The impeller turbines
The invention is intended to convert the energy of the water flow of the river into electricity. The impeller of the turbine includes blades, top and bottom rim. The inner cavity of the impeller is equipped with a cylinder, functioning as a hub wheel and an umbrella, protecting the access of the water flow to the axial zone, the two flanges acting as the hub of the wheel, a clutch for coupling the shaft of the generator with the lower flange of the rim, spokes rigidly connected with the flanges and rims. The blades are made in the form of a segment of tape, rigidly connected at one end with the needle of the upper rim and the other to the spoke bottom of the rim and located at an angle of 40-50° with respect to the plane of the upper and lower rims. Wheel design allows to increase the capacity and efficiency of the turbine and to reduce the costs of repair. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il.
The invention relates to devices designed to convert the energy of the water flow of the river in electrical, namely the impeller turbines used in hydroelectric power plants.
Known impellers water turbine comprising blades each consisting of a number of parts of the bottom and the second rim are connected by bolts, without flanges (see USSR author's certificate No. 206422, IPC F 03 In 3/02, 29.01.1968).
The disadvantage of this impeller turbines is incomplete returns the possible limit of the cap.
This is because the use of idler wheel of the turbine and the location of the greater part of each of the blades parallel to the axis of rotation of the impeller leads to lower efficiency in General.
This statement is proved by the fact that the velocity of the water mass flow acquired by the pressure of the height of the water level of the horizon of the dam and the slope of the gutter, when the contact of the water flow guide wheel (hereafter NC) turbine is lost. Only the frontal part of the tax code, converted to the water flow, namely not more than 25% of the total number of rotary blades NC, without losing speed directs the weight of the water stream with full acquired kinetic energy in the right direction on the blade of the impeller of the turbine, and the remainder (75%) of the rotary blades NC directs the weight of the water flow on the blades of the impeller turbines with reduced speed, namely the speed determined by the pressure head is the height of the water level of the horizon of the dam, is at best, at worst, the height of the total nests voltage is palojenom megapastor space of the turbine wheel, falling down from the top of the rim before the beginning of the curvature of the blade equal tolop., reactive power does not create until you descend to the curvature of the blade, which changes the direction of the water flow to the exit in the opposite direction to the rotation of the impeller turbines where only creates a reactive force that ensures the rotation of the latter.
The present invention is to increase the capacity and, consequently, the efficiency of the impeller turbines.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that known in the impeller of the turbine comprising blades located for the greater part of the length perpendicular to the plane of the upper rim and the lower part along the arc of a circle with the possibility of changing the direction of the water flow in the opposite direction to the rotation of the wheel, the lower and upper rims, consisting of several parts, and the parts of the latter are connected by bolts through the flanges and the bondage of its internal circuit, and part of the lower rim connected without flange bolts, what's new is that the inner cavity of the impeller of the turbine is equipped with a cylinder, functioning as a hub wheel and an umbrella, protecting from DOS or soft, clutch to the shaft, spokes rigidly connected with flanges, rims and with blades, each of the latter is in the form of a segment of tape, rigidly connected at one end with the needle of the upper rim, the other with a needle bottom of the rim and are angled, for example, 40-50° with respect to the planes of the upper and lower rim.
In addition, with the aim of increasing sustainable rotation of the impeller and reduce the load carrying bearings impeller shaft can be performed, for example, end-to-end or stacked and secured bottom support located, for example, below the lower rim of the impeller.
The lower point of support may be protected by a device that provides a dry climate and the possibility of visual inspection and routine maintenance, or replacement of the bearing.
In Fig.1 shows an impeller turbines with partial section, disposed in its working socket, provided with a bottom support and a lateral channel.
In Fig.2 depicts a top view to better show the movement of water masses coming from the gutters of a dam on the blades of the impeller with a twist in the form of a cyclone, giving all the potential energy in the horizontal direction to odnovremenno, shown on Fig.1.
