Method for estimating vertebral column form and functions

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selecting a set of points describing vertebral column arch form, estimating central angle value, chord inclination, arch radius and chord length in each vertebral column segment. Vertebral column function is evaluated on the basis of central angle value and arch radius in standard positions. Angular and linear parameters describing vertebral column form and spatial orientation in three planes are calculated and compared to parameter values characterizing normal state.

EFFECT: high accuracy of quantitative parameters estimations.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to traumatology and orthopedics, and can be used in clinical practice and research to solve diagnostic problems and planning treatment.

Known methods for evaluating the function of the spine, based on the measurement of the Central angle of the arc of the spine in a neutral position and in the position of maximum flexion and extension through resourceline x-ray (Fergysson (1930), Cobb (1958), Gccsi (1958), Ecasino (1962), Ehabilitation (1964), Ithnayn (1969)).

These methods are not without drawbacks. To assess the correlation between adjacent vertebrae and the spatial position of each vertebra must be resourcevalue x-ray, and then to measure the desired values, which leads to the accumulation of errors and the emergence of differences in results obtained by different researchers. The method involves the completion of at least three x-ray, which is associated with radiation load on the patient, it is not possible to estimate the rotational mobility of the spine.

To assess the function of the spine, many authors have used the definition of the torso in the extreme positions or when performing movements with the help of special measuring equipment. The evaluation of the function of the spine produced using inclinometers (Loebl WY, 1967, mechanical and electronic single-axis and three-axis goniometer (Boocock MG, 1994, Marras WS, 1993), dynamometers (Thistle H, 1967), electromagnetic, ultrasonic or optical sensors displacement (Gracovetsky S, 1995, Vogt L, 1999, Trott PH, 1996). To determine the function of the spine is either the angle of the torso in the extreme positions of either the rate of movement of the extreme points of the spine without estimating the change in curvature of the arc.

The closest is a method, implemented using a CMS 30/70 Pointer measuring system (Sautmann M, 2000). The method enables the visualization of shape changes of the spine in its movements. The method consists in determining the coordinates of the shoulder girdle, pelvis and all the spinous processes of the spine ultrasonic sensor that provides automatic determination of the angle of thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and torso. Measurement of the patient is standing on his feet. The research is conducted in the neutral position when performing side bends, forward bends and back. The results are presented in the form of histograms. The method allows to determine the Central angle of the cervical, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis and, in addition, calculates the tilt of the pelvis, torso arc curvature in the frontal plane in the presence of scoliotic deformities. The function of the spine is assessed on the basis of calc is of move in the linear dimension.

This method provides a study of the functions of the spine on the basis of changes in its form, but does not allow its quantification.

The objective of the invention is to propose a method that can more accurately determine additional quantitative parameters characterizing the shape and spatial orientation of the spinal cord (the Central angle of the arc, the slope of the chord of the arc, the radius of the arc, the angular relationship of the pelvis and shoulder girdle), as in the initial state, and at the extreme functional conditions without the use of x-rays.

When the method has positive therapeutic effect by expanding diagnostic capabilities that allows you to limit the radiation exposure to the patient by reducing the number of x-ray studies to substantiate the optimal tactics and predict treatment outcomes. The method can be used for screening studies. The economic effect is achieved due to the fact that the way research is less time consuming, less labor intensive, does not require the use of expensive x-ray equipment does not require special equipment of the premises.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the basis of the method is the calculation of the angular and linear parameters, the character is based on the shape and spatial orientation of the spine in three dimensions.

The problem is solved due to the fact that many of the points defining the arc of the spine, assess the magnitude of the Central angle, the slope of the chord, the radius of the arc and the chord length of each spine, determines the function of the spine of the Central angle and the radius of the arc in standartnyh provisions, carry out the calculation of the angular and linear parameters characterizing the shape and spatial orientation of the spine in three dimensions, and compare with the values of the parameters that characterize normal.

