Hydraulic-controlled high resolution stratification water sampler

FIELD: hydrology; hydrobiology.

SUBSTANCE: device for simultaneous sampling of water samples taken from layers of water laying close to each other, has set of cylinders with pistons disposed onto carrying frame. End parts of all cylinders are hermetically tied with multiplier, which is connected with pump by means of hose pipe. Front edges of all cylinders are provided with beaks having entrance holes for taking water samples. Pistons moves inside cylinders due to hydraulic tie-rod. Space inside hose-pipe, multiplier and end parts of all cylinders is filled with water to avoid corrosion.

EFFECT: improved reliability of efficiency of operation; better protection corrosion.

 

The invention relates to the field of hydrology, Hydrobiology, marine science, hydrochemistry, environmental reservoirs, water Microbiology and other areas related to the necessity of taking water samples from specific depths. The device is intended for water sampling in stratified reservoirs, which occur in the water column layers, between which chemical and microbiological parameters are significantly different at a distance of a few centimeters in depth.

There are designs for water sampling, the main element of which is the number of horizontal cylinder located inside them pistons, strengthened one above the other on a frame. Management of stroke of the pistons of the cylinders is carried out either by mechanical traction, carried out by the springs (1)or pneumatically with air pumped by the pump through the hose leading to the tail portions of the cylinder (2).

The device (1) is analogous to declare our device and represents the sampler, including probability made in the form of a hollow sampling cylinders mounted on the rod, each sampling cylinder provided with a spring-loaded rod with piston and is mounted for movement in a horizontal plane, and each sealing mechanism made in the form of tightly close the captive on the outer surface of the cylinder Reiki with a groove, of the RAM that is installed in the groove with a possibility of free movement, and a spring-loaded lever with a lid, pivotally mounted in the slide, the lever is made with a ledge, which can interact with the end surface of the slats (1).

However, this design contains a very large number of parts, which increases the probability of failures due to wear-spring, sloppy fix, the failure of the caps, etc. Practice with the trigger mechanisms shows that they are not always and working with them requires special expertise that is acquired through the process of repeated unsuccessful attempts sampling.

The disadvantage of this design is that at the time of sampling water is the outrage selected fluid due to the rapid movement of the cylinder on the rod. This violates the validity of the samples.

Another disadvantage of this device lies in the fact that the cylinders cannot be placed close to each other due to the presence on their external surfaces of the sealing mechanism. Therefore, the distance between probabilitie limits the resolving power of the sampler in cases that require simultaneous sampling over a small interval (a few centimeters) in depth.

The closest analogue of the claimed our device is as a device (2). In it the main element is the same number of horizontal cylinder located inside them pistons (“syringes”)attached one above the other on a frame. The caudal part of the cylinder is hermetically coupled to the multiplier, connected the hose from the pump, and the front ends of all cylinders are equipped with spouts with inlet holes for water sampling. Management of stroke of the pistons is accomplished by means of air pumped by the pump through the hose leading to the tail portions of the cylinder (2).

In our opinion, the disadvantage of the described construction with pneumatic control is that it will not reliably operate at great depths (>10 meters) due to the properties of the compressibility of air. The use of an incompressible, hard hose is undesirable because of the inconvenience of its location on the boat. In addition, under the pressure of the water during submersion spontaneous retraction of the pistons of the cylinders and the water in the cylinder will begin to flow earlier than the sampler is lowered to a predetermined depth. This will occur even when the upper end of the hose is blocked (for example, valve pump), because the air in the hose will collapse under the pressure of the piston. Thus, the design works well only at shallow depths, such as research poverkhnostnyje water column, while working in the deeper layers of the reservoirs it unusable.

The technical result of the claimed our device is the improvement of the “syringe” schemes and the removal of defects that prevent the taking of water samples from different depths of water at intervals of a few centimeters in depth for subsequent analysis of thin inhomogeneities in the chemical and microbiological characteristics in the studied reservoir. The technical result is achieved due to the use of a device containing a set of horizontally arranged on a frame of cylinders with pistons, which movement is performed by hydraulic thrust, uniting the caudal part of the cylinder; aft all cylinders, hermetically United with a multiplier, connected by a hose with a pump, the front ends of all cylinders are equipped with spouts with inlet holes for water sampling, and the space inside the hose, the multiplier and the tail parts of the cylinder filled with pure water or alcohol solution.

In the study of reservoirs is often required to investigate the chemical composition of water and the composition of the microorganisms inhabiting the pond. These figures differ in depth, and therefore there is a need to take water samples for analysis from different depths. For the ora of water samples from a given depth, as a rule, use a device called a sampler. In most reservoirs, the accuracy of sampling an ordinary sampler is about 1 meter in depth and quite sufficient. But there are so-called stratified lakes, which at certain times of the year (or year round), starting with some depth, there is no vertical mixing of the water layers, and occur in the water column layers, between which chemical and microbiological parameters are very different at a distance of a few centimeters in depth. For a sampling of such stratified lakes and designed our device.

The basis of the invention lies above the system from a series of cylinders mounted on the base frame (figure 1). The invention consists in that the control piston hydraulic thrust. Hose and aft cylinders are connected through the multiplier in a single space, filled with the working fluid, which is the main working body, moving the pistons in both directions. As the working fluid can be used pure water or distilled water to prevent corrosion of metal parts and high wear rubber gaskets and pistons. In addition, as the working fluid can be used is to use 40-50%aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol, because it allows you to operate and store the unit in winter at low temperatures and to prevent occlusion of the internal space of the cylinder, multiplier and hose microalgae and bacteria. For pumping the working fluid through the hose can be used with any suitable pump. We successfully applied as a manual pump large plastic medical syringe with a volume of 150 ml (syringe Janet).

