Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges from icing

 

The invention relates to the field of construction and maintenance of airfields, roads and bridges and can be used to protect the coatings specified engineering building from freezing in the cold season and the softening of asphalt pavements under high temperature and solar radiation in the warmer months. Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing includes a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to the water well. What's new is thatthe device is equipped with a “warm” injection wells located on one straight line with the above-mentioned “cold” injection and production wells and upstream groundwater relative to the wells at a distance equal to the path passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence. Technical reow and solar energy, as well as ensuring the smooth operation of engineering structures in all year round. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of construction and maintenance of airfields, roads and bridges and can be used to protect the coating of these engineering structures from icing.

Prevention and timely removal of ice from pavements of airports, including runways (runway), highways, especially in areas with steep slopes and turns, and bridges is one of the urgent problems of winter maintenance of these objects.

The number of cases of ice formation in the year in Russia can vary greatly, mainly depending on the location of the object. For example, airfields and roads, located in the Northern coastal areas, the ice is formed an average of 150 times, in the Central regions from 6 to 10 times (in the Moscow region the number of ice-storm is 12-15 times), in the southern regions - 2 times [1].

Icing sharply (about 4 times) reduces the adhesion of aircraft and road wheels coated runways and is executed with all the ensuing, as a rule, severe consequences.

For icing currently use the following methods and devices implement [1]:

1) an abrasive consisting in spillage and subsequent consolidation of sand, slag, marble chips, etc. Spreaders ED-403, ED-202, 1-RMG-4, ROOM-5, and others;

2) mechanical, which consists in loosening, sliding and cutting ice. Lido-sagecliffe CO-707, D-447 and other

3) chemical, lowering the melting temperature of ice in contact with a number of reagents, for example NCM, ANS, urea, etc., This method is carried out by distributing reagents in aqueous solution or crushed powdery substances with a particle size of up to 1 mm, on the surface of the airfield pavements. Spreaders ED-403, CO-A, 1-RMG-4, ROOM-16 and others;

4) heat, which consists in heating airfield pavements movable or fixed heating installations: using heat engines or Central water and electric heating systems. Currently, this method is mainly carried out using heat engines, such as TM-59 and KrAZ-TM-76. The principle of operation of these machines is based on the high temperatures of exhaust gases from Avialinii disadvantages. For example, the presence on a runway of sand and small stones leads to getting them in the engines of the aircraft and out of this failure.

The lack of devices implements a manual method, is that when using them you cannot achieve a complete removal of ice, because the ice film and coating airfield occur sufficiently large adhesion forces (adhesion) to 1.5 MPa [1]. Therefore, these devices should only be used to reduce the thickness of the removed snow-ice forward with the subsequent removal of residual ice with heat machines or chemicals.

Chemicals destroy the coating and lead to increased corrosion of equipment, not to mention the emergence of a number of intractable environmental problems. The consumption of reagents, such as ANS, mainly depends on the thickness of the ice film and air temperature. So, to remove the glaze film thickness of 1 mm is required from 40 to 150 g of the specified reagent on each square meter of the surface. When the thickness of the ice film than 1 mm, the flow rate of the reagent for every additional millimeter increases by 50% [1].

The average cost of reagents is about 8000 rubles per ton. Tecimer, Runway h m, the cost will be about 4 thousand dollars. USA.

thermal protection device of the airfield and pavement icing are also associated with significant capital and operating costs. Stationary heating system coatings include heat exchangers (tubular registers or electric heating cables) located in the canvas of these coatings, and sources of heat (in the form of a boiler with heating systems or power plants with cable networks and lower transformers). Such systems are guaranteed to protect the coating from icing, but the high cost of such devices has become a major obstacle to their widespread use in practice, on the ground, even.

Of thermal protection coatings icing practical widespread method based on the use of heat engines, although it is also associated with high consumption of expensive fuel, comprising 150-200 g of aviation fuel per square meter purified from the ice surface [2]. If we consider that, for example, the surface of the runway of the airfield can be 125000 m2(H m), and average world price of jet fuel is about 170$.

In addition, there are technical solutions [3-5], where to conserve scarce fuel and increase the availability of airfields and roads, the problem of preventing the formation of ice on their coatings are proposed to solve due to the low grade heat of the Earth and solar radiation.

Due to the warmth of the Earth, regardless of the time of year, the temperature of rock at a depth of 60-80 m supported about +8°C. At this temperature with increasing depth increases continuously: on average, one degree through 33 PM

Considering the fact that the ice on the surfaces of the aerodrome is formed most often at temperatures of atmospheric air from 0 to minus 4°C, it is sufficient to heat the surface of the runway to zero temperature, and education on her ice cover will be excluded. At lower temperatures can be tolerated and lower (negative) temperature of the coating of the airfield, but the temperature of these coatings should be in all cases not lower than the temperature of atmospheric air. In the latter case, the formation of ice crust is not excluded, however, the strength of adhesion of ice to the surface of the coating will be close to zero, and the resulting ice can be easily removed using plugging heat of the Earth is of the order of 8-10°C is sufficient for solving the problem of protection of airfield pavements from icing. However, practical implementation of such technical solutions [3], due to low values of thermal conductivity of rocks, will require drilling too many wells, which entails large capital expenditures. For example, preliminary calculations show that to solve the problem, you will need to drill at least a thousand wells on the same airfield.