The method is as follows.

The patient is installed in the neutral vertical position next to the measuring device and is positioned so that the device was located behind him. The patient during the study maintains a fixed position. The researcher probe measuring device marks the point acromiale-clavicle joint, front upper and rear upper spine of the Ilium, and then carries out along the spine line of the spinous processes of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, additionally marking the border of the spine. After this, the survey is repeated in the position of maximum flexion, extension, bending and rotation. If necessary, the study is conducted in the supine position is whether during the traction.

Using the coordinates of the points, calculate the angular and linear quantities characterizing the shape and spatial orientation of the spine, and the magnitude of the Central angle, the angle of the chord and the radius for each spine. Evaluation forms of the spine is performed separately in three planes - frontal, sagittal and horizontal. Estimated tilt of the pelvis in the sagittal and frontal planes, the inclination of the shoulder girdle in the frontal plane. The ratio of the pelvic and shoulder girdle is measured in the frontal and horizontal planes. In addition, in the frontal plane is estimated slope of the shoulder girdle relative to the pelvis, and in the horizontal spread of the shoulder girdle relative to the pelvis. All the values obtained are presented in the form of three tables, each of which corresponds to one of the three dimensions.

Assessment of the values obtained with normal values, it is concluded.

The advantage of this method lies in the fact that without the use of radiography allows several parameters to assess the shape and spatial orientation of the spine. The method allows to evaluate the combination of movements in three planes. A study of the short time (3-5 minutes).

An example of a specific implementation.

Patient P., born in 1953, was admitted to the Department with the sting of the AMI pain in the thoracic spine.

Table 1.
Frontal plane
Level 
The Central angle of the arcC1-C70
 C7-Th20
 Th2-L50
The radius of the arcC1-C70
 C7-Th20
 Th2-L50
The angle of the chord of the arcC1-C70
 C7-Th20
 Th2-L50
The chord length of the arcC1-C7142,6
 C7-Th2263,2
 Th2-L5to 206.6
The angle of pelvic inclination to horizontal7,66
The angle of the shoulder girdle0,11
The angle is alone shoulder girdle to the pelvis to 7.77
Sagittal plane
Level 
The Central angle of the arcC1-C7-29,2
 C7-Thl2120
 Thl2-L5-64,9
The radius of the arcC1-C7396,2
 C7-Th2147
 Thl2-L5270
The angle of the chord of the arcC1-C710,9
 C7-Th 12-2,0
 Thl2-L5-4,4
The chord length of the arcC1-C7142,6
 C7-Th2263,2
 Thl2-L5to 206.6
 C1-L5479,1
The angle of pelvic inclination to horizontal-36
Horizontal plane
UB is Yan  
The angle of the shoulder girdle to the pelvis0

The examination noted that in the sagittal plane of the Central angle of the arc and the radius of the arc exceeds the normal value. Diagnosed with juvenile kyphosis (disease Chairman Mau). (Table 1).

The way to evaluate the form and function of the spine by recording the coordinates of the points of evaluation of the Central angle, wherein using the set of points describing the arc of the spine, assess the magnitude of the Central angle, the slope of the chord, the radius of the arc and the chord length of each spine, determines the function of the spine of the Central angle and the radius of the arc in the standard provisions, carry out the calculation of the angular and linear parameters characterizing the shape and spatial orientation of the spine in three dimensions, and compare with the values of the parameters that characterize normal.



 

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FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selecting a set of points describing vertebral column arch form, estimating central angle value, chord inclination, arch radius and chord length in each vertebral column segment. Vertebral column function is evaluated on the basis of central angle value and arch radius in standard positions. Angular and linear parameters describing vertebral column form and spatial orientation in three planes are calculated and compared to parameter values characterizing normal state.

EFFECT: high accuracy of quantitative parameters estimations.

