Method of operation of four-stroke internal combustion engine

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention makes it possible to enlarge operating capabilities by provision of control of delivery of liquid into overpiston space of cylinder depending on operating conditions of internal combustion engine. Proposed method of operation of four-stroke internal combustion engine includes intake of air or fuel-air mixture into overpiston space of cylinder at first stroke, compression and ignition at second stroke, combustion of fuel-air mixture for converting energy of expanding combustion products into rotation of shaft and delivery of liquid into overpiston space of cylinder when pressure in overpiston space of cylinder drops at third stroke, and discharge of combustion products from cylinder into atmosphere at fourth stroke. Pressure drop in overpiston space of cylinder at third stroke is determined by signal received from analog device connected with cylinder and liquid feed nozzle.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the engine, in particular to the ways of working of four stroke internal combustion engines.

The known method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine including intake in newportnews space of the cylinder of air or air-fuel mixture in the first step, the compression and ignition of the second stage, the combustion air-fuel mixture to convert the energy of the expanded products of combustion into rotational energy of the shaft at the third stroke, the displacement of the combustion products from the cylinder on the fourth beat. On the fourth beat of newportnews space of one cylinder in newportnews space of another cylinder interconnected cylinders, the phases are shifted by 540°serves combustion products through their full bypass. In the last cylinder on the second clock cycle to produce the compressed products of combustion and flow in newportnews space neutralizing fluid, intended to neutralize the products of combustion and conversion of residual energy of the combustion products in the rotational energy of the shaft, wherein the flow in newportnews space neutralizing fluid is produced at the end of the second stage, the third stage carry out evaporation neutralizing liquid to convert ostate the Neu energy of the combustion products in the rotational energy of the shaft and the neutralization products of combustion, on the fourth step of producing the displacement neutralized exhaust gas with the particles of vapor in the atmosphere (see patent RU No. 2153085, IPC7F 02 In 47/02, 75/10).

The main disadvantage of the method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine is increased complexity of manufacturing internal combustion engine that implements the method, due to the bypass of the products of combustion from newportnews space of one cylinder in newportnews space of another cylinder interconnected cylinders, the phases are shifted by 540°.

The closest way to the same destination to the claimed invention by a combination of traits and the achieved result, adopted for the prototype, is the way of working of four stroke internal combustion engine, comprising the first step of the intake in newportnews space air cylinder or toplivootdachey mixture in the second step of compression and ignition, on the third stroke, the combustion toplivootdachey mixture to convert the energy of the expanded products of combustion into rotational energy of the shaft and filing with newportnews space of the cylinder of fluid, namely water, after the approach of the piston to the top dead center position when the pressure in newportnews space, where the decomposition of water, boiled in the accumulation chamber under the influence is the influence of high temperature, on oxygen and hydrogen, ensuring the participation of the latter in the combustion process and the creation of additional effort in the form of gases, pressing on the piston and increases the efficiency of the engine, on the fourth stroke displacement combustion products from the cylinder into the atmosphere (see patent RU No. 2184859, IPC7F 02 B 47/02, F 02 M 25/03).

The main disadvantage of the above-described method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine is limited technological capabilities due to the lack of collateral management, fluid flow, depending on the operating modes of the internal combustion engine.

The invention solves the problem of the expansion of technological capabilities by providing control fluid flow in newportnews space of the cylinder depending on the operating modes of the internal combustion engine.

To achieve the technical result in the way of working of four stroke internal combustion engine including intake in newportnews space air cylinder or toplivootdachey mixture at the first step, the compression and ignition of the second stage, the combustion toplivootdachey mixture to convert the energy of the expanded products of combustion into rotational energy of the shaft and flow in newportnews space of the cylinder of fluid when the pressure in newportnews PR is the space of the cylinder on the third beat, the displacement of the combustion products from the cylinder to the atmosphere at the fourth step, reducing the pressure in newportnews space of the cylinder at the third stroke is determined by the signal from analog devices associated with the cylinder and nozzle for the fluid.

The criterion of the determination of the pressure reduction in newportnews space of the cylinder on the third beat of the signal from analog devices associated with the cylinder and nozzle for the fluid, causes the control flow of the liquid in newportnews space of the cylinder in accordance with changes in operating parameters of the internal combustion engine, the engine temperature intracylinder pressure, rotational speed of the crankshaft.

The proposed method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine illustrated in the drawing, in which figure 1 shows a variant of the engine with external mixture formation, figure 2 - option of the engine with internal mixture formation and compression ignition, figure 3 - flow of fluid in the cylinders of the engine, figure 4 - chart 1 pressure in the cylinder of the internal combustion engine without fluid in newportnews space of the cylinder and chart D2 pressure in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine with a liquid in newportnews space Qili the DRA on the third beat.

Four-stroke internal combustion engine includes a cylinder block 1, a cylinder 2, which is designed for burning an air-fuel mixture, the piston 3, the crankshaft 4, the rod 5, the head 6 of the cylinder block 1, the timing mechanism with an inlet 7 and outlet 8 valves, nozzle 9 for supplying fluid to the cylinder 2, the inlet 10 and outlet 11 collectors. As the liquid can be used is water.

With external mixture formation (see figure 1) four-stroke internal combustion engine provided with a spark plug 12.

When the internal mixture formation (see figure 2) four-stroke internal combustion engine provided with a nozzle 13 for supplying fuel into the cylinder 2.