The impeller of the turbine includes blades 1, the upper rim 2 and the lower rim 3, each of which is rigidly connected by spokes 4 with flanges 5 and 6, which serve as hubs that Assembly are rigidly connected, for example, with tie rods 7 with the ends of the cylinder 8, performs the function of the sleeve, forming a kind of drum or reel, and an umbrella, protecting against access of water mass to the axial zone, through or composite shaft 9, the clutch 10, for example, rigid couplings with flange 5 of the lower rim 3 with the projections 12, the pin 11, made in the form of a rectangular plate of length equal to for example, the diameter of the coupling 10, and is provided with projections (in the drawing not shown) that perform the function of securing from possible (cotter pin) departure during the rotation of the impeller, the bottom support 13 made in the form of thick-walled pipe 14 with a larger area (in the drawing not shown) of the Foundation, immured in the soil 15 so that the upper end of its surface, is provided with radial and thrust bearings, would be above level 16 waste water masses, statemay on channel 17 in the natural rate of 18 river splash guard 19 serving to prevent the ingress of spray water masses in the area of the bearings 20 and the cap 21, clerk DL is so
Works such impeller turbines as follows. The weight of the water flow coming from the gutters of the dam on the frontpart of the impeller of the turbine, where without loss of speed and purchased the dam height of the potential energy is in contact with the entire area of the blades - And - B - In and together and raced by their inclination and additionally top, fills with swirling with acceleration all bezlopastny space, dragging the circulation of the cyclone with the same speed the rest of the number of blades, the receiving water flow, first start with a great loss for his speed, until the wheel is gaining the necessary speed, and typing the desired speed, the speed of the water flow increases to the minimum of loss, which gives all of his carrying potential energy of the blades in a horizontal direction, and, sinking down, the weight of the water flow, as if to keep chasing the blade from the pressure potential energy horizontal direction, makes its weight of each blade to slip out from under her forward in the direction of rotation of the wheel.
Thus, due to the reactive forces generated by the kinetic energy, and the force from the potential energy of all profectionist such impeller turbines is not only to increase power, but in the metal, as it can be performed most of the standard material, freely detachable and weighing no more than 100-150 tons, instead of 1500 t existing. (See educational. Physics, part II, 1965, author Peryshkina).
The difference of metal in order to maintain the inertia of the system can be used to increase the power of the generator due to the radial dimensions or dimensions of height, or achiravania existing.
1. Impeller turbine comprising blades, the upper and lower rims, characterized in that the inner cavity of the impeller is equipped with a cylinder, functioning as a hub wheel and an umbrella, protecting the access of the water flow to the axial zone, the two flanges acting as the hub of the wheel, a clutch for coupling the shaft of the generator with the lower flange of the rim, spokes rigidly connected with the flanges and rims, while the blades are made in the form of a segment of tape, rigidly connected at one end with the needle of the upper rim and the other to the spoke bottom of the rim and located at an angle of 40-50° with respect to the plane of the upper and lower rims.
2. Wheel under item 1, characterized in that its shaft is provided with a bottom is enclosed by a device, providing for the visual inspection, routine maintenance, replacement of bearing supports and prevent the ingress of water into the zone of the latter.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbines.
SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed for converting kinetic energy of liquid or gas into mechanical work. Proposed turbine contains cylindrical housing, tangential intake branch pipe arranged over periphery of housing and axial discharge branch pipe arranged in center, and rotor installed on shaft. Rotor is made in form of sup closed at one end. Tangential intake branch pipe is furnished with axial spiral guide member to provide tangential delivery of working medium to cup wall near its open end face. Axial discharge branch pipe is arranged with its inlet hole in cup space. Intake branch pipe is rectangular in section, and discharge branch pipe is round.