1 tbl

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device is manufactured from transparent polymethyl methacrylate of 1 cm in thickness. The device has base, fastening belts and opening. The base is rectangular and has width of 40 cm and length of 60 cm. Rulers of different direction are available on upper base surface edges scaled from 56,0 to 0,0 cm and having tick value of 0.1 cm. Three angular scales are available as 90є-0є-90є protractors having their centers arranged in the middle of base width near the supporting platform of radii 20,0; 30,0 and 40,0 cm. Protractor scale tick value is equal to 1 grade. Five through holes are available on each side some distance far from lateral surfaces of the base. The holes are arranged at the level of 10, 19, 28, 37 and 46 cm and are used for attaching the fastening belts and fixing the device in folded state. Four holes of diameters 0,5 and 0,3 cm are available on each side some distance far from the frontal and back base edge for fixing walls. Flexible thread is available on the lower base surface. The thread is tightly attached to the rest side center and is easily movable on the opposite side. The thread is used for drawing longitudinal bone axis. Flexible thread is attached to lateral surfaces by means of sliding clamps for drawing additional bone axes. Device for measuring angles (protractor of radius 20 cm) is attached to the measuring side by means of fastening stainless steel members at an angle of 90є. Two holes united with base holes of diameter 0,3 cm are available on the lower wall surface for making fixation by means of screws, two built-in rods of diameter 0,3 cm enable one to rigidly attach the wall to the base. Easily movable arrow-ruler having tick value equal to 0.1cm and reading origin at the upper plane of device base, is mounted on below the frontal surface of the protractor by means of fastening member. 0є-90є-0є scale of tick value equal to 1 grade is available at the top on the frontal protractor surface with reading origin set on upper base surface. One hole on each side is available some distance far from lateral surfaces for folding the device by making protractor wall close to the upper base surface. Supporting wall of 8,0 cm in height and width equal to base width is attached at an angle of 90є to base supporting wall by means of screws and stainless steel rods built-in into the supporting wall. The wall is 1,0 cm thick. Two holes united with base holes of diameter 0,3 cm are available on the lower supporting wall surface for making fixation by means of supporting screws. Two built-in rods of diameter 0,3 cm enable one to rigidly attach the wall to the base. One hole on each side is available some distance far from lateral surfaces for folding the device by making the supporting wall close to the upper base surface, when transporting the device.

EFFECT: high accuracy of measurements.

13 cl

FIELD: medicine, surgical gastroenterology.

SUBSTANCE: as functional parameters one should detect the amplitude for pulse oscillations, the period of motor wave and the value for tissue oxygenation. Moreover, one should measure the amplitude of pulse oscillations and the value of tissue oxygenation in tested section during the period of 1 motor wave, not less. At values of one and more amplitudes of pulse oscillations being below 2 mm and the value for tissue oxygenation being below 80% on should conclude upon disorders in viability of the section under testing. In case of no motor system in tested section one should simultaneously detect the period of motor wave in adjacent intact section. At values of one and more amplitudes of pulse oscillations being below 2 mm and the value of tissue oxygenation being below 80% in tested section during the period of one motor wave in adjacent intact section it is possible to conclude upon affected viability in tested section. The method enables to increase accuracy and information value in detecting affected viability of gastrointestinal organs and tissues.

EFFECT: decreased traumaticity level.

