Intrastromal sheet object using such a sheet, single form and a set of forms for the manufacture of sheet and method of manufacturing such a sheet
The transparent sheet contains two intrastromal matrix (4, 6) with different steps on different surfaces of the sheet. Elements (7) embossing one of the matrices have a cross-section with at least two bends (11-14). The technical result - the creation of intrastromal sheet having enhanced visibility of the moire pattern and enhanced depth perception. 5 N. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.
The present invention relates to a transparent sheet containing two intrastromal matrix with different step located on opposite sides of the sheet, and each of the matrices contains a series of elements embossing. The present invention also relates to an object containing such a transparent sheet, the way a single form and set of shapes for making specified the transparent sheet.
Sheet as described above is known from U.S. patent No. 3357773. On both surfaces of the famous plastic sheet is applied embossing in the form of a uniform matrix of convex microlenses. The distance between the centers of the microlenses in the two matrices differ by a small increment. By using such a sheet nabet other in one direction or in two directions in the plane of the sheet. Visually, the pattern extends beyond the plane of the sheet and includes a three-dimensional depressions or protrusions round or oval configuration of various sizes.
The aim of the present invention is to provide intrastromal sheet having enhanced visibility of the moire pattern and enhanced depth perception.
This goal is achieved by the fact that, in accordance with the present invention in a transparent sheet, in contrast to the known cross section of embossing elements, at least one of the matrices in the plane perpendicular to the corresponding surface contains at least two violations of homogeneity. The violation of homogeneity in cross section has a relatively short length of the boundary line in the cross section of embossing elements in those places, where you change the direction of reflection of the incident light. The violation of homogeneity is understood as a relatively short, if the length of the violation of homogeneity in cross section is shorter than 40% of the length of the border line item embossing. Violations of homogeneity in cross-section, in places where the embossing elements are output from or toward the sheet should not be included in the number of the affected structure in the moire pattern, thereby improving the visibility of the pattern and added depth perception. The violation of homogeneity may be a small area of the embossing elements, which diffusely reflects incident light, for example, due to the rough surface structure. The violation of homogeneity may also be a small area, representing planes located at different angles with respect to incident light, such as recesses or protrusions having two or more of the parties; these parties may be flat or curved.
Such a violation of homogeneity preferably passes around an item embossing in the form of a closed ribbon, forming thereby an annular shape within the image of the embossing element present in the moire pattern. If the item embossing spherical, the violation of homogeneity preferably is a flat ring on the embossing element, which is located in a plane parallel to the surface of the sheet. Such rings on the image to enhance the visibility of the image embossing in the moire pattern.
A single item embossing preferably imania one or both intrastrain matrix.
Violations of homogeneity preferably represent curves. Curves allow you to achieve large variations in the curvature of the surface surrounding the embossing elements, improving, thus, to an unexpectedly large values of the reflection and refraction of incident light, which increases the visibility of the pattern. Bend is a sharp local variation of the curvature radius is essentially greater than the change of the radius of curvature in other parts of the cross section. The bending element embossing takes place preferably along a line that runs parallel to the sheet surface, and which may be straight or curved.
In a preferred variant embodiment of the transparent sheet cross-section contains a first line having a first radius of curvature, and a second line having a second, different radius of curvature. The cross section can contain a straight line between the two curved lines, and these two curved lines have equal or different radii of curvature. Item embossing performed with such signs may take the form of a spherical zone having a first radius, and a spherical segment having a second radius that is smaller than the first radius. The surface of the sphere, having two flat part located between the two planes having a constant, but different values of z, and the center of the sphere is located in the centre of the three-dimensional coordinate system xyz. A spherical segment is defined as a portion of a sphere having one flat portion located on one side of the plane, characterized by a constant z value. Relatively steep edge of the spherical zone can fully reflect the light through internal reflection, which gives a strong local increase of the reflection sheet, thereby improving the visibility of the structure. If a single spherical segment with steep edges will be used as an element of the embossing form instead of in accordance with the present invention, the height of the embossing will be relatively large, which will lead to increasing complexity of manufacturing molds for forming sheet and to increase the complexity of the molding process.
The embossing elements can be arranged in a rectangular matrix. The embossing elements preferably are in the form of hexagonal densely Packed matrix, making the area between the embossing elements is reduced to a minimum.
When the matrix contains at least partially reflecting layer, a reflection from the sheet increases and the visibility of the moire pattern is improved. The improvement is more pronounced when the matrix with elements embossed stamping having two bending will have a reflective layer. Use one or two reflective layers on the sheet can receive special benefits when embossing the sheet is made of a material having a refractive index similar to the refractive index of the sheet, because in this case, the reflectance is no longer directly dependent on the difference of refractive indices between the sheet and the material of the embossing.
