Method of production of cold in turbo-refrigerating plant at stepped air bleed from compressor of turbo-jet engine

FIELD: refrigerating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes setting the turbine outlet temperature and continuous measurement of pressure and temperature after air bleed stages of engine compressor. Air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are calculated by means of system modulating unit. Then, degree of reduction of pressure in turbine, present magnitude of corrected rotational speed of rotor and optimal magnitude of corrected rotational of rotor corresponding to maximum efficiency of turbine are determined. Braking torque of rotor is changed by acting on braking unit till optimal and present magnitudes of rotational speed of rotor get equal. In case rated magnitude of air temperature at turbine outlet exceeds preset magnitude, flow rate of purging air is decreased or increased till magnitudes get equal. When these temperatures are equal, consumption of fuel is determined for each bleed stage and is analyzed for obtaining minimum consumption of fuel. Then, air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are determined by means of sensors. According to results thus, obtained, above-mentioned parameters are determined and processes are repeated till optimal and present magnitudes of corrected rotational speed of turbine rotor and preset and measured magnitudes of air temperature at turbine outlet get equal after which actual consumption of fuel is determined.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel.

6 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to refrigeration and can be used in turbomolecular units, designed for refrigeration systems, life support systems and, in particular, for air conditioning systems of hermetic compartments and cabins of aircraft.

A method of obtaining cold in turbopropeller Assembly, consisting of a cooling turbine, and a braking device mounted on the same shaft, which includes the process of expansion of compressed air in the refrigeration turbine with decreasing temperature and output mechanical power brake device to brake the turbocharger or the fan (EN 2188368 C1, 27.08.2002).

A method of obtaining cold in Turkological installed with air bleed from the compressor turbojet engine by compressing atmospheric air in the compressor of the engine, cooling it in air-to-air heat exchanger vent air coming from the atmosphere, the subsequent expansion of the compressed air in the refrigeration turbine by lowering its temperature and output mechanical power brake device is kinematically associated with the rotor cooling turbine (EN 2190814 C1, 10.10.2002).

A method of obtaining cold in Turkological installation with step by bleed air from the compressor turbojet engine, included is the overall compression of the atmospheric air in the compressor of the engine, the compressed air in turbocoating installation (THU) from a given stage of the compressor of the engine, limiting the pressure of the compressed air network regulator pressure, cooling it in air-to-air heat exchanger vent air coming from the atmosphere, the subsequent expansion of the compressed air in the refrigeration turbine by lowering its temperature and output mechanical power brake compressor, kinematically linked with the rotor cooling turbine System equipment of aircrafts. Edited Matveenko A.M. and Bekasova V. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1995, p.65-67 and p.129-133).

However, the known method does not provide high efficiency get cold, because the air sampling in turbocoating the installation is carried out in two sampling points from the compressor turbojet engine (turbojet). Moreover, the selection of air from one group or another compressor stages produce only depending on the air pressure behind the stage of selection, i.e. excluding changes in the magnitude of the efficiency of the refrigeration turbine, the temperature of the air behind it and the fuel flow turbojet engine. In terms of the same variable modes and changing environmental parameters specific to TRD, and as a consequence changing the operating parameters air-to-air heat exchanger, cooling the turbine is a braking device, there is a significant deviation of the turbine efficiency from the maximum possible value. To compensate for the reduced efficiency of the refrigeration turbine and due to this increase in air temperature for the turbine is above the preset level, it is necessary to increase the amount of purge air through an air-to-air heat exchanger, which leads to increased engine fuel consumption required to obtain the cold.