The description of the device

To achieve these goals, we have assembled the following device, which is shown in figure 1. The device consists of a frame 1, on which strengthened horizontally one above the other cylinders 2. The number of cylinders can be arbitrary, the choice of the researcher. The pistons of the cylinders 6 are shortened shank 9 which only serve to prevent distortion of the piston during movement. The rear ends of the cylinders are sealed and connected with a multiplier of 3, which in turn is hermetically connected with the hose 4. The space inside the hose, multiplier and rear of the cylinder to the piston filled with the working liquid 7 and represents a single tank. The front ends of the cylinders are equipped with spouts with inlet holes 10, through which the inside of the cylinder fall from a pond water sample 8.

Before sampling, through the pump hose 4 is m, attached to the free end of the hose (not shown), the device vkachivayut working fluid 7. When this piston through the hydraulic pressure moving forward, toward the inlet openings 10. When all the pistons reach the limit, the device is ready for sampling water from a reservoir.

By means of the cable 5, the device is lowered from the vessel to the desired depth. Hose 4 extends along the cable, its upper end attached to the pump and is on Board.

After the device is displayed at the point of sampling, using the same (or other) pump the working fluid 7 is pumped through the hose 4 in a separate container. Due to the hydraulic pressure pistons begin to move in the opposite direction, through holes 10 in the tank cylinder receives water from the reservoir. Once all the pistons will retract until it stops, the sampling is completed, the device is lifted aboard.

After sampling carry out the necessary operation - remove selected water samples from the cylinder. This operation is carried out in our design due to the injection of working liquid 7 back into the hydraulic system using the same (or other) pump. It should be noted that a necessary condition for normal operation with such a design is the ability to extract samples from the particular cylinder at the choice of the researcher, being the m so, what other cylinders remain filled with selected samples. In our construction is as follows. After removal of the device from the water inlet 10 of the cylinder closed with rubber stoppers (not shown), thereby preventing gas exchange samples of water with the atmosphere. For sampling water from the desired cylinder open tube on the cylinder and vkachivayut the working fluid by the pump through the hose, this will move the piston only in a specific cylinder, and the holes will lead sample. Since the other cylinders when closed, the pistons remain stationary. To retrieve samples from the next cylinder open the corresponding tube. After extraction, all samples pistons will be in the starting position, and the hydraulic system is filled with water up to the maximum capacity, i.e. the device is ready for the next sampling.

Numerous tests showed that contrary to expectations, the force for retracting the several pistons (in our sample was tested a number of 20 syringes, 2) spontaneously distributed in such a way that simultaneously moved no more than two pistons, and often only one. When the piston is fully passed the working distance, i.e. the specimen taken from the same horizon, began to move to the next and so on, and turn the ity of cylinders is always unpredictable and defined by existing small differences in the friction force, the diameters of the hydraulic system, etc. it is Obvious that this does not affect the quality of the sampling.

The positive point here is that for retracting all of the cylinders force required is the same as for retracting one cylinder, only increases the time of sampling.

Our design consisted of 20 cylinders with a volume of 150 ml each (figure 2), as a manual pump used the same cylinder. The sampling in the field took about 10 minutes.

We produced sample was successfully used during the summer field season of 2002 studies of lake Shira (Khakasia) (figure 2), where samples were taken from depths of 14-17 m the distance between the noses of the cylinder, and hence the depth interval between samples was 5 see For all the time the device was not registered a single crash.

This design has obvious advantages compared with existing designs. First, it allows to take samples from virtually any depth, as water, as any liquid is incompressible. Due to this, the water in the hose is not compressed by pumping, therefore, there is no need to apply a rigid hose. Submerged pressure of the column of water in the hose is always equal to the surrounding water pressure at the appropriate depth, p is that there is no danger of inadvertent retraction of the pistons due to external pressure, how this can happen in the pneumatic system.

Another advantage of the hydraulic system due to the fact that the volume of water pumped from a hose, corresponds exactly to the volume of the samples. This feature helps the researcher aboard the vessel by the number of evacuated fluid to determine whether all the cylinders were filled with water samples up to the maximum amount.

This design contains a small number of parts, which increases the reliability of the device. Clean water prevents corrosion of metal parts and reduces wear rubber gaskets and pistons. In addition, when used as the working fluid 40-50%aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol it is possible to operate and store the unit in winter at low temperatures. Another advantage of using an alcohol solution - prevent occlusion of the internal space of the cylinder, multiplier and hose microalgae and bacteria.

To refer to such devices in the Russian language there is no corresponding term. Therefore, we propose the name “the stratified sampler”, because the sampler in domestic Hydrobiology is a device for sampling water from the desired depth, and the word “stratification” it reflects the main purpose. In the English language is already established, the term “thin layer water sampler.

Literature

1. SU 981854 And class. G 01 N 1/10, published. 15.12.1982, 4C.

2. Alan L. Baker, Kathleen Kromer Baker and Peter Tyler. (1985) A family of pneumatically-operated thin layer samplers for replicate sampling of heterogeneous water columns. Hydrobiologia, 122: 207-211.

Device for simultaneous sampling of water, varying over a small interval in depth, containing a set of horizontally arranged on a frame of cylinders with pistons, the caudal part of the cylinder is hermetically coupled to the multiplier, connected the hose from the pump, and the front ends of all cylinders are equipped with spouts with inlet holes for water sampling, characterized in that the movement of the pistons in the cylinders by means of hydraulic thrust, and the space inside the hose, the multiplier and the tail parts of all of the pistons in the cylinders before them filled with clean water to eliminate corrosion.



 

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