Matrix, facing to the side view of the sheet, preferably shielded from the environment by using the protective layer. If this layer has a refractive index different from the refractive index Matey or on both surfaces of the sheet can fit the image. The image may also be placed inside the sheet. When the image is placed on the side or inside of the sheet, it should preferably be partially transparent in order to allow to form a moire pattern in the placement of the image. The leaf itself can be a projected slide carrying the image. Alternatively, the sheet can be used as a frame image. Picture or projected image, surrounded by a frame and located in the same plane, will look for a binocular observer as an image located outside the plane that the observer improves the perception of depth of the image or image.
Another aspect of the present invention refers to the goal that is being achieved by using a transparent sheet in accordance with the present invention. The purpose of this sheet may be a better reflection of the object, because the combined matrix allows to obtain a significant degree of retroflexion for a wide range of angles of incidence and also to ensure dispersion of light and illumination in a wide range of angles. May also be prosecuted decorative purpose from the point of view of a wide range object. It may be, for example, a part of the protective housing, in doing so, the structural and decorative functions.
In a particular variant embodiment of the present invention moire pattern formed by the sheet that is special to the owner or the manufacturer of this object. For example, the pattern on the cartridge, the recording media may be specific to the manufacturer of the cartridge or the recording media, or to the owner of copyright in the information recorded on the recording medium. Exceptional visibility pattern provides additional distinguishing characteristics for the consumer to easily distinguish the genuine object from counterfeiting and to allow police authorities to definitely verify the authenticity of this object. Because copying a matrix sheet is very difficult to implement, it is unlikely that a copy of the sheet will have the same positional relationship between the two matrices, as on this sheet. When guaranteed change of the moire pattern may be visible to the naked eye.
In a preferred variant embodiment of the sheet is attached to the object element using a layer of glue. If this sheet will be separated from the element to fake, matrix, located on the action scene from the original pattern.
Another aspect of the present invention relates to a form for use in manufacture of transparent sheet containing intrastromal matrix. The form includes a bottom portion having a series of elements embossing in the form of the pattern intrastromal matrix, and the cross-section of the embossing elements in the plane perpendicular to the bottom part contains at least two violations of homogeneity. Violations of homogeneity preferably represent curves.
The present invention also relates to a set of forms for use in the manufacture of transparent sheet containing two intrastromal matrix, located on the opposite surfaces of the sheet. At least one of the forms contains a bottom part having a series of elements embossing in the form of the pattern intrastromal matrix, and the cross-section of the embossing elements in the plane perpendicular to the bottom part contains at least two violations of homogeneity. Violations of homogeneity preferably represent curves.
Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a transparent sheet containing intrastromal matrix, with ispolzovat matrix, and differs in that the cross section of embossing elements in the plane perpendicular to the bottom part contains at least two violations of homogeneity.
The objectives, advantages and features of the present invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of preferred embodiments of the present invention, which are illustrated by the attached drawings, on which:
Fig.1 depicts a cross-section intrastromal sheet in accordance with the present invention;
Fig.2 - the object is coated with intrastromal sheet;
Fig.3A and 3B are two patterns with intrastromal sheets, made in the form of embossing;
Fig.4 - form for use in manufacture intrastromal sheet.
Fig.1 depicts a cross-section intrastromal sheet in accordance with the present invention. The sheet body has a Central layer 1 and two layers 2 and 3 on each side. Thickness d1d2and d3each of the layers 1, 2 and 3 are 150 μm. Layer 2 has intrastromal matrix 4 having a large number of properly spaced elements 5 embossing, each in the form of a convex protrusion. Preferably, the protrusions have scored 336 μm. Layer 3 is also provided with intrastromal matrix 6 having a large number of evenly spaced elements 7 embossing. Each of the elements 7 embossing has the shape of a spherical zone 8 and contains a coaxial spherical segment 9. In the cross-section of the element embossing spherical area looks like two curved lines marked in Fig.1 position 8, and the segment looks like a curved line indicated position 9. Area 8 is part of a sphere having a radius R2equal to 250 μm. Segment 9 is part of a sphere having a radius R3equal to 150 μm. In a special variant embodiment, these two radii are equal in length. Area 8 and the segment 9 is connected planar annular region 10, which is shown in Fig.1 as two straight lines 10 between the two curved lines. The cross-section of the embossing element contains four bending 11-14 in places of transition from zone 8 in a flat region 10, from the flat area 10 to the segment 9, segment 9 to the flat region 10 and the flat area 10 to area 8, respectively. The distance t2between the centers of the elements 7 embossing is 346 μm. Zone 8 neighboring elements 7 embossing can africaprotests between elements 7 embossing enhances brightness of the moire pattern.
