Multilayer composite material, method of production of a multilayer composite material and products made from it

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to the production of composite materials with a matrix of aluminum alloy, reinforced with steel fibres, for the manufacture of airframe components, stringimage set, plating, etc. Multilayer composite material includes a matrix of aluminum alloy containing (wt.%): magnesium 0,20-2,2; silicon 0.20 to 2,0; copper 0.10 to 3.0; manganese 0,15-0,80; zirconium 0,05-0,20; hafnium 0,001-0,05; titanium 0,10-0,25; iron 0,10-0,50; chrome 0,001-0,30; aluminum - rest. The filler is made of steel fibres, comprising 5-50 vol.% material. The method includes receiving the reinforcement of the matrix of the aluminum alloy steel fibers, a fiber laying in the package with the subsequent connection by explosion welding, diffusion welding or hot rolling. The technical result of the invention is to improve the strength, heat resistance, processability and performance. 3 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 PL.

The invention relates to the class of layered composite materials (KM) made of an aluminum alloy as the matrix and filler, representing the steel fiber. Composite materials a combination of high strength and heat resistance along with a small specific gravity (in the construction of major airframe components, elements stringimage set, fuselage, cladding, precast panels, process plates, and so on), and products of automotive and transport engineering.

Known class of multilayer KM on the basis of light alloys such as aluminium and magnesium, reinforced by different fibers: carbon, aluminum oxide, boron, steel wire and so on

Known multilayer material obtained by alternating layers of aluminum and magnesium alloys, and magnesium alloy layers contain fibers of high strength material selected from the group consisting of steel, beryllium and boron in the amount of 1-45% vol. and a fiber diameter of 0.05 to 0.9 mm, the aluminum Content of the alloy material is 15-30 vol.% (ed. mon. The USSR №429974).

The disadvantages of this KM include low level of tensile strength (in=500-800 MPa) and high temperature strength, determined by the material composition and method of its production. The presence KM along with layers of aluminum alloy layers of magnesium alloy significantly affects the heat-resistant properties of the material and the products made from it, as the upper limit on the operating temperature should be limited 430-450°C because of the dangerous">Known multilayer material obtained by the method of alternating layers of sintered aluminum alloy (Sapa) and based alloy of aluminum containing 10-90% beryllium (ed. mon. The USSR №473588).

The disadvantage of this multi-layered material is a low level of strength for materials of this class (in=430-510 MPa), which limits the possibility of the use made of it products.

The disadvantages of the method of receipt of the material should be considered: the high cost of the components (aluminum-beryllium alloys and Sapa), the duration and the high cost of the technological cycle of production of Sapa and accordingly the composite material, the need for special equipment for Sapa, high toxicity of beryllium and aluminum-beryllium alloys.

Known KM with a metal matrix, which can be made of light metals: aluminum, magnesium or their alloys. The matrix is hardened inorganic fibers, mainly from alumina - U.S. patent No. 5002836.

KM is obtained by impregnation, by carrying out this process using casting technology matrix metal or alloy under high pressure"ptx2">Disadvantages KM are as follows:

- the material does not have the required heat resistance at temperatures of 500°C;

- matter of tensile strength up to 780 MPa at 20°C.

With regard to the requirements of the new generation aircraft, these drawbacks prevent the use of products from this KM. The proposed technology of KM does not provide the necessary heat-resistant and high-strength properties, is complex, time-consuming and costly.

The closest in composition and purpose of the present invention is KM, including aluminum alloy as a matrix reinforced with fibers selected from the group consisting of fibers, oxide of aluminum, carbon fibers, or mixtures thereof. Aluminum alloy used as the matrix contains in wt.%: magnesium 0,5-4,5, <0.2 to each of the elements copper and titanium, <0.5 to each of the elements silicon, zinc, iron manganese (U.S. patent No. 4450207).

Disadvantages KM are as follows: not enough high values of tensile strength and characteristics of heat resistance at a temperature of 400-500°C.

The method of obtaining this KM includes lit the sustained fashion to the preparation of high-strength fibers of the filler.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- high complexity,

- the need to use expensive special tooling;

the method does not provide the necessary high strength and heat resistant properties KM.

