Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges from icing
The invention relates to the field of construction and maintenance of airfields, roads and bridges and can be used to protect the coatings specified engineering building from freezing in the cold season and the softening of asphalt pavements under high temperature and solar radiation in the warmer months. Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing includes a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to the water well. What's new is thatthe device is equipped with a “warm” injection wells located on one straight line with the above-mentioned “cold” injection and production wells and upstream groundwater relative to the wells at a distance equal to the path passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence. Technical reow and solar energy, as well as ensuring the smooth operation of engineering structures in all year round. 1 Il.
The invention relates to the field of construction and maintenance of airfields, roads and bridges and can be used to protect the coating of these engineering structures from icing.
Prevention and timely removal of ice from pavements of airports, including runways (runway), highways, especially in areas with steep slopes and turns, and bridges is one of the urgent problems of winter maintenance of these objects.
The number of cases of ice formation in the year in Russia can vary greatly, mainly depending on the location of the object. For example, airfields and roads, located in the Northern coastal areas, the ice is formed an average of 150 times, in the Central regions from 6 to 10 times (in the Moscow region the number of ice-storm is 12-15 times), in the southern regions - 2 times .
Icing sharply (about 4 times) reduces the adhesion of aircraft and road wheels coated runways and is executed with all the ensuing, as a rule, severe consequences.
For icing currently use the following methods and devices implement :
1) an abrasive consisting in spillage and subsequent consolidation of sand, slag, marble chips, etc. Spreaders ED-403, ED-202, 1-RMG-4, ROOM-5, and others;
2) mechanical, which consists in loosening, sliding and cutting ice. Lido-sagecliffe CO-707, D-447 and other
3) chemical, lowering the melting temperature of ice in contact with a number of reagents, for example NCM, ANS, urea, etc., This method is carried out by distributing reagents in aqueous solution or crushed powdery substances with a particle size of up to 1 mm, on the surface of the airfield pavements. Spreaders ED-403, CO-A, 1-RMG-4, ROOM-16 and others;
4) heat, which consists in heating airfield pavements movable or fixed heating installations: using heat engines or Central water and electric heating systems. Currently, this method is mainly carried out using heat engines, such as TM-59 and KrAZ-TM-76. The principle of operation of these machines is based on the high temperatures of exhaust gases from Avialinii disadvantages. For example, the presence on a runway of sand and small stones leads to getting them in the engines of the aircraft and out of this failure.
The lack of devices implements a manual method, is that when using them you cannot achieve a complete removal of ice, because the ice film and coating airfield occur sufficiently large adhesion forces (adhesion) to 1.5 MPa . Therefore, these devices should only be used to reduce the thickness of the removed snow-ice forward with the subsequent removal of residual ice with heat machines or chemicals.
Chemicals destroy the coating and lead to increased corrosion of equipment, not to mention the emergence of a number of intractable environmental problems. The consumption of reagents, such as ANS, mainly depends on the thickness of the ice film and air temperature. So, to remove the glaze film thickness of 1 mm is required from 40 to 150 g of the specified reagent on each square meter of the surface. When the thickness of the ice film than 1 mm, the flow rate of the reagent for every additional millimeter increases by 50% .
The average cost of reagents is about 8000 rubles per ton. Tecimer, Runway h m, the cost will be about 4 thousand dollars. USA.
thermal protection device of the airfield and pavement icing are also associated with significant capital and operating costs. Stationary heating system coatings include heat exchangers (tubular registers or electric heating cables) located in the canvas of these coatings, and sources of heat (in the form of a boiler with heating systems or power plants with cable networks and lower transformers). Such systems are guaranteed to protect the coating from icing, but the high cost of such devices has become a major obstacle to their widespread use in practice, on the ground, even.
Of thermal protection coatings icing practical widespread method based on the use of heat engines, although it is also associated with high consumption of expensive fuel, comprising 150-200 g of aviation fuel per square meter purified from the ice surface . If we consider that, for example, the surface of the runway of the airfield can be 125000 m2(H m), and average world price of jet fuel is about 170$.