The shape of the element 5 embossing, zone 8 and/or segment 9 need not be spherical, but may be, for example, parabolic.
The radius and the distance between the embossing elements preferably are selected depending on the distance, which is usually considered the sheet. When the viewing distance less than one meter, the distance between the elements must be in the range of 1 to 1000 μm. When the viewing distance is greater than one meter, the distance between the elements must be in the range from 1 mm to 100 mm, the Radius should increase in proportion to the distance between elements.
Embossing can cover the entire area of the surface, which is applied to the pattern or embossing elements can be spaced apart to leave some areas without causing embossing between them. Elements embossing can be applied in any pattern matrices, such as rectangular or triangular pattern. The hexagonal pattern is preferred because of its dense packing. The above-mentioned distance between the lenses is measured at the nearest neighboring direction.
Because the elements of the embossing matrix 1-t2|, corresponding to approximately 11 mm for intrastromal sheet shown in Fig.1. If the embossing elements are the same in one direction and not the same in the other direction, the change of the moire pattern will manifest itself only in the last mentioned direction. If the difference in location between the two matrices is different in different directions, the moire pattern will have different periods in these areas. If the focal length of the 5 elements embossing will be approximately the thickness of the sheet, the moire pattern will be a repeat of the enlarged images of the elements 7 embossing, when the sheet is viewed from the side of the matrix 4, giving the impression of the image of the bubbles. For the list of the diameter of the embossing elements which is 346 μm, you get the picture bubbles with a size of 11 mm, the Image will be round or elliptical, depending on the difference in distances between the elements of the matrices in different directions in the plane of the sheet. When binocular considering the pattern of bubbles looks lying in a plane which does not coincide with the plane of the sheet. The sheet depicted in Fig can be viewed in the light and reflection on either side of the sheet. Structure areas 8 and segment 9 is best visible when the sheet is viewed from the side of the matrix 4.
In Fig.2 shows the cartridge 15 having intrastromal sheet in accordance with the present invention. The cartridge is known in itself, in particular from U.S. patent No. 4874085, and has an element 16 of the cover and the base element 17, which has a means for attaching the carrier 18 of the record. The recording medium may be of any type, for example, magnetic tape, optical tape, magnetic disk or optical disk. The recording media shown in the figure, is a disc-shaped optical recording media such as CD-ROM or DVD drive. Item 16 of the cover is made of intrastromal sheet in accordance with the present invention. Similarly, the element 17 can be made of intrastromal sheet or part of the cartridge, such as the side walls of the cover elements or grounds may be made of intrastromal sheet. The carrier 18 entries labeled 19 containing intrastromal sheet.
Use intrastrain sheets can be purely decorative. Use may also have the purpose of counterfeiting. The copy sheet may be difficult erythromy sheet in accordance with the present invention. Intrastromal sheet 20 in accordance with the present invention is attached to the object 21 by using an adhesive layer 22. A reflective layer 23 located between intrastromal sheet 20 and an adhesive layer 22, is designed to reflect light. Elements embossing intrastromal sheet were not depicted in Fig.3A to simplify the image. Surface intrastromal sheet 20 opposite that facing the reflecting layer 23 is covered by a transparent protective layer 24. The protective layer 24 is made of a material having a refractive index different from the refractive index intrastromal sheet 20 so as to reflect light from the surface of contact between the sheet and layer. The protective sheet 24 protects intrastromal sheet from environmental influences, in particular from mechanical damage and from contamination.
In Fig.3B depicts an alternative embodiment intrastromal sheet with embossed lettering. Instead of the protective layer 24 on intrastromal the sheet 20 is placed partially reflecting layer 25. Layer 26 is applied on the reflective layer 25. The layer 26 may be a relatively thin protective layer or a transparent layer having a sufficient mechanical strength. Coffeehouse layer 25 may be a partially light transmissive metal layer or the dielectric layer, having the desired reflective properties. The choice of the degree of reflection of both layers 23 and 25 depends, do you plan to consider intrastromal sheet only in the reflection-only or lumen, or both in reflection and transmission. The choice of reflection magnitude is also determined by the desired intensity of the moire pattern.