Closest to the proposed method of obtaining KM from aluminum alloy is a process involving the reinforcement of a matrix of aluminum alloy, made in the form of plates, steel fibers with a certain step, laying reinforced layers of the matrix in the package and their subsequent connection. Moreover, the reinforcing fibers in each subsequent plate is placed offset by a half step relative to the previous fiber plate, and when laying fiber is placed perpendicular to one another. The assembled package is heated and is sintered under pressure (ed. mon. The USSR №526485).

The disadvantages of this method is complicated, expensive and time-consuming technique of laying a composite material, requiring the development and installation of additional equipment, which increases the manufacturing process of this composite material and its products.

The technical task of the present invention of awlaelo, made of steel fiber with high strength values at 20°C and high heat-resistant properties at temperatures of 400-500°C, while ensuring a high level of technological and operational characteristics of the composite material and products made from this KM is more economical and simple way.

This object is achieved in that the proposed multilayer KM, containing a matrix based on aluminum alloy including magnesium, silicon, copper, manganese, iron and titanium, and a filler made of high-strength fibers, in which the aluminum alloy further comprises zirconium, hafnium and chromium in the following ratio, wt.%:

Magnesium 0,20-2,2

Silicon 0.20 To 2,0

Copper 0,10-3,0

Manganese 0,15-0,80

Zirconium 0,05-0,20

Hafnium 0,001-0,05

Titanium 0,10-0,25

Iron 0,10-0,50

Chrome 0,001-0,30

Aluminum Else

and as high-strength fibers used steel fibers. The content of high-strength fiber material is 5-50 vol.%. The thickness and number of layers of the matrix in the package is determined by the level of properties and constructive assigned alloy steel fibres layer-by-layer stacking of reinforced layers of the matrix in the package and subsequent connection of the layers, and the matrix is made of an alloy based on aluminum in the following ratio, wt.%:

Magnesium 0,20-2,2

Silicon 0.20 To 2,0

Copper 0,10-3,0

Manganese 0,15-0,80

Zirconium 0,05-0,20

Hafnium 0,001-0,05

Titanium 0,10-0,25

Iron 0,10-0,50

Chrome 0,001-0,30

Aluminum Else

The connection is assembled in the package reinforced matrix produced by explosion welding, diffusion welding, hot-rolling, hot stamping and so on

Laminated KM can be made of various products in the form of semi-finished products (sheets, profiles, pipes, riveted joints with other alloys used in the construction of the wing, fuselage and airframe, as well as in transportation.

Use KM as a matrix of the aluminum alloy of the proposed structure provides high strength and heat resistant properties of this KM and products made from it.

Introduction to aluminum alloy additives from among transition and refractory elements zirconium, hafnium, chromium in the specified proportions okazii intermetallic phases. This increases the processability of the alloy and enables the manufacture of thin layers of matrix (15 to 250 μm).

The authors found that the proposed ratio of the content of the refractory transition metals zirconium, hafnium and chromium in the alloy matrix leads to the formation of secondary intermetallic phases such Zrl3, Hf, Al3, CrAl7while the selection of these phases in the decay of the primary solid solution is oriented in nature, the particles have the form of fine inclusions and high microhardness.

Found that the morphology, properties and crystallographic features of these phases lead to the improvement of creep resistance at high temperatures (up to 500-510°C), while increasing the strength characteristics of the alloy at 20°C.

Use as a filler of high-strength steel fibers additionally strengthens KM.

The proposed method of manufacture KM easy, convenient and less time-consuming than described in the prototype, and along with the proposed composition of the matrix provides a much more durable and heat-resistant properties KM.

Composition, structure and phase characteristics of the material matrices multilayer KM, consisting of layers of aluminum alloy, reinforced by high-strength fibers, and products made from this KM.

Examples of implementation

In the experimental and pilot production were made offer MILES and MILES, made according to the method prototype. Besides, that was manufactured KM on the composition of the prototype, but proposed according to the invention method.

