A method of reducing the concentration of hydrogen isotopes in a gaseous environment
The invention is intended to nuclear, atomic and hydrogen energy, environment and can be used for cleaning process gases and air in the premises. The working cell is placed, the catalyst is a biologically active soil, such as cultivated garden soil with a moisture content of 0.5-20 wt.%. Serving the air with a flow rate of 6 l/min. Oxidation of hydrogen isotopes in the air, carried out on the catalyst at room temperature. Formed during the oxidation of hydrogen isotopes of water absorbed by the soil. The invention allows to clean the air of hydrogen isotopes with significant content, maintain the catalyst activity at high humidity, to reduce the cost method due to the use of available catalyst, 2 Il.
The present invention relates to the field of physical chemistry, namely the technology of purification of air and process gas from the hydrogen isotopes, including tritium, and can be used for environmental protection in the areas of science and technology, where work with isotopes of hydrogen and where there is a danger of their release in the air sreca treatment methods [1, page 198-210].
Physical treatment methods based on differences in physical properties of gases and include the use of membranes made of materials with selective permeability for hydrogen, low-temperature distillation, adsorption and absorption of hydrogen on various materials [1, pp. 198-203].
Chemical cleaning methods based on the oxidation of hydrogen isotopes and subsequent trapping of the formed oxide at various traps [1, pp. 204-214].
The closest in technical essence to the claimed method is a method of removing hydrogen from the gas .
The method consists in the fact that the air containing hydrogen, taken from the premises, is passed through an apparatus containing the catalyst, in which the hydrogen is oxidized at room temperature, the formed water adsorb on the same catalyst, after which the cleaned air is sent back into the room. The catalyst used material consisting of carrier-tin oxide and aluminum impregnated with 0.25-2.5 wt.% platinum and 0.25-2.5 wt.% the palladium.
The disadvantages of this method include the following.
First, in the presence of air passivating impurities, for example, the efficiency of the catalyst is the because clean air is at room temperature, the catalyst is bound to adsorb water vapor from the air. As hydration catalyst of its catalytic activity will decrease, until the almost complete cessation of the oxidation process. Therefore, over certain periods of operation, when the critical degree of hydration, it is necessary to restore the catalyst, which consists in removing accumulated in the water by heating.
Thirdly, this method uses expensive materials: platinum and palladium.
The problem solved by the present invention is to develop a method that provides at room temperature purified from isotopes of hydrogen gas containing CO.
The technical result achieved by using the proposed invention, is as follows: cleaning of isotopes of hydrogen gas containing 10 vol.%; to facilitate the method by eliminating the need for periodic removal of moisture from the material-catalyst, cheaper way by using more available and inexpensive material.
To solve the problem and achieve the technical result in the known method of reducing the concentration of adore with the subsequent absorption of the formed water, according to the invention as catalyst, use of biologically active soil.
Under biologically active soil is the soil in which there is the life of plants and microorganisms, including the so-called hydrogen bacteria, promote oxidation of hydrogen isotopes [3, 4].
Comparative analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the inventive method differs from the known fact that the quality of the material, promoting the oxidation of hydrogen, in the presence of CO in the gas, use of biologically active soil.
Thus the claimed method meets the criteria of the invention of “novelty.”
It is known that the oxidation of hydrogen isotopes, including tritium, flows in the ground with a velocity comparable to the palladium catalyst [3, 4]. The high oxidation rate of hydrogen isotopes in the soil due to the biochemical mechanism of reactions involving soil (hydrogen) bacteria [3, 4]. The catalytic activity of the soil sample (with respect to the oxidation of hydrogen) depends on its temperature, humidity and depth of selection, from preliminary chemical and physical processing . However, the authors of the present invention neisvac on the conformity of the proposed method the criterion of “inventive step”.
It should be noted that the loss of catalytic properties of catalysts based on platinum and palladium, in the presence of water vapor and air, due to their adsorption on the active catalyst surface. The authors of the claimed invention found that, in contrast to similar physical and chemical catalysts biologically active soil retains its catalytic properties in a wide range of soil moisture and in the presence of CO in the air.
