.11 kg or from 1.31 kg to 1.36 kg or from 1.44 kg to 1.49 kg

During the operation of working fluid (coolant) washes the outer surface of the shell 4 of a fuel rod 1 and, thus, carries heat from the 2 tablets of the fuel core.

In figure 2, and Fi is .3, as an example, presents curves. characterizing the change in the maximum design basis accident (MPA) temperature of fuel cladding with maximum and average linear load for regular (outer diameter shell regular TVEL 9.10·10-3m) and upgraded (the outer diameter of the shell described TVEL 7.00·10-3m) the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000. The analysis of the condition of the fuel rods shows that for the hot fuel rod of a fuel rod having a maximum linear thermal load) lowering the maximum temperature is 278°and for fuel rods with an average load 142°C. Such values reduce the temperature of the fuel cladding would fundamentally alter the level of efficiency of the fuel rods and the predicted degree of safety of VVER-1000 reactor. Primarily, this is due to the strong dependence of the mechanical properties of the sheath material temperature in the T>550°and intensively increasing contribution of heat prociconia reactions in the development of an emergency at temperatures T>700°C. Therefore, the transition to a modernized area and, accordingly, reduction of the maximum temperature at MPA to 900°C to below 600°largely eliminates the influence of prociconia response to changes in material properties and geometric dimensions of the fuel claddings.

SL is blowing also be noted, the fuel rods modernized active zone, due to the reduction of linear thermal loads have significantly lower fuel temperature and have a high efficiency due to the reduction of the impact on the shell of the pressure of gaseous fission products. Reduced their output in the fuel rods modernized active zone also leads to less corrosion on the shell side of fuel. This suggests (current study)that in the described fuel rods upgraded the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000 actually achieve average fuel burn-up (55-60) MW·day/kg

The efficiency of the fuel elements in the transient operation modes associated with maneuvering capacity, due to many factors: the level of thermal loads, the background work, the speed and magnitude of change of capacity, corrosion on the shell side of the fuel core, etc. To avoid depressurization of the fuel rods in the maneuvering mode restrictions are imposed on the speed and range of lifting capacities standard reactor, which leads to economic losses. Valid values "step" lifting power is most sharply decreased with the increase of fuel burnup, and initial linear load. Therefore, the reduction of linear thermal loads of the fuel rods is one the of the most effective ways in solving this problem. Reducing the maximum linear thermal loads from 40 kW/m up to 20 kW/m is almost limitless in power change for modernized designs of fuel assemblies with the described fuel rods. The average linear load described TVEL for modernized the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000 with an outer diameter 7.00·10-3m to 7.50·10-3m is (10.81-11.12) kW/m and (12.77-13.13) kW/m for fuel rods with a diameter of sheath from 7.60·10-3M. to 8.30·10-3m (for regular fuel rod diameter 9.10·10-3m average linear load equal 16.71 W/m). Therefore, the transition to lower thermal loads in the described fuel rods upgraded the active zone of the VVER-1000 expands the range of the maneuvering capacity of the reactor.

It should also be noted that according to economic calculations to compensate for the increased cost of the upgraded FA enough or extension of the fuel cycle maximum (25-30) aftuck, or increasing power by 2.9%. Assess the potential of the upgraded active zone show that the increase in the length of the fuel cycles of 30 aftuck achieved during the implementation of the scheme overloads upgraded fuel assemblies with a more profound decrease in the leakage of neutrons, which is feasible on the VVER-1000 reactors with regard to growth th the technical reserves in the transition to reduced diameter fuel rods. Thermal-hydraulic calculations modernized the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000 acknowledge the potential for increasing the heating capacity of the active zone when using rods of reduced diameter on the value (up to 15%) significantly more than the requirement (2.9%) to compensate for the increased cost of the upgraded fuel assemblies. Thus the above-described design of the upgraded fuel assemblies for VVER-1000 reactor allows not only to compensate for the increased cost, but to increase economic efficiency.

Based on the above it can be stated that the transition to a modernized active zone with the described fuel in VVER-1000 reactors makes it possible to lower the specific heat load of the fuel rods in (1.19-1.42) times. This reduction of linear thermal loads in the described fuel rods upgraded the active zone of the reactor VVER-1000 allows you to:

- to improve the safety of power units with VVER-1000 reactor;

- to ensure the possibility of solving the problems associated with the maneuvering capacity of the VVER-1000 reactor;

- increase the efficiency of the fuel rods under normal operating conditions, which gives grounds to consider the real achievement of the average burnup of the fuel in the fuel assemblies (55-60) MW·day/kg;

to improve the economic efficiency of nuclear fuel Rea the torus VVER-1000.

It should be noted that the described truss rods can be used not only in the VVER-1000 reactors, but in the reactors Tina VVER-440 and RBMK, and other pressurized water reactors, boiling water (BWR), pressurized water reactors pressurized water (PWR) and heavy water reactors.

1. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor containing the fuel core, placed in a cylindrical shell, wherein the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 7.00·10-3m to 8,79·10-3m, the fuel core has a diameter of 5.82·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m respectively and a lot of from 0.93 kg to 1.52 kg, and the ratio of the length of the fuel core to the length of the fuel element is 0,9145 to 0,9483.

2. Rod fuel element of a pressurized water reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 7.00·10-3m to 7.5·10-3m, the fuel core has a diameter of 5.82·10-3m to 6,24·10-3m respectively and a lot of from 0.93 to 1.11 kg kg or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 7,6·10-3m to 8.3·10-3m, the fuel core has a diameter from 6,32·10-3m to 6.91·10-3m, respectively, and a weight of 1.1 kg to 1.36 kg or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected from 8,55·10-3 m to 8,79·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter from 7,11·10-3m to 7.32·10-3m respectively, and the mass of 1.39 kg to 1,52 kg

3. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor according to claim 1 and/or 2, characterized in that the outer diameter of the shell is selected to 7.5·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter from 6,24·10-3m and the mass of 1.07 to 1.11 kg, respectively, or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected 8,30·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter from 6,91 m and a weight of 1.31 kg to 1.36 kg, respectively, or the outer diameter of the sheath is selected 8,7·10-3m, and fuel core has a diameter from 7,24·10-3m and a weight of 1.44 to 1.49 kg kg respectively.

4. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterized in that the radial clearance between the fuel core and the shell is made not less than 0.05·10-3m

5. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, or 4, characterized in that the fuel core is composed of tablets or rods with an average density of uranium dioxide from 10,4·103kg/m3to 10.8·103kg/m3.

6. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor according to claim 5, characterized in, th is the length of each tablet or rod selected from 6,9· 10-3m to 12.00·10-3m

7. Rod fuel element water water energy reactor according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the tablets are made Central hole with a diameter of 1.07·10-3m to 1.45·10-3m



 

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