EFFECT: simplified design of turbine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydroelectric stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of restoration of serviceability of hydraulic unit can be used at repairs of hydroelectric stations. According to proposed method, air gap is measured over circumference between outer plane of rotor pole and iron core of stator of generator, air gap between blades of working wheel and outer wall of chamber of turbine, air gap between guide bearing of turbine and its shaft are measured and distance from turbine support ring to generating belt of turbine working wheel is measured and value of deflection of hydraulic unit shaft axis from vertical position and degree of bending of shaft axis are determined and value of deflection of housing of turbine working wheel from horizontal position is found and alignment of generator stator in plan is carried out to provide equal of air gap between generator rotor poles and stator iron core and centering of generator stator in height is carried out to align magnetic axis of stator with magnetic axis of rotor of generator and then hydraulic unit is demounted, fixed and position of center of new vertical axis of hydraulic set is held and cold chamber of working wheel is replaced by new one installing it relative to new axis of hydraulic unit, and lower and upper rings of turbine guide assembly are installed in horizontal position with subsequent alignment of rings relative to new vertical axis of hydraulic unit, and then hydraulic unit is mounted in housing. Proposed method provides 2.5-3 times reduction of time taken for restoration as compared with traditional process and 1.5-2 times increase of service life of hydraulic unit after restoration. Moreover, method improves operating characteristics of hydraulic unit as a whole and materially increases degree of its repairability and serviceability at time between overhauls.
EFFECT: increase life, improved operating characteristics.
FIELD: hydroelectric stations and hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has blades with cylindrical surfaces arranged between rims. Generatrix of cylindrical surfaces is parallel to axis of hydraulic turbine and rises to axis of hydraulic turbine. Shape of blade of wheel is formed by angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile passing from larger part of blade profile changing according to linear dependence to constant profile on the rest of part and selection of parameters of wheel from the following relations: change of β according to linear dependence from β1 to β2 on larger part of blade profile at distance from D1 to 1.01D2, β=const=β2 on the rest part from 1.01D2 to D2, range of rise of generatrix of blade surfaces from (0.08-0.20)D1 at liquid inlet to wheel to (0.15-0.30)D1 at outlet from wheel, D2/D1=(0.6-0.73) where D1 is outer diameter of wheel; D2 is inner diameter of wheel; D2/D1 is relative diameter of wheel; β is angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile; β1 is angle of tilting of inlet element of skeleton line of blade profile to circumferential direction; β2 is angle of tilting of outlet element of blade skeleton line.
EFFECT: enlarged range of operation of Francis turbine.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use on hydroelectric power stations with insignificant fluctuation of lower pond level at high head and water flow ranges. According to invention, vertical shaft of set rest through lower end with cone-shaped working surface of frame-step bearing. Pan is hermetically attached to shaft and working wheel, and suction pipes are attached tangentially to pan. Jets from suction pipes are directed to blades of active wheel freely rotating on shaft and transmitting to shaft rotation through speed-up and direction-change reduction gear, parts of which being parts of hydraulic set. Number of pipes is equal to number of blades. Jet are directed to working surfaces of blades under constant effective angle of action. Seals of reaction wheel are made by elastic box-shaped rings contacting through convex side surfaces from opposite sides exposed to pressure of water. Delivery of water to seal from bottom to top prevents getting of solid particles between friction surfaces.
EFFECT: increased speed and efficiency.
FIELD: turbine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: blade system comprises blades whose inlet and outlet edges are made so that the working section of the inlet blade edge adjacent to the hub prevents against cavitation.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed Francis turbine wheel comprises at least two wheel segments 12, 14 that can be jointed together along their opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a to make composite wheel with top rim 28, bottom rim 30 and multiple vanes 32 running between said rims and secured thereto. Said opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a are arranged solely along top and bottom rim segments. Note that opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a of wheel segments 12, 14 are arranged between apart from adjacent vanes. Proposed wheel has central axis. Top rim has central round bore. Opposed surface sections 16, 16a of top rim, if seen from above, run from central bore, radially offset from central axis.
EFFECT: higher reliability and longer life.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: blade system of impeller of radial axial hydraulic turbine includes rim 1, hub 2 and blades 3, each of which is connected to rim 1 and hub 2 and provided with inlet and outlet edges 4 and 5 of bent shape and smoothly changing thickness in the direction from inlet edge to outlet edge and from hub 2 to rim 1. Blades 3 of blade system have thickened part near inlet edge 4. Maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with hub 2 is more than maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with rim 1. Optimum intervals of values of parameters are determined: maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with hub 2, maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with rim 1, as well as their location places along straightened middle line of the appropriate section.
EFFECT: preventing flow separation after inlet edges of blades at operation of hydraulic turbine in modes with increased heads and modes with partial loads in the whole range of working heads.