In addition, there are technical solutions [3-5], where to conserve scarce fuel and increase the availability of airfields and roads, the problem of preventing the formation of ice on their coatings are proposed to solve due to the low grade heat of the Earth and solar radiation.
Due to the warmth of the Earth, regardless of the time of year, the temperature of rock at a depth of 60-80 m supported about +8°C. At this temperature with increasing depth increases continuously: on average, one degree through 33 PM
Considering the fact that the ice on the surfaces of the aerodrome is formed most often at temperatures of atmospheric air from 0 to minus 4°C, it is sufficient to heat the surface of the runway to zero temperature, and education on her ice cover will be excluded. At lower temperatures can be tolerated and lower (negative) temperature of the coating of the airfield, but the temperature of these coatings should be in all cases not lower than the temperature of atmospheric air. In the latter case, the formation of ice crust is not excluded, however, the strength of adhesion of ice to the surface of the coating will be close to zero, and the resulting ice can be easily removed using plugging heat of the Earth is of the order of 8-10°C is sufficient for solving the problem of protection of airfield pavements from icing. However, practical implementation of such technical solutions , due to low values of thermal conductivity of rocks, will require drilling too many wells, which entails large capital expenditures. For example, preliminary calculations show that to solve the problem, you will need to drill at least a thousand wells on the same airfield.
The efficiency of such a system for the protection of the airfield and pavement icing can be significantly improved by the use of aquifers as solar energy stored in the warm season, when the temperature of the coating is higher than the temperature of the water in these aquifers.
The closest to the essence and the achieved technical result is a device for the protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater concerning wells [4 ].
The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of heat utilization of aquifers and solar energy.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to the water well,according to the invention,equipped with warm magnetite the th wells and upstream groundwater relative to the water well at a distance, of equal way, passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence.
Additional injection well is only for injection into the aquifer hot in the warmer months of heated water, so it can be called "warm".
Known from prototype injection well in the claimed invention is used only for receiving chilled water in the cold season, so it can be called "cold".
All wells located on one straight line parallel to the direction of groundwater movement. "Warm" injection well is located first on the flow of groundwater is then water wells and closes the system is "cold" injection well. "Warm" injection well is located from the water at a distance equal to the path traversed these waters for six months, and "cold" injection well is located below the flow of groundwater, relative to the water well and at a distance equal to not less than the sum of their radii of influence.
These new characteristics are not identified from oprettelse level.
New features in conjunction significantly improve technical and economic performance of protection devices of airfield pavements of roads from icing due to:
- increasing the temperature of the aquifer as an underground heat accumulator of;
- improve performance of heat and reduce the number of water wells;
- reduce the amount circulating in the device of the liquid, the diameters of the pipes and the pump power in the circuits of circulation.
The invention is illustrated in the following example: device (drawing).
The drawing shows: coverage of runway 1, in which the set register pipe 2, handout 3 and the receiver 4 collectors. The register is supplied and is non-freezing liquid through pipes 5 and 6 of the well 7, which is recuperative heat exchanger 8. Under the well is a water well 9 with a submersible pump 10 and the water pipe 11. The pipeline 12 to the discharge hole 13 and the cap 14 are designed for removal in the winter season chilled water in the aquifer 15.
The pipeline 16 to the discharge bore 17 and the cap 18 are intended for filing in the warmer months of the heated water in the aquifer g is p>The device operates as follows. In the cold season, water from the underground aquifer horizon 15 submersible pump 10 water supply wells 9 and the conduit 11 is fed into the heat exchanger 8 where it is heated underground water antifreeze, for example an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, which has its own closed circuit: the supply pipe 5, a distributing manifold 3 of the tubular case, the tube 2 of the register, receiving the collector 4, the return pipe 6, the pump 21, recuperative heat exchanger 8. Chilled water when closed, the valve 20 and open the valve 19 is supplied through pipe 12 to the injection well 13 and later in the aquifer 15. The circulating warm coolant through the pipes 2 heats the floor of the runway and eliminates the formation of ice on it.
