The fuel-air exchanger

 

The fuel-air heat exchanger designed to cool the cryogenic fuel blades of an axial compressor, and air passing through the air-gas path of said compressor. The organization of processes of heat exchange on the principle of creating zones of circulation of the refrigerant (gaseous fuel) inside the drum of the compressor due to the interaction of centrifugal and arhimedova forces. To improve heat transfer using partial bypass of refrigerant gas in the path of an axial compressor. The fuel-air heat exchanger includes a rotating drum with vanes on the outer surface, forming a closed cavity, separated by disks into compartments, which communicate with each other through the Central hole. On the axis of rotation of the drum from the front wall mounted centrifugal fuel injector is directed inside the closed cavity, and the opposite side has multiple nozzles directed outward from the specified cavity. Inside the hollow drum mounted heat-conductive plate. Centrifugal nozzle, inlet fuel made in the form of a hollow shaft and has channels that are located perpendicular to the axis of its rotation. Nolee 10% of the total flow, at the entrance to the compressor. This embodiment of the heat exchangers for turboelectric engines running on liquid hydrogen, allows to increase the speed of flight of aircraft. 3 C.p. f-crystals,3 ill.

At high supersonic and hypersonic flight speeds of aircraft there is a strong aerodynamic heating of the inlet air into the compressor of the air-jet engine, which affects its characteristics. So when heating the inlet air to the compressor reduces the compression ratio of the compressor and the air flow through it increases the work required to drive the compressor decreases the strength of the elements of the compressor and the first of his blades.

There are various constructive scheme of aviation axial compressors (G. C. Skubachevskii. Aircraft gas turbine engines. Design and calculation details. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1974, S. 61-72, Fig.3.10-3.23). The disadvantage of these designs is that the heat from the blades is limited by the heat capacity of the compressor and its cooling outside air.

Known methods of air cooling blades is, The .206, Fig.5.15). These methods are unacceptable for cooling blades of the compressor as the cooling air taken into the compressor itself.

Known recuperative heat exchangers (Y. N. Nechaev. Propulsion and hypersonic aerospace aircraft. - M.: Academy of Astronautics them. K. E. Tsiolkovsky, 1996, S. 44, Fig.25), which can be used to cool the inlet air to the compressor. The disadvantages of these devices are their considerable size and weight, as well as significant resistance to air movement.

The essence of the invention consists in that the air-fuel heat exchanger, containing a rotating drum with vanes on the outer surface, forming a closed cavity, separated by disks into compartments, which communicate through a Central hole on the axis of rotation of the drum from the front wall mounted centrifugal fuel injector is directed inside the closed cavity, and the opposite side has multiple nozzles directed outward from the specified cavity.

In addition, inside the cavity of the drum can be installed heat-conductive plate. Centrifugal nozzle, inlet Topley the front wall of the drum can be made of perforated holes, allowing the bypass of part of the fuel, not more than 10% of the total flow at the entrance to the compressor.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the fuel-air heat exchanger of Fig.2 shows the compression process in P-V coordinates, Fig.3 shows a diagram of the fuel-air heat exchanger.

The air / fuel heat exchanger (Fig.1) consists of a drum 1, forming a closed cavity, centrifugal nozzle 2 located on the axis of rotation from the front wall of the drum 1, disk 3, separating the internal cavity of the drum into compartments (in our case: a, b, C, D) and interconnected through the center hole, blades 4, a nozzle 5 located at the rear wall of the drum 1.

The operation of the fuel-air heat exchanger is as follows. Liquid (gaseous) fuel under pressure through the centrifugal nozzle 2 is fed into the compartment (Fig.1), where it vaporizes (extended) under the action of centrifugal forces is pressed against the peripheral part of the drum. Due to heat exchange with the body of the drum, the temperature of the lower layers of gaseous fuel increases and they removed to the center of rotation cooler (heavy) upper layers, thereby providing circulation of gas and, respectively, in the rez Central hole flows into the Bay and later in Ozeki C and D (the direction of fuel movement is shown by arrows in Fig.1). When moving gaseous fuel is in contact with the inner surface of the drum (s), cooling it, and therefore the blades 4. Between the outer surface of the rotor and the air flow is set to the temperature difference, which delivers constant heat to the body of the rotor, slowing the growth temperature of the air when it is compressed in the compressor. The latter reduces the required work of compressing air in the compressor. In Fig.2 in P-V coordinates illustrates the process of compressing air in the compressor without heat sink (dashed line) and heat sink (solid line). It is evident that the work of compression with heat sink is less than the value ofL. Heated in the air-fuel heat exchanger, the fuel is discharged through the nozzles (nozzle) 5.

To improve heat transfer between air and fuel (refrigerant) the contact surface of the inside of the drum is increased due to the installation in the free space teplopodachi plates 6 (Fig.3), and the gas pressure inside the drum is supported by the maximum of the strength conditions of the drum.

To ensure a certain amount of cooling of the various stages of the compressor injector that supplies fuel is in the form od refrigerant for a particular compressor stages.

For a more complete use of glatorians part of the gaseous fuel, not more than 10% of the total flow is bypassed through the perforated holes 8 (Fig.3) made in the front wall of the drum, at the entrance to the compressor. Number return the fulfilled fuel is selected from the conditions newsplease fuel-air mixture generated in the gas path of the compressor (Y. N. Nechaev. Propulsion and hypersonic aerospace aircraft. - M.: Academy of Astronautics them. K. E. Tsiolkovsky, 1996, S. 15, PL.1).

Theoretical studies performed by the author, show that the use of fuel-to-air heat exchangers for turboelectric engines (patent No. 2190772, IPC F 02 (3/32) running on liquid hydrogen, allows to increase the speed of flight of aircraft with Mach numbers five to Mach six.

Claims

1. The fuel-air heat exchanger containing a rotating drum with vanes on the outer surface, forming a closed cavity, separated by disks into compartments, which communicate with each other through the Central hole, wherein the axis of rotation of the drum from the front wall installed to top what about the several nozzles (nozzle), directed outward from the specified cavity.

2. The fuel-air heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the inside cavity of the drum set heat-conductive plate.

3. The fuel-air heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the centrifugal nozzle, inlet fuel made in the form of a hollow shaft and has channels that are located perpendicular to the axis of its rotation.

4. The fuel-air heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the front wall of the drum is made of perforated holes, allowing the bypass of part of the fuel, not more than 10% of the total flow at the entrance to the compressor.



 

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