Intrastromal sheet can be manufactured using the technology of reproduction, disclosed in European patent EP 0156430. Layer 1 is preferably made of polymer, varnish, hardened by ultraviolet irradiation. This varnish is subjected to pressing in a matrix form with the application form, having a negative form of a matrix 4. In Fig.4 shows such form 30. The form contains a chamber 31 forms a flat bottom part 32, in which there are elements 33 embossing so that there is a hexagonal closely Packed two-dimensional pattern. To simplify the image in Fig.4 shows only a part of the Toolbox embossing. The varnish hardens under ultraviolet radiation. After hardening the varnish forms a layer 2, and the form is removed. Similarly, the layer 1 is a layer 3 using a form, the form of the negative cell battery (included) which have a well-defined location. Intrastromal sheet may alternatively be manufactured using injection molding or compression molding. The stamping process may also be performed by rolling one or more transparent plastic sheet between two rollers which are inscribed with the embossing elements in accordance with the present invention, as described in particular in U.S. patent No. 3357772.
1. The transparent sheet containing the first intrastromal matrix (4) with the first step on the first surface of the sheet, with the specified first matrix contains the sequence of first elements (5) embossing, and the second intrastromal matrix (6) with a second pitch different from the first step on the second surface of the specified sheet opposite the first surface, with the specified second matrix contains the second sequence of elements (7) embossing, while the corresponding embossing element represents the recesses or protrusions, when this limiting line of the specified cross section of the embossing element is formed of at least two dissimilar surfaces leist under item 1, in which the cross-section includes a first curved line (8) having a first radius of curvature (R2), and the second curve line (9) having a second, different from the first radius of curvature (R3).
4. Worksheet under item 2, in which the cross-section contains a straight line between the first curved line and the second curved line.
5. Worksheet under item 1, in which one of the matrices is at least partially reflective layer (23, 25).
6. Worksheet under item 1, wherein said sheet is made of a material with a first refractive index and has a protective layer (24) having a second refractive index different from the first refractive index deposited on the side of the sheet.
7. The object (15), comprising a transparent sheet, wherein the transparent sheet is a worksheet under item 1.
8. The object under item 7, in which the moiré pattern provided by these two matrices is pre-selected and characterized for the owner or manufacturer of the item.
9. The object under item 8, which contains the element (16, 17) of the object, while one surface of the transparent sheet attached to the specified object element with a layer (22) of glue.
10. Form for use in the manufacture of the transparent sheet, embossing in the form of the pattern intrastromal matrix, when this limiting line of the cross-section of the embossing element in the plane perpendicular to the bottom part, formed of at least two different surfaces of the embossing element.
11. Form under item 10, in which the specified cross-section has the bends.
12. A set of forms for use in the manufacture of transparent sheet containing two intrastromal matrix on the opposite surfaces of the sheet, at least one of the forms has featured on p. 10 or 11.
13. A method of manufacturing a transparent sheet containing intrastromal matrix using a form containing a bottom portion on which is provided a sequence of elements embossing in the form of the pattern intrastromal matrix, thus limiting line of the cross-section of the embossing element in the plane perpendicular to the bottom part, formed of at least two different surfaces of the embossing element.
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides composition containing from about 50 to about 80% of component selected from group consisting of di(meth)acylate of ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of non-ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of propoxylated bisphenol A, epoxy(meth)acrylates of bisphenol A, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 30% of component selected from group consisting of tetrahydeofuryl (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 15% of component selected from group consisting of dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated trimethylolpropane, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated glycerol, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, bis-trimethylolpropane tetra(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof. Such composition is suited to manufacture eyeglass lenses.
EFFECT: expanded possibilities in manufacture of polymer-based lenses, including multifocal ones.
21 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex
FIELD: physics, optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer cover has substrate with transparent electric-conductive cover on external surface and with reflective cover on back surface, made in form of metal film with high reflective ability within wave length range 0,3-2,4 micrometers. Transparent electric-conductive cover has no less than 2 layers, while one of aforementioned layers contains cerium oxide, and substrate is made of polyimide film. External layer of transparent electric-conductive cover can be made in form of thin (˜0,05 micrometers) transparent radiation-resistant wear-resistant layer, for example, of SiO2. One of layers of transparent electric-conductive cover can be made on basis of tin oxide SnO2, alloyed by cerium oxide CeO2, or on basis of In2O3.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities, better manufacturability and increased reliability under extreme operation conditions.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: process of making plastic lens related to techniques used for making lenses which can be applied in ophthalmology and optical engineering. Plastic lens proposed is capable if absorbing UV radiation. Lens has light yellow color. Plastic lens has plastic substrate based on derivation of benzophenone which is presented by formula I given in the description, where R is linear or branched alkyl group having 2 to 12 atoms of carbon or alkoxyl group having 2 to 12 atoms of carbon.
EFFECT: improved absorption.
11 cl, 11 dwg