In warmer water from the underground aquifer horizon 15 submersible pump 10 water supply wells 9 and the conduit 11 is also fed into the heat exchanger 8, but in this case, the process is reversed - heated groundwater antifreeze, which continues to circulate through the same closed contour: the supply pipe 5, a distributing manifold 3 of the tubular case, the tube 2 of the register, receiving collecto which the valve 20 is supplied through pipe 16 to the injection well 17 and later in the aquifer 15. Circulation of cooled coolant through the pipes 2 cools the floor of the runway and excludes its temperature deformation when heated. Pre-heated solar water accumulates in the aquifer between wells 9 and 17. At the risk of ice on the runway this water is used for heating the coating of the airfield.
Calculations show that the use of the proposed device with a solar battery will allow the payback period of the system of protection of airfields from icing, where these phenomena occur not less than 75 times a year, be reduced to one year.
In addition, this provides temperature control of the above coatings and simultaneously reduce thermal stresses, which significantly increases the service life of these coatings.
1. Gorki L. I., Mogilev D. A. Operation of aerodromes. - M.: Transport, 1975, 304 S.
2. Operation of aerodromes: Directory / L. I. Gorki, M. A. Pechersky, and others/ edited by L. I. Gorki. - M.: Transport, 1990, 287 S.
3. A. C. 1701772 the USSR, MKI E 01 5/08. Device for protection of airfield pavements and roads from icing / Grey N. A. (USSR). - 4 S.: ill.
4. Patent USSR No. 1834947, MKI E 01 11/26. Device for protecting coatings is. E 01 11/26, 1987.
Device for protection of airfield pavements, roads and bridges icing, comprising a tubular case, located in the canvas cover, regenerative heat exchanger, water wells equipped with submersible pump and conduits, “cold” injection well, located downstream of the groundwater relative to water wells, characterized in that thethe device is equipped with a “warm” injection wells located on one straight line with the above-mentioned “cold” injection and production wells and upstream groundwater relative to the wells at a distance equal to the path passable groundwater for six months, and “cold” injection well is located relative to the wells at a distance of not less than the sum of their radii of influence.
FIELD: road servicing industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: building industry in particular composition for reducing of acid rain, CO2-containing atmosphere, exhaust gas, etc. attack on architectural objects.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %) potassium carbonate 5-90, potassium silicate 0.05-20, potassium phosphate 0.05-5, potassium fluoride 0-0.05 and balance: potassium carboxylate (acetate or formate). Additionally it may contain surfactant and/or antiseptic agent, and/or antistatic agent, and/or antiozonization agent, and/or antipyren.
EFFECT: environmentally friendly composition with decreased cost, and increased effectiveness.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: road building, particularly methods or arrangements for preventing slipperiness or protecting against influences of the weather.
SUBSTANCE: deicing grid comprises base having cellular structure and made of non-conductive material and heating members connected to the base and forming electrical circuit connected to power source. Heating members may conduct current and are arranged in each stiffening rib of cellular structure so that heating members and stiffening ribs create thermal grid. Road structure has ground base and deicing paving located on the base. The deicing paving is provided with load-bearing coating of bituminous concrete, concrete and/or asphalt.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs due to direct paving surface heating.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: road usage, particularly methods or arrangements for preventing slipperiness of motor roads, bridges, overpasses, aerodromes, as well as deicing agents.
SUBSTANCE: method for pavement slipperiness prevention involves applying deicing agent on pavement. Deicing agent comprises mixture of sodium acetate and magnesium acetate taken in mass ratio of 3:1-1:3 correspondingly. The mixture is obtained by stirring of gaseous chlorine production by-product at 20-80°C temperature. The by-product contains aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, acetic acid and brucite. Method for deicing reagent production involves mixing aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, acetic acid and alkaline earth metal compound. The aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is gaseous chlorine production by-product including aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The alkaline earth metal compound is brucite. The mixing operation is carried out at 20-80°C. Deicing agent obtained by above method contains mixture of sodium acetate and magnesium acetate taken in 3:1-1:3 mass ratio correspondingly. The deicing agent may be obtained at first by separately mixing of gaseous chlorine production by-product with acetic acid and then by mixing of obtained sodium acetate and magnesium acetate or gaseous chlorine production by-product is simultaneously mixed with acetic acid and brucite taken in stoichiometric ratio. The deicing composition comprises magnesium acetate as the alkaline earth metal acetate, wherein sodium acetate and magnesium acetate are taken in mass ratio of 3:1-1:3 correspondingly.