The container 14 with the fluid supply in newportnews space of the cylinder 2 is connected by a pipe 15 to the low pressure feed pump 16 connected through line 15 to the low pressure liquid pump 17 high pressure. The pump 17 is connected through line 18 to the high pressure hydraulic accumulator 19, provided with a reducing valve 20 and connected to the nozzles 9, 22, 23, 24 communicating with the respective cylinders of the internal combustion engine. Nozzle 9, 22, 23, 24 via electric wires 21 low voltage is connected to the analog device 25, intended for processing external signals and the formation of the panel is engaged signals. The sensors 26, 27, 28, the engine temperature intracylinder pressure, rotational speed of a crankshaft of the internal combustion engine and a sensor 29 of the angle of rotation of the crankshaft is also connected to an analog device 25.

The way of working of four stroke internal combustion engine with external mixture formation, with internal mixture formation and ignition compression is as follows. Newportnews space of the cylinder 2 on the first beat (0-180°) when the piston 3 to the lower dead point fill the air-fuel mixture with external mixture formation (see figure 1) or by air when the internal mixture formation (see figure 2)flowing through the intake manifold 10 and the open intake valve 7. When the exhaust valve 8 is closed. At the second clock cycle (180-360°) when the piston 3 from bottom dead center to top dead center the intake valve 7 is closed, produce the compression of fuel-air mixture (see figure 1) or air (see figure 2). At the end of second stage (340-355°) when the piston 3 to the upper dead point is the ignition of the air-fuel mixture by the spark plug 12 (see figure 1) or the ignition when the fuel injection through the nozzle 13 (see figure 2)

On the third beat (360-540°) when the piston 3 to the lower dead point of the air-fuel mixture burns, committed work Ho is to convert the energy of the expanded products of combustion into rotational energy of the crankshaft. As a result of oxidation of chemical elements on the third beat of outstanding principal amount of heat, pressure in the cylinder 2 increases rapidly and reaches its maximum in the first half of the third beat (370-385°), then the expanded products of combustion move the piston 3, acting through the connecting rod 5 to the crankshaft 4, the pressure in the cylinder 2 in the middle of the third stage (440-460°) is reduced to a level equal to the pressure in the end of the second cycle. At the beginning of the pressure reduction on the third beat in newportnews space of the cylinder 2 is fed through the nozzle 9, the liquid, which can be used in liquid or to neutralize the products of combustion, or liquid to create the extra effort in the form of gas pressure on the piston 3 or the liquid for simultaneous neutralization products of combustion and make an additional effort in the form of gas pressure on the piston 3. Start reducing the pressure on the third stroke is determined by the signal from the analog device 25 associated with the nozzle 9 and the cylinder 2, and dependent on control actions and mode of operation of the internal combustion engine (see figure 3). After filing in newportnews space of the cylinder 2 of the liquid in the second half of the third beat (460-540°) she is under the influence of high temperature decomposes into gaseous constituents, membership is involved in the combustion process, is evaporation, vapor expansion fluid at low temperature and increase the pressure in the cylinder 2. On the fourth beat (540-720) when the piston 3 from bottom dead center to top dead center open exhaust valve 8 and produce the displacement of the combustion products with overheated pairs of fluid from newportnews space of the cylinder 2 through the exhaust manifold 11 into the atmosphere.

The diagrams D1 and D2 (see figure 4) shows that when the flow of liquid newportnews space of the cylinder nozzle on the third step of determining the start of pressure reduction in newportnews space of the cylinder by an electric signal from an analog device associated with the cylinder and the nozzle, there is an increase in pressure in the cylinder compared to the pressure in the cylinder at the third step in the method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine without liquid supply nozzle in newportnews space of the cylinder.

Thus, the use of the proposed method of operation of four stroke internal combustion engine allows you to expand the technological capabilities by controlling the supply of fluid in newportnews space of the cylinder depending on operating conditions of the engine, to ensure the maximum utilization of thermal energy of the combustion products vs the eating of vaporization of the liquid, which used the liquid to create the extra effort in the form of gas pressure on the piston in the third step, to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion through their processing on the third beat of the liquid, which used liquid for neutralization products of combustion.

The way of working of four stroke internal combustion engine including intake in newportnews space of the cylinder of air or air-fuel mixture in the first step, the compression and ignition of the second stage, the combustion air-fuel mixture to convert the energy of the expanded products of combustion into rotational energy of the shaft and flow in newportnews space of the cylinder of fluid when the pressure in newportnews space of the cylinder at the third stroke, the displacement of the combustion products from the cylinder to the atmosphere at the fourth step, characterized in that the pressure reduction in newportnews space of the cylinder at the third stroke is determined by the signal from analog devices associated with the cylinder and nozzle for the fluid.



 

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FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention makes it possible to enlarge operating capabilities by provision of control of delivery of liquid into overpiston space of cylinder depending on operating conditions of internal combustion engine. Proposed method of operation of four-stroke internal combustion engine includes intake of air or fuel-air mixture into overpiston space of cylinder at first stroke, compression and ignition at second stroke, combustion of fuel-air mixture for converting energy of expanding combustion products into rotation of shaft and delivery of liquid into overpiston space of cylinder when pressure in overpiston space of cylinder drops at third stroke, and discharge of combustion products from cylinder into atmosphere at fourth stroke. Pressure drop in overpiston space of cylinder at third stroke is determined by signal received from analog device connected with cylinder and liquid feed nozzle.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

4 dwg

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