Method of thermal treatment of tools made out of fast-cutting steels in salt baths

FIELD: metallurgy; engineering industry and instrument-making industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of thermal treatment of tools made out of fast-cutting steels in salt baths. The method is pertinent to the field of metallurgy and production of tools and may be used at a thermal treatment of tools made out of fast-cutting steels. The technical result from the invention is a decrease of labor input, an increase of productivity and speeding up of the production process. The technical result of the invention is achieved due to the fact, that preheating of the tools is conducted by a method, which ensures the given hardness (HRC, 36-46) on the tail part and on the working part (HRC, 62) after a final thermal treatment of the tools. The such technology of heating ensures hardnessHRC, 36-46 on the tail part of the tools without additional modes of the thermal treatment, that allows to reduce labor input, to increase labor productivity and to speed up production process. The invention also may be used in engineering industry and instrument-making industry.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease labor input, to increase productivity and to speed up production process.

1 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of heat treatment and can be applied during hardening of tools made of high speed steels in salt baths.

Known methods of heat treatment of high speed steels in salt baths, which are preliminary, and then in the final heat of the working parts of the instruments in salt baths. Followed by heat treatment tail instruments by heating by high frequency currents or salt at a temperature 840-860°C, followed by tempering at 400-450°C [1].

This may lengthen the process increases the cost of the tools, because it requires two additional operations, and also causes a decrease in the quality of the cutting tools.

The known method of heat treatment of high speed steel by heating the entire instrument to a temperature of 60-80°below the quenching temperature, and then the surface to a temperature of 40 to 80°With higher temperature quenching [2].

However, this method provides for only the maximum hardness of the working (cutting) parts not providing more hardness HRCE36-46 on the shank and require additional expensive equipment for rapid heating of the surface.

Technical result achieved from the use of predlagaemoj the way is to reduce complexity, increase productivity, speeding up the production process.

To obtain the technical result in the proposed method, the heat treatment of tools made of high speed steels in salt baths, including preliminary and final heating for hardening, quenching and tempering, tools pre-heated, and the final heating is carried out only working part at a temperature hardening.

The distinctive feature of the proposed method is preheating to 820-920°With all tools when heated to the quenching temperature, only the working parts of the instruments. In this case, after the holidays on a given hardness (≥HRCE62) the working parts of the tools at 540-570°With two, three times, on the rear of the tools provided hardness HRCE36-46.

These features are a new significant difference between the proposed method from the known, which provides technical result.

Hardness RE36-46 on the rear of the tools is ensured due to the low temperature of austenitization (820-920° (C) in conjunction with vacation at 540-570°C.

These features are a new significant difference between the proposed method from the known, which provides technical is the result.

The proposed process helps to ensure less deformation tools small cross sections and long lengths (drills, end mills, taps and so on).

The PRACTICAL APPLICATION

Conducted training of end mills (with a diameter of 4-8 mm), drills (diameter 3-5 mm) and samples with a diameter of 3 mm, a length of 60 mm with external centers at an angle of 60°.

Tools and samples were mounted vertically in a special device made of stainless steel. A device with instruments and samples were loaded into the salt bath composition 22% NaCl and 78% BaCl2for heating. The tools in the bath heating was kept at 20-30 seconds per mm of diameter, then the device was transferred into a bath of the final heat, where he withstood based 10-12 seconds per mm of diameter. Retrieves a device with instruments and samples and transferred into the oil with a temperature of 60-80°for final cooling.

Pre-made:

a) completely immersing the instruments and samples in salt;

b) immersing only the working part of the instruments and samples in salt.

For the final heating of the instruments were immersed in salt only on the length of the working part. After quenching and tempering was measuring different parameters.

The results of the experiments are presented in tables 1 and 2.

Table 1

The hardness of the TOOLS depending ON the HEAT TREATMENT
No. of modesKind of tool diameter, mmSteelThe heating temperature, °toolsThe temperature of the final heating of the working part, °C±10°Vacation ° ±10°, 1 hour, 3 timesHardness, RE
tailworking part
1End 800  29-33 
2cuttersR6M5820121055036-3863-64
3diameter 920  42-46 
44-8 mm 950  48-50 
5Drill 800  30-33 
6diameter P18820127056036-3862-63
73-5 mm92042-46
8  950  50-53 
NOTES TO TABLE 1: 1. The heat treatment№№1, 4, 5, 8, beyond the proposed method.

2. The heat treatment№№2, 3, 6, 7 - the proposed method.

Table 2

WARP (RUNOUT) OF THE SAMPLES OF THE ARTICLE. P18 AFTER VARIOUS MODES of HARDENING
№№ p/p

sample
 The beating of the sample, mmNote
before hardeningafter quenching
1Heating of the samples produced 0,02The proposed method
2fully in hcl 0,03 
3tub when 880-920°0,010,02 
4for 1 minute, then  0,03 
5bore samples in0,020,02 
6the salt bath temperature 1260-1280°where warmed up only working part of the calculation 10-12 C/mm, cooled samples in oil. 0,04 
7Heating produced 0,06Way-
8only working part0,010,06the placeholder
9samples in the salt bath 0,08 
10when 880-920°for 0,08 
111 minute, then shift-0,020,07 
12if the samples in a salt bath at a temperature 1260-1280°From where also warmed up only working part of the calculation 10-12 C/mm, cooled samples in oil. 0,08 
NOTES: 1. Samples with centers at an angle of 60°diameter 3 mm, length 60 mm

2. Samples for measuring the deformation of the fixed centers, and the beating was determined by the indicator in the Central the part. Intercept indicator 0,001 mm

3. The working part of a sample size of 30 mm

The use of the proposed method:

1. To obtain hardness HRCE36-46 at the tail.

2. To increase productivity.

3. To reduce the complexity of the process.

4. To reduce the cost of production.

5. To reduce the technological process for 3-4 hours.

It should be noted that the proposed method provides a cleaner surface of all instruments, because during pre-heating the surface of the tools covered with a thin layer of salt, which in the final heat of the working part protects the surface of the tail part from oxidation.

Sources of information

1. Wagerer. Tool steels. M. metallurgy, 1975, s and 1983, s-226.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 590349 on CL 21 D 9/22.

The method of thermal processing tools made of high speed steels in salt baths, including preheating, the final heating for hardening, quenching and tempering, wherein the tool is heated completely with over 840 and 920°and the final heating is carried out only working part at a temperature hardening.



 

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