The efficiency of such a system for the protection of the airfield and pavement icing can be significantly improved by the use of aquifers as solar energy stored in the warm season, when the temperature of the coating is higher than the temperature of the water in these aquifers.

The closest to the essence and the achieved technical result is a device for the protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater concerning wells [4 ].

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of heat utilization of aquifers and solar energy.

The problem is solved due to the fact that the device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to the water well,according to the invention,equipped with warm magnetite the th wells and upstream groundwater relative to the water well at a distance, of equal way, passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence.

Additional injection well is only for injection into the aquifer hot in the warmer months of heated water, so it can be called "warm".

Known from prototype injection well in the claimed invention is used only for receiving chilled water in the cold season, so it can be called "cold".

All wells located on one straight line parallel to the direction of groundwater movement. "Warm" injection well is located first on the flow of groundwater is then water wells and closes the system is "cold" injection well. "Warm" injection well is located from the water at a distance equal to the path traversed these waters for six months, and "cold" injection well is located below the flow of groundwater, relative to the water well and at a distance equal to not less than the sum of their radii of influence.

These new characteristics are not identified from oprettelse level.

New features in conjunction significantly improve technical and economic performance of protection devices of airfield pavements of roads from icing due to:

- increasing the temperature of the aquifer as an underground heat accumulator of;

- improve performance of heat and reduce the number of water wells;

- reduce the amount circulating in the device of the liquid, the diameters of the pipes and the pump power in the circuits of circulation.

The invention is illustrated in the following example: device (drawing).

The drawing shows: coverage of runway 1, in which the set register pipe 2, handout 3 and the receiver 4 collectors. The register is supplied and is non-freezing liquid through pipes 5 and 6 of the well 7, which is recuperative heat exchanger 8. Under the well is a water well 9 with a submersible pump 10 and the water pipe 11. The pipeline 12 to the discharge hole 13 and the cap 14 are designed for removal in the winter season chilled water in the aquifer 15.

The pipeline 16 to the discharge bore 17 and the cap 18 are intended for filing in the warmer months of the heated water in the aquifer g is p>The device operates as follows. In the cold season, water from the underground aquifer horizon 15 submersible pump 10 water supply wells 9 and the conduit 11 is fed into the heat exchanger 8 where it is heated underground water antifreeze, for example an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, which has its own closed circuit: the supply pipe 5, a distributing manifold 3 of the tubular case, the tube 2 of the register, receiving the collector 4, the return pipe 6, the pump 21, recuperative heat exchanger 8. Chilled water when closed, the valve 20 and open the valve 19 is supplied through pipe 12 to the injection well 13 and later in the aquifer 15. The circulating warm coolant through the pipes 2 heats the floor of the runway and eliminates the formation of ice on it.

In warmer water from the underground aquifer horizon 15 submersible pump 10 water supply wells 9 and the conduit 11 is also fed into the heat exchanger 8, but in this case, the process is reversed - heated groundwater antifreeze, which continues to circulate through the same closed contour: the supply pipe 5, a distributing manifold 3 of the tubular case, the tube 2 of the register, receiving collecto which the valve 20 is supplied through pipe 16 to the injection well 17 and later in the aquifer 15. Circulation of cooled coolant through the pipes 2 cools the floor of the runway and excludes its temperature deformation when heated. Pre-heated solar water accumulates in the aquifer between wells 9 and 17. At the risk of ice on the runway this water is used for heating the coating of the airfield.

Calculations show that the use of the proposed device with a solar battery will allow the payback period of the system of protection of airfields from icing, where these phenomena occur not less than 75 times a year, be reduced to one year.

In addition, this provides temperature control of the above coatings and simultaneously reduce thermal stresses, which significantly increases the service life of these coatings.

References

1. Gorki L. I., Mogilev D. A. Operation of aerodromes. - M.: Transport, 1975, 304 S.

2. Operation of aerodromes: Directory / L. I. Gorki, M. A. Pechersky, and others/ edited by L. I. Gorki. - M.: Transport, 1990, 287 S.

3. A. C. 1701772 the USSR, MKI E 01 5/08. Device for protection of airfield pavements and roads from icing / Grey N. A. (USSR). - 4 S.: ill.

4. Patent USSR No. 1834947, MKI E 01 11/26. Device for protecting coatings is. E 01 11/26, 1987.

Claims

Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to water wells, characterized in that thethe device is equipped with a “warm” injection wells located on one straight line with the above-mentioned “cold” injection and production wells and upstream groundwater relative to the wells at a distance equal to the path passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence.



 

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5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl

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