3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves taking imprints from upper and lower jaw for manufacturing plaster jaw models. The lower jaw plaster model is used for measuring mesiodistal dimensions of twelve teeth: 46-41 and 31-36. Particular tooth lacking, its dimensions are calculated using percent proportions from mean dental parameter values table. Individual general projection length norm is calculated for upper and lower jaw using formulas; Lpo=0.39*Σ12 and Lpu=0.35*Σ12, where Lpo and Lpu are the individual general projection length norms of lower and upper jaw, respectively; 0,39 and 0,35 are indices describing relationship binding mean general projection length of lower and upper jaw to mean sum of mesiodistal dimensions of twelve teeth(46-41 and 31-36) of lower dental row in persons having physiological occlusion and permanent teeth dimensions within the limits of mean values, respectively; Σ12 is the sum of mesiodistal dimensions of twelve teeth(46-41 and 31-36) measured on plaster model. Individual norm values of general upper and lower jaw projection length are compared to corresponding actual values measured on models. The values coinciding, conclusion is drawn concerning normal sagittal dimensions of denture. Difference being positive, increase in sagittal denture dimensions is considered to be the case. The difference being negative, reduction of sagittal denture dimensions is considered to be the case. Actual projection length values of the anterior segment are additionally determined by taking measurements from upper and lower jaw models, with distance between mesial point on labial approximal surface of incisor in vestibular position and point of intersection of line joining contact points of canine tooth and the first molar on the left and right side to median line of the upper jaw. Distance between contact point of lower central incisors cutting surfaces and point of intersection of line joining contact points of the first and the second premolars on the left and right side to median line of the lower jaw. Individual general projection length norms are calculated for upper and lower jaw anterior segment using formulas: lpo=0.16*Σ12 and lpu=0.17*Σ12, where lpo and lpu are the individual general projection length norms of lower and upper jaw anterior segment, respectively; 0,16 and 0,17 are indices describing relationship binding mean general projection length of lower and upper jaw anterior segment to mean sum of mesiodistal dimensions of twelve teeth(46-41 and 31-36) of lower dental row in persons having physiological occlusion and permanent teeth dimensions within the limits of mean values, respectively; Σ12 is the sum of mesiodistal dimensions of twelve teeth(46-41 and 31-36) measured on plaster model. Individual norm values of general upper and lower jaw anterior segment projection length are compared to corresponding actual values measured on models. The values coinciding, conclusion is drawn concerning normal sagittal dimensions of denture. Difference being positive, increase in sagittal dimensions of anterior denture segment is considered to be the case. The difference being negative, reduction of dimensions of anterior denture segment is considered to be the case.

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SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with detecting the shift of patient's body in horizontal plane. Patient should be suggested to take standing position out of sitting position to obtain prints of feet. In case of feet asymmetry upon a plantogram, and/or deviation against anatomical configuration standard of feet prints one should detect the presence of body shift against central vertical axis. The method suggested enables to detect static disorders.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.

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FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: device has supporting upright having supporting member bearing a member for fixing ear. The supporting member has T-shaped upper and lower parts arranged in parallel to each other and allowing rotation by 90°. The members for fixing ear, the members for fixing nose and occiput are mounted on the lower supporting member part movable up and down and back and forth. Millimetric rulers arranged as letter U are mounted on the upper supporting member part.

EFFECT: high fixation reliability.

2 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

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SUBSTANCE: method involves producing foot imprints on specially fixed flat-bed scanner capable to withstand human body weight load. Foot imprint processing is carried out by means of software for automating examination process. Operator marks foot image according to a pattern. The operator selects 12 key points with mouse unit and draws straight lines from point to point and calculates positions of calculatable points on foot image. Diagnostic values are calculated after having marked up the foot separately for anterior, median and posterior portions of the foot.

EFFECT: high diagnostic accuracy and accelerated examination.

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12 tbl

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SUBSTANCE: testing is conducted onto stable-graphic platform when patient does exercises to keep his/her vertical position. During doing any exercise, the trajectory of motion of center of body's pressure onto platform is measured and fixed. Statokinegram received then is subject to analysis by means of vector analysis and normalized area of statokinegram is measured as well as average radius of body's inclination, quality factor of equilibrium function in form of coefficient λ of exponential dependence f(n)=I-eλn, relative frequency of vertexes of vectors at concentric areas of statokinegram being equal to each other, increasing area of vector, factor of sharp change in vector of motion, average linear and angular speeds and accelerations and factors of asymmetry of angular speed and acceleration. Then the kind of ataxia is diagnosed by using statistic method of classification trees.

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8 tbl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

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