The hydrogen generator transport plant

 

The invention relates to power equipment and can be used to produce hydrogen as in fixed installations and transport. The hydrogen generator transport power plant running on hydrolysis with solid reagent includes a container with a solid reagent, placed in the reaction vessel, and has a line of issuance of the hydrogen supply line to the liquid reagent, a heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and the starting fluid heater. The composition of the generator put the bypass capacity, soamsawali in the lower part of the reaction vessel through the shut-off element, having a volume greater than the volume of liquid reagent and is equipped with a pressurization line and the supply line to the liquid reagent is connected to the bypass capacitance hosting starting the heater and the temperature sensor fluid, while the solid reagent is distributed over the height of the column of liquid reagent. The reaction vessel and the bypass capacity is made in the form of two coaxial cylindrical vessels, nested into each other, and the reaction vessel placed inside. The invention allows to create a hydrogen generator with auto stabilization mode and performance. 1 ticheskamu equipment and can be used to produce hydrogen as in fixed installations, and on the transport.

The generator is a chemical reactor that produces hydrogen by hydrolysis, i.e. the decomposition of water. To do this, use a solid reagent, i.e., the hydrolysis reaction is heterogeneous nature walks on the surface of solids. It is assumed that the resulting hydrogen is then used as fuel for power generation (power plant) fuel cell (SOFC). In addition, hydrogen can be used, of course, in other areas, for example when cutting metal, welding and so on

Earlier in the latter case was used mainly generators acetylene types of GNFS-1.25 and GWR-1,25 [1]. It was also used heterogeneous hydrolysis reaction, and as a solid reagent served as calcium carbide. This technical solution adopted for the similar. Its disadvantages include the following:

- synthesized acetylene is not suitable for kislorodosoderzhathikh TE and needs further decomposition to produce hydrogen. This greatly complicates the design of the power plant and reduces its efficiency. Small weight content of hydrogen in such generators makes them unsuitable for transport;

- when using acetylene generators insoluble osawatomie characteristics. Removal of sediment from the reactor requires additional energy consumption, complicates the construction of the power plant reduces its efficiency;

- solid reagent (calcium carbide) is material, long-term storage which is quite difficult and unsafe, because it is very hygroscopic and absorbs moisture from the air allocates acetylene.

The disadvantages of analogue include:

- insufficient depth control gas flow, due to the fact that the vertical reaction vessel cassette with solid reagent is placed horizontally;

- largest time lag, due to the fact that liquid is expelled from the cartridge with a solid reagent is not fully and fairly slowly;

In addition, the disadvantages are the counterpart:

- no temperature adjustment (although the temperature greatly affects the response);

- sub-optimal overall design layout, which is a disadvantage from the point of view of transport, especially if the dimensions of the large generator.

Closer is essentially a hydrogen generator designed to supply power plants based on fuel cells used in the submersible [2]. This reactor also uses the hydrolysis reaction, and as thorny vessel, which is placed in the camera with a metal hydride, a heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction, the device for mixing water in the reaction vessel (located inside the past) and the line for supplying into the reactor water and exhaust from the reactor hydrogen. At the same time to improve weight and size characteristics of the EU apply the hydrides of light metals, which are very expensive (LiH, BeH2...). This greatly increases the cost of hydrogen produced and is a significant drawback of the generator [2] adopted in this case for the prototype.

In addition, the disadvantages of the prototype should include the following:

- hard metering characteristic of the generator, due to the strong dependence of chemical reaction rate on temperature and consequently the difficulty of stabilizing the operation of the generator;

the intensity of thermal control system of the generator related to the fact that when the flow rate regulation is necessary to change the temperature of all the substances in the reaction vessel, and, in addition, to ensure uniformity of the temperature throughout the reaction volume;

a disadvantage of the design of the generator is also thermal inertia hindering his espola mode, it is necessary to maintain a specific temperature solid and liquid reagents. If you have a high temperature generator is technically complicated and requires substantial amounts of energy (for example, the work of agitators). In addition, transient modes of operation of the hydrogen generator takes in this case a lot of time, because it requires changes in temperature to a significant number of substances having relatively low thermal conductivity (water, metal hydrides). For transport purposes, this is a huge disadvantage.

The objective of the proposed solution is the development of a hydrogen generator with a more “soft” flow characteristic, auto stabilization mode and performance. In addition, the generator should be compact to be used in transport.

The essence of the proposal is as follows.

In addition to adjusting the progress of the reaction (i.e., the performance of the generator) at a temperature in the proposed solution changes the area of the solid reagent. When compared with thermoregulatory the influence area of the solid reagent is much “softer”. The latter is due to the fact that the consumption of hydrogen is proportional to the square of the reacting solid component and is subject to change . the fact allows you to adjust the performance of the generator in two stages: initially a coarse adjustment by changing the temperature of the reactants and subsequent smooth - changing area of the solid reagent, immersed in the liquid.