EFFECT: increased deicing properties, ecological safety and economy.
5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: improving gripping of ice-bound or other slippery traffic surfaces, for example using gritting or thawing materials to remove ice and snow from paving in municipal engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dispersing antislip material on paving surface. The material is ridding obtained by dry corundum variety treatment of aluminum dross and has aluminum oxide in amount of more than 50%.
EFFECT: extended range of technical means adapted to remove ice and snow from road paving.
FIELD: road cleaning of ice and snow.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying deicing composition on road paving. The deicing composition comprises binding agent compatible with motor road paving. The binding agent includes encapsulated cold-crisped deicing reagent and may additionally have fillers and admixes. Deicing reagent without capsules has particle dimensions of 0.125-0.7 mm.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and time of reagent action.
FIELD: road building, particularly methods or arrangements for preventing slipperiness or protecting against influences of the weather.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing double surface treatment, including treating ballast with bitumen, dispersing treated ballast in two layers over road and compacting thereof along with bitumen pouring over each ballast layer. Ballast made of main rock or slag ballast is used. Before ballast treatment with bitumen limestone or slag screenings in amount of 30-40% of ballast mass are added to the ballast. The obtained bitumen-mineral mix is dispersed in hot state and compacted.
EFFECT: improved quality and service life of pavement coating and simplified protective coating forming technology.
1 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: construction, road works.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to method of road surface slipperiness prevention, to method of manufacturing of deicing agent for road surface slipperiness prevention and to deicing agent for road surface slipperiness prevention. Deicing agent in the form of solid bulk material includes in mass % on unhydrous salts basis: sodium acetate 37.0÷68.8, magnesium acetate 6.2÷30.6, crystallisation water 15.0÷35.0. Also, method of specified agent manufacturing and method of road surface slipperiness prevention using the said agent are described. Invention is developed in subclaims of formula of invention.
EFFECT: improving environmental safety, reducing time of ice and/or snow melting, improving corrosive safety, and providing resistibility to caking of product during it's production and service thereof.
7 cl, 22 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is implemented by applying anti-black ice agent comprising, wt %, i.e. calcium chloride of 20 to 30 (on the dry road surface), corrosion inhibitor solution (on the dry road surface) of 1 to 2. Note that the aforesaid agent comprises also, wt %, the following components, i.e. carbamide of 21.5 to 23.0, diazotising salt of 45.78 to 51.85, sodium hexametaphosphate of 0.65 to 0.82, levenol "Ц-201" of 13.0 to 15.2, tetranilum 511K of 13.0 to 15.2 and water making the rest. The proposed method of preparing the liquid anti-black ice agent comprises force-feeding the corrosion inhibitor solution into the mixer at a pressure 1.8 to 2.2 times higher than that of feeding the calcium chloride solution. The resultant reagent is pumped over into storage tank. The process line to produce liquid anti-black ice agent comprises vessels to prepare, store and discharge water solutions of calcium chloride along with the corrosion inhibitor, the said vessels communicating via pipelines with the reagent tank.
EFFECT: expanded temperature range of reagent applications not affecting environments, nor road surface and reducing metal corrosion, easier road surface cleaning.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: construction, road engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machines for application of loose materials, such as sand, salt, chemical reagents onto road surface. Distributor comprises hopper (2) with back wall (3), in which unloading hole (4) is arranged. In hopper conveyor is installed, having flexible continuous belt (12). Behind unloading hole there is a gate (14) installed, having front element (15), with the possibility of rotation in vertical plane from control mechanism (17). Front element is made of flexible material and is inclined to the belt of conveyor at the sharp angle (a) with top facing the side opposite to back wall of hopper. Height of gap is established precisely according to scale (26) with the help of control mechanism.
EFFECT: invention provides for high reliability of operation, even supply and accurate control of deicing materials amount.
4 cl, 8 dwg