In Fig.1 presents experimental data on the kinetics of oxidation of tritium at room temperature on a palladium catalyst and in soil in the presence and absence of CO in the air. The moisture content in the samples was0 wt.% for the palladium catalyst and20 wt.% - for soil.
Curve 1 - oxidation of tritium in palladium catalyst in the absence of CO in the air.
Curve 2 is the oxidation of tritium in soil in the absence of CO in the air.
Curve 3 - oxidation of tritium in soil in the presence of 10 vol.% WITH in the air.
Curve 4 is the oxidation of tritium in palladium catalyst in the presence of 10 vol.% WITH in the air.
In Fig.2 presents experimental data on the relative catalytic activity p is itihasa activity is characterized by the rate of oxidation of tritium in the initial moment of time, refer to the appropriate maximum speed in the studied intervals of degrees of moisture content.
Curve 1, the palladium catalyst.
Curve 2 - soil.
To confirm the criterion “industrial applicability” the inventive method was tested on the example of air purification from tritium using soil and palladium catalyst.
In the experiments used samples of cultivated garden soil mass170 g and a moisture content of from 0.5 to 20 wt.%. The soil was filled in a working cell in an even layer so that the area of contact of the soil with air was280 cm2. A working cell was connected to a closed circuit, having an ionization chamber flow type and the pump flow rate. General free internal volume of the circuit after Assembly was22 HP Before beginning each experience in the contour was created by the concentration of tritium1,5·10-7CI/L. Then turn on the pump flow rate and maintain the air flow at the level of6 l/min during the experiments conducted at room temperature from 15 to 22°C, degrees of soil moisture from 0.5 to 20 wt.%, when from the comprehension and absorption in the soil. Thus formed by the oxidation of tritium water is almost all absorbed by the soil. In the case of soils with a high moisture level can be used, if necessary, additional desiccant (for guaranteed absorption of all produced water).
For comparison, similarly conducted experiments using palladium catalyst APN sample mass21 g and a surface area290 cm2.
The results of the experiments shown in Fig.1 and 2. It is evident from Fig.1 shows that in the absence of CO in the air, the catalytic activity of the soil (curve 2) compared with the catalytic activity of palladium catalyst (curve 1). In the presence of CO in the air in quantities of 10 vol.% palladium catalyst loses its catalytic activity (curve 4). The catalytic activity of the soil, under the same conditions, though declining, but remains at a significant level (curve 3).
It is evident from Fig.2 shows that the palladium catalyst is practically loses its catalytic activity when the degrees of zavladeniya more than 3 wt.% (curve 1). The soil also retains its catalytic activity, at least to the extent of zavladeniyaThe method can be used in fusion, nuclear and hydrogen, where the works with isotopes of hydrogen and where there is a danger of their release into the air of the premises, including the elimination of the consequences of accidental releases arising from fires, leading to an increase of CO content in the air.
1. L. F. Belovodsk, C. K. Gaevoy, C. I. Krishnanunni. Tritium. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1985.
2. Method of removing hydrogen from gases. The EPO application No. 0089183, publ. 21.09.83 IPC 6 01 3/58, 01 J 23/56, 23/62.
3. I. C. Bodnar, C. P. Kryukov, M. S. Fedorov, G. A. Zavarzin. Removal of N2when background concentrations of aerobic hydrogen bacteria.... J. of General biology, T. XL VII, № 6, 780 (1986).
4. M. Ichimasa, Y. Ichimasa, Y. Azuma, M. Komuro, K. Fujita and Y. Akita, "Oxidation of Molecular Tritium by Surface Soil", J. Radiat. Res, 29, 144 (1988).
A method of reducing the concentration of hydrogen isotopes in a gaseous environment containing oxygen, consisting in the oxidation of water isotopes is ora use of biologically active soil.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.