To implement this principle in the composition of the hydrogen generator transport power plant running on hydrolysis with a solid reagent containing a container with a solid reagent, placed in the reaction vessel, having a line of issuance of the hydrogen supply line to the liquid reagent, a heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and the starting fluid heater, put the bypass capacity, soamsawali in the lower part of the reaction vessel through the shut-off element, having a volume greater than the volume of liquid reagent and is equipped with a pressurization line and the supply line to the liquid reagent is connected to the bypass capacitance hosting starting the heater and the temperature sensor fluid when this solid reagent is distributed over the height of the column of liquid reagent.

The reaction vessel and the bypass capacity is made in the form of two coaxial cylindrical vessels, nested into each other, and the reaction vessel placed inside.

the UD; 3 - line issuance of hydrogen; 4 - line flow of the liquid reagent; 5 - heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction; 6 - inrush fluid heater; 7 - bypass capacity; 8 - line charge; 9 - closing element; 10 - temperature sensor liquid.

The generator works as follows. Highway supply of liquid reagent (4) of its type in the bypass capacity (7) and is heated there starting heater (6). The locking element (9) is closed. After reaching the desired temperature (controlled by the temperature sensor (10)) starting the heater off, and the locking element (9) is open. The fluid from the overflow tank (7) flows into the reaction vessel (2), where a vertically placed the container with the solid reagent (1). At this time the container (1) is completely covered by the liquid.

Starts a chemical reaction with the hydrogen gas and heat, which is given by the heat exchanger (5). The performance of the generator is regulated in two steps. First, roughly setting the appropriate temperature in the reaction vessel, and then more precisely adjusting the height of liquid in it, i.e., the depth of immersion in the liquid container with the solid reagent (1). The latter is achieved by varying the pressure in perepolkin the ion vessel (2) the locking element (9) can be shut off. It is also possible to leave it open. In this case, when a constant pressure in the bypass capacity is automatic stabilization generation mode, i.e. the performance of the generator. If the pressure of hydrogen in the reaction vessel (2) the liquid is displaced from it in the overflow tank (7), reduced size-reactive solid component and reducing the amount of secreted hydrogen. The pressure in the reaction vessel (2) falls until it reaches the previous value.

When the pressure in the reaction vessel (2) liquid reagent, on the contrary, it comes from the overflow tank (7). The level of the liquid and increases the wetted area of the solid reagent. As a consequence increases and the flow rate of the generated hydrogen.

Thus is autostabilization hydrogen pressure in the reaction vessel (2) the value of the reference pressure in the bypass capacitance (7) (taking into account the difference in liquid levels in these interconnected volumes). In this case, since the solid reagent is placed evenly along the height of the reaction vessel (2), the ratio between liquid and solid reagents remains the same at all levels of the liquid in the reaction vessel (2).

At stop generator Dawley reagent is sealed in an atmosphere of hydrogen. The evolution of hydrogen ceases. When you start the generator remaining in the overflow tank (7) the liquid is again heated, which reduces the generator output mode.

To reduce the size of the hydrogen generator of the reaction vessel (2) and the bypass capacity (7) should be implemented in the form of two coaxial cylindrical vessels, nested into each other, and the reaction vessel placed inside the bypass capacity.

Thus, the proposed solution allows you to create a compact hydrogen generator running on hydrolysis with deep level adjustment, soft technical features, improved performance, and able to work in the mode of autostabilization. All this makes feasible the use of such a hydrogen generator on the transport.

References

1. Century Century Fishermen. Tutorial gas welder. - M, the motor cycle", 1956

2. “Generation of hydrogen by hydrolysis to power plants based on TE scuba destination. A patent.5372617, USA, 1994

Claims

1. The hydrogen generator transport power plant running on hydrolysis with a solid reagent containing a container of tetragona, the heat exchanger for removal of heat of reaction and the starting fluid heater, characterized in that the generator put the bypass capacity, soamsawali in the lower part of the reaction vessel through the shut-off element, having a volume greater than the volume of liquid reagent and is equipped with a pressurization line and the supply line to the liquid reagent is connected to the bypass capacitance hosting starting the heater and the temperature sensor fluid, while the solid reagent is distributed over the height of the column of liquid reagent.

2. The hydrogen generator of the transport installation, characterized in that the reaction vessel and the bypass capacity is made in the form of two coaxial cylindrical vessels, nested into each other, and the reaction vessel placed inside.



 

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FIELD: chemical technology; development of chemical lasers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed singlet oxygen generator has case, chlorine injector, throttling valve, and solution injector. Inserted in each hole of injector are at least two forming threads disposed at hole ends with gap formed in-between. Solution jet escaping the hole is then formed in its downward motion over surfaces of threads and between them. When chlorine flows between solution jets, chlorination reaction of alkali solution of hydrogen peroxide takes place; in the process singlet oxygen is produced and chlorine is recovered. Threads may pass from one hole at certain angle to one another, or they may cross one another, or come in contact with threads of other hole in solution injector. At least two threads provided in solution injector hole make it possible not only to guide the thread but also to control its flow and to form desired geometry of jet characteristic by varying relative position of threads in jet. Such design enables development of various types of singlet oxygen generators characterized in enlarged reaction surface and operating effectiveness with added advantage of enhanced operating reliability due to steady flow of jet between threads.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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