The present invention is to develop a cost-effective way, which reduces the amount of fuel consumed for the production of cold in Turkological installation in a wide range of variable modes of operation of a turbojet engine.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of obtaining cold in Turkological installation with step by bleed air from the compressor of the turbojet engine by compressing atmospheric air in the compressor of the engine, compressed air in turbocoating installation from a given stage of the compressor of the engine, limiting the pressure of the compressed air network regulator pressure, cooling it in air-to-air heat exchanger vent air coming from the atmosphere, the subsequent expansion of the compressed air in the refrigeration turbine by lowering its temperature is tours and output mechanical power brake device, kinematically linked with the rotor cooling turbine, according to the invention, turbocoating installation supply of a computer program that simulates the operation of the system, including turbojet engine and turbocoating installation. Set the temperature for the turbine and set the nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller. In the process, the system continuously measure the pressure and temperature behind the speed bleed air from the compressor of the engine. Using simulation models of the system at each stage of the selection calculate the temperature and pressure of the air turbine inlet temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor. Determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine. If the current estimated value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque of the rotor. If the current value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor increases, while the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device before is Avesta optimal and current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor. If the calculated value of the air temperature for the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air, until the equality of the specified and calculated temperature values. If the calculated value of the air temperature for the turbine exceeds the specified value, then increase the amount of purge air, until the equality of the specified and calculated temperature values. Upon the occurrence of an equality of values of the specified temperature is determined for each of the selection steps of the fuel consumed by the engine is getting cold. Conduct a comparative analysis of fuel costs and choose the level for air sampling with the lowest fuel consumption for a given mode of operation of the engine. This is selected by calculation stage air sampling using sensors measure temperature and pressure at the turbine inlet temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor. The results of these measurements determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine. If the current value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque of the rotor. If tech is the future value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor is increased. Moreover, the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device until the equality of the optimal and the current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor. Then, if the measured temperature value of the air for cooling the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air, until the equality of the measured value and setpoint temperatures. If the measured value of the air temperature for the turbine exceeds the specified value, then increase the amount of purge air, until equality is defined and measured temperature values. When equality of the values of these temperatures determine the actual fuel consumed by the engine is getting cold.

In addition, provided that the nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller is set in the range from 0.4 to 0.5 MPa.

Provided that the amount of purge air change by reducing or increasing the degree of throttling of the flow of the purge air enters an air-to-air heat exchanger.

Along with this it also stipulates that the amount of purge air change by reducing or increasing the degree of throttling of the flow of the purge what about the air out air-to-air heat exchanger.

Recommended as a braking device to use a fan mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling turbine, while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction side of the fan.

It is advisable as a braking device to use the brake turbocharger mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling turbine, while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction side.

The drawing shows a diagram Turkological installation with step by bleed air from the compressor of a turbofan engine with a separation of contour threads.

A method of obtaining cold in Turkological installation is carried out as follows.

Atmospheric air is compressed with increasing temperature in the compressor (1) turbojet engine and enters the subsystem selection (2) air from several compressor stages of the engine.

Subsystem selection is usually mounted directly on the outer surface of the engine. Then the compressed air from the subsystem selection on the overall pipeline is sent to the network controller overpressure (3)supporting after pressure not greater than installed the CSOs rated. Having excessive pressure regulator, compressed air fed into the air-to-air heat exchanger (4), which cools the purge air. The purge (cooling) air flows from the atmosphere through the suction channel (5) and then, after an air-to-air heat exchanger (IWT), released into the environment (atmosphere). Pre-cooled in AME compressed air is directed to the expansion cooling turbine (6). In the expansion process is lowering the air temperature and the return of the mechanical energy of the braking device, such as brake turbocharger (7), kinematically associated shaft (8) with the rotor cooling turbine. After the turbine (6) cold air line (9) is served to the consumer, for example, in the cooling system germoline and equipment compartments or in the cooling system of the turbine engine. Turbocoating installation supply of a computer program that simulates the operation of the system, including turbojet engine and turbocoating the installation, operation Turkological set a value of the air temperature for the turbine (6) and install the nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller. In the process, the system continuously measure the pressure and temperature behind the speed bleed air from the compressor motor is the determinant. Using simulation models of the system at each stage of the selection calculate the temperature and pressure of the air turbine inlet temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor. Determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine. If the current estimated value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque of the rotor. If the current value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor increases, while the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device until the equality of the optimal and the current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor. If the calculated value of the air temperature for the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air flowing through IWT (4), until the equality of the specified and calculated temperature values. If the calculated value of the air temperature for the turbine exceeds the specified value, then increase the amount of purge air until equality is defined and calculated temperature values. the ri occurrence of an equality of values of the specified temperature is determined for each of the selection steps fuel consumption, spent engine on getting cold. Conduct a comparative analysis of fuel costs and choose the level for air sampling with the lowest fuel consumption for a given mode of operation of the engine. This is selected by calculation stage air sampling using sensors measure temperature and pressure at the turbine inlet temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor. The results of these measurements determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine. If the current value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque of the rotor. If the current value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor is increased.

Moreover, the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device until the equality of the optimal and the current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor. Then, if the measured temperature value of the air for cooling the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air, until equality is measured and specified Zn the values of temperatures. If the measured value of the air temperature for the turbine exceeds the specified value, then increase the amount of purge air, until equality is defined and measured temperature values. When equality of the values of these temperatures determine the actual fuel consumed by the engine is getting cold.

The nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller is set in the range from 0.4 to 0.5 MPa. The amount of purge air change by reducing or increasing the degree of throttling of the flow of the purge air enters an air-to-air heat exchanger or at the output of the air-to-air heat exchanger. The degree of throttling of the flow of purge air change through the valve (10)mounted respectively on the input or output purge air from air-to-air heat exchanger (4).

As a braking device (7) use a fan mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling of the turbine (6), while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction side of the fan. In some cases, depending on design features Turkological installation, as brakes use brake turn the compressor, mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling turbine, while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction. Resistance networks change with flap (11), respectively installed on the suction side or discharge side of the turbocharger or blower.

In Turkological installation implementing the method may be applied to the electronic unit simulate the system, the electronic signal processing unit and the control unit is made on the basis of microprocessors, devices for converting analog signals into digital and switching devices. In the control unit the measured and preset parameters in the form of electrical signals to the microprocessor (computer), which are summarized based on the characteristics of the turbine, stored in the memory of the microprocessor (computer), output signals via actuators served on braking device (7) for varying the braking torque of the turbine rotor (6), the automatic valve (10) to change the number of purge air and the subsystem selection (2) to select stage bleed air from the compressor of the engine.

High efficiency of the proposed method of obtaining cold in Turkological installation (THU) with stepwise selection of air from the compressor is and turbojet engine caused by the maintenance of a maximum value of efficiency of the refrigeration turbine and the set temperature of the air exiting the turbine with variable modes TRD changing environmental parameters and thermal loads on THU with the lowest fuel consumption required for the production of cold.

1. A method of obtaining cold in Turkological installation with step by bleed air from the compressor of the turbojet engine by compressing atmospheric air in the compressor of the engine, compressed air in turbocoating installation from a given stage of the compressor of the engine, limiting the pressure of the compressed air network regulator pressure, cooling it in air-to-air heat exchanger vent air coming from the atmosphere, the subsequent expansion of the compressed air in the refrigeration turbine by lowering its temperature and output mechanical power brake device is kinematically associated with the rotor cooling turbine, characterized in that turbocoating installation supply of a computer program that simulates the operation of the system, including yourself turbojet engine and turbocoating installation, set the temperature for the turbine and set the nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller, the system is operating continuously measure the pressure and temperature behind the speed bleed air from the compressor of the engine, using a simulation model of the system on which I at each stage of the selection calculate the temperature and pressure of the inlet air to the turbine, temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor, determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine, if the current estimated value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque of the rotor, if the current value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor increases, while the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device until the equality of the optimal and the current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor, if the estimated the temperature of the air for the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air, until the equality of the given and calculated values of the temperature, if the calculated value of the air temperature for the turbine exceeds the specified value, then increase the amount of purge air, until the equality of the specified and estimated values of the temperatures at the onset of the equality of the values specified temperature is determined for each of the selection steps of the fuel consumed by the engine to receive the cold is, conduct a comparative analysis of fuel costs and choose the level for air sampling with the lowest fuel consumption for a given mode of operation of the engine, for this is selected by calculation stage air sampling using sensors measure temperature and pressure at the turbine inlet temperature and pressure for the turbine and the speed of its rotor, the results of these measurements determine the degree of pressure reduction turbine, the current value of a given frequency of rotation of the rotor and the optimal value of the given frequency of rotation of the rotor corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the turbine, if the current value of a given rotation frequency less than the optimal values are given rotational speed, while decreasing the braking torque rotor, if the current value of a given speed more than the optimum value, then the braking torque of the rotor is increased and the braking torque of the rotor change by influencing the braking device until the equality of the optimal and the current values of frequency of rotation of the turbine rotor, then, if the measured temperature value of the air for cooling the turbine is less than the specified, then reduce the amount of purge air, until the equality of the measured value and setpoint temperature, if the measured value of the rate is atory air for the turbine is greater than the specified, then increase the amount of purge air, until equality is defined and measured values of the temperatures at the onset of the equality of the values of these temperatures determine the actual fuel consumed by the engine is getting cold.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the nominal value of the excess pressure, the configuration of the network controller is set in the range of 0.4-0.5 MPa.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the amount of purge air change by reducing or increasing the degree of throttling of the flow of the purge air enters an air-to-air heat exchanger.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the amount of purge air change by reducing or increasing the degree of throttling of the flow of purge air out air-to-air heat exchanger.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, or 4, characterized in that the braking device using a fan mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling turbine, while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction side of the fan.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, or 4, characterized in that the braking device use brake turbokompres the PRS, mounted on the same shaft with rotor cooling turbine, while the braking torque of the rotor change, reducing or increasing the resistance of the network on the pressure side or suction side.



 

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