The proposed method includes the following operations:

- obtaining a matrix of aluminum alloy;

- reinforcement of the matrix by winding reinforcing fibers made of high-strength steel;

- layered laying reinforced matrix in the package.

connection of the assembled package by diffusion welding, explosion welding, hot forging, hot rolling.

Table 1 presents the chemical composition of the matrix: examples 1-3 - proposed composition obtained by the proposed method in example 1 connection of the assembled package is carried out by diffusion welding in example 2 - explosion welding, in example 3 - hot rolling; example 4 - the matrix composition corresponds to the composition of the matrix - prototype (U.S. patent No. 4405207), as a high-strength panel is precise welding In example 5, the above composite material, where the chemical composition of the matrix and the filler comply with the proposed composite material and the method of obtaining the KM was carried out on the prototype method (ed. mon. The USSR №526485), the connection package produced by hot rolling.

Table 2 presents comparative characteristics at room and elevated temperatures of the composite materials considered relevant examples of implementation where in, of 0.2E - the tensile strength, yield strength and elastic modulus, respectively, when tested in uniaxial tension, MCU - low cycle fatigue, a certain axial load on the basis of 2·105cycles on smooth samples ANDn- impact strength, B100- long-term strength at the test temperature of 400°C, determined for the base time of 100 hours.

As follows from the analysis are presented in tables 1, 2 results, composition, structural-phase state of the matrix alloy based on aluminium in conjunction with the method of manufacture provide a significant increase in strength properties, impact strength, low cycle fatigue, and heat-resistant properties at 400-500°With the proposed KM, and the modulus of elasticity E predlagaemoj the viscosity ANDn- 15-53%.

Draws attention to the fact that KM is made on the basis of the matrix aluminum alloy prototype, has a much lower strength characteristics at 20°C (38-44%) than the material with the proposed matrix alloy, respectively, at a temperature of 400°C the value of long-term strength is lower by 22%, short-term strength at 500°C by 26%.

Minimum quotas superiority of the proposed method of obtaining a composite material when compared to the same material made by the method prototype is: 14-26% in tensile and yield strength at 20°C, 12% - on the value of long-term strength for 100 hours at 400°C and 9% for short break at 500°C by the values of tensile strength. Thus, the proposed multilayer KM, hardened high-strength fibers, as well as the method of obtaining this KM provide an increase in strength properties at 20°C, at high temperatures (up to 500°C), including improving high-temperature characteristics of this KM. In addition, the proposed KM and the method thereof have significant advantages in the value of modulus of elasticity (15-20%), impact strength, low cycle fatigue by 15-25% compared obrazom, this composite material is recommended for the production of new technology with enhanced life and reliability, namely as the main structural elements of the wing, fuselage stringers and so on, for repairs in the manufacture of linings, as well as for goods transport engineering.

1. A multilayer composite material comprising a matrix based on aluminum alloy containing magnesium, silicon, copper, manganese, iron and titanium, and a filler made of high-strength fibers, characterized in that the aluminum alloy matrix further comprises zirconium, hafnium and chromium in the following ratio, wt.%:

Magnesium 0,20-2,2

Silicon 0.20 To 2,0

Copper 0,10-3,0

Manganese 0,15-0,80

Zirconium 0,05-0,20

Hafnium 0,001-0,05

Titanium 0,10-0,25

Iron 0,10-0,50

Chrome 0,001-0,30

Aluminum Else

and as a high-strength fiber material includes steel fiber.

2. Multilayer composite material under item 1, characterized in that the content of steel fiber in it is 5-50 vol.%.

3. A method of obtaining a multilayer to the package by layer-by-layer stacking of reinforced layers of the matrix and their subsequent connection, characterized in that the matrix of the composite material used is an alloy based on aluminium under item 1.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the collected package reinforced layers of the matrix are connected by explosion welding, diffusion welding, hot forging or hot rolling.

5. The product is made of composite material, characterized in that it is made of a material under item 1 or 2.



 

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3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex

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3 cl, 3 tbl

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19 cl, 7 tbl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

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2 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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2 cl, 3 tbl

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