Self-propelled machine with volumetric hydraulic transmission
The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely volumetric hydraulic transport, road-building, agricultural and other machines. Self-propelled machine with hydrostatic transmission includes an adjustable hydraulic pump, hydraulic motor, an auxiliary hydraulic pump, pressure valve, check valves, pressure valves, hydraulically operated change-over and relief valves, dip elektroupravlyaemyh the distributor and the cylinder control Parking brake. Adjustable hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor communicated between a power hose and kinematically connected respectively to the engine and driven wheels. The relay coil starter system starting motor is connected by means of contact of the ignition switch with the positive conductors, and through the switch Parking brake - with negative conductors. The solenoid valve Parking brake is connected with the positive conductors of the power source through normally closed contacts of the relay, the input and output coils which are connected respectively with the positive conductors and coil starter relay. The technical result is increased reliability and simplified management Parking brake. 2 Il.
The invention should be used in machines for various purposes, including for technological service electrolysis baths aluminium production, where the characteristic features of technological operations are frequent stops and transfers.
Known vehicle with three-dimensional hydraulic transmission , containing adjustable reversible hydraulic pump connected kinematically with the auxiliary hydraulic pump, and hydraulic - suction and discharge lines with a reversible hydraulic motor, and a control pump is kinematically connected with the spring loaded rod of the hydraulic cylinder control; three position four way valve for capacity control of the hydraulic pump, the recharge valve, drain valve, pressure relief and check valves, the cylinders of wheel brakes with spring energy, control cavity which is connected hydraulically via a two-position three-way valve for control Parking brake with a pressure line of the auxiliary hydraulic pump.
The disadvantages Ali in the that used in the hydraulic transmission may be in breach of zero install the regulatory body of the pump by reason of its mechanical jamming, breakage of the spring cylinder control pump performance or failure of the valve control pump output. These faults lead to loss of control of the pump and to the spontaneous movement of the machine, including when the engine is started. At the same time the existing design of the Parking brake does not provide adequate security because of the limited durability of the spring brake cylinders with spring energy.
Known close to the technical nature of volumetric hydraulic transmission of the vehicle , comprising a reversible hydraulic pump connected kinematically with the auxiliary hydraulic pump and hydraulic power lines to the motor; a pressure valve and check valves, indicating the pressure line of the auxiliary pump in accordance with the hydraulic tank and power lines. In pressure line of the auxiliary pump is also connected to the first line of a two-position three-way valve normally closed control a hundred of spring-loaded valve, the second input is connected to the hydraulic tank, and the output to the input of the separation cylinder, the output of which is connected with the spring-loaded brake cylinders of the friction.
The main disadvantage of this transmission also include lack of safe operation of self-propelled vehicles, due to the possibility of violations of the zero install the regulatory body pump, failure of the Parking brake or false to turn it off, for example when the engine is started. However, in this transmission control system Parking brake is somewhat simpler and more reliable.
The objective of the invention is to provide a self-propelled machine with volumetric hydraulic transmission with a more reliable and efficient Parking brake to ensure the safe operation of the machine.
The problem is solved in that in a self-propelled machine that contains communicated between a power hose adjustable hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor, kinematically connected with the engine and drive wheels, respectively; an auxiliary hydraulic pump installed on the inlet filter, inlet communicated with the tank, the output of the hydraulic pump is connected via a valve to the pressure cavity of the pump housing and through the check valves and relief valve the inlet of which communicates with the outlet of the switching valve; two-position valve and the hydraulic control normally closed Parking brake, kinematically connected with the motor; the starting system of the engine, includes starter, starter relay, the coil of which is made with possibility of connection by closing the contact of the ignition switch with the positive conductors; hydraulic brakes are made with the possibility of a double-acting, two-position valve actuator brakes - four electrically operated, the first line which is connected to the pressure line of the auxiliary pump, the second hydraulic tank, the third and the fourth with the piston rod and the cylinder cavities brakes. Moreover, in the initial position of the valve piston and the rod end of the cylinder is communicated with the tank and the pressure line of the auxiliary pump, respectively. The solenoid valve Parking brake is connected with the positive conductors of the power source through normally closed contacts of the relay, the input and output coils which are connected respectively with the positive conductors and coil starter relay that is connected to minus>usnot invention is illustrated hydraulic and electrical circuits shown in Fig.1 and 2.
Self-propelled machine with volumetric hydraulic transmission contains communicated between a power hose 1 and 2 adjustable hydraulic pump 3 and the hydraulic motor 4, kinematically connected with the motor 5 and the drive wheels 6 and 7, respectively; an auxiliary hydraulic pump 8 is installed at the inlet of the filter 9, the inlet communicates with the tank 10, the output of the hydraulic pump 8 is connected via a valve 11 pressure cavity of the pump housing 3 and through the check valves 12 and 13 with a power hose 1 and 2, between which there is pressure valves 14 and 15, hydraulically operated change-over valve 16 and the overflow valve 17, the inlet of which communicates with the outlet of the switching valve 16, and the output from the cavity of the housing of the motor 4. The pump 3 is controlled by three position four way valve 18 connected to the hose 19, 20, 21 and 22 with the output of the auxiliary pump 8, with the cavity of the pump housing 3 and the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders 23 and 24 control the pump 3. A spring-loaded spool valve 18 is connected by mechanical feedback 25 of the inclined plate 26 of the pump 3. Cavity of the pump casing 3 and the motor 4 is connected between the NYM brake 30, and starting system of the engine 5, which includes the starter 31, relay starter 32, a coil 33 which is made with possibility of connection by closing the contact 34 of the ignition lock with the positive conductors 35. Moreover, the hydraulic cylinder 29 Parking brake 30 is made with the possibility of a double-acting, two-position valve 28 brakes 30 - four electrically operated, the first line which is connected to the pressure line 19 of the auxiliary pump 8, the second with a drain line 38, the third and the fourth with the piston rod and the cavities 36 and 37 of the hydraulic cylinder 29 Parking brake 30.
In the initial position of the valve piston 28 and the rod end 36 and 37 of the hydraulic cylinder 29 is communicated with the drain line 38 and the pressure line 19 of the auxiliary pump 8, respectively. The case drain line 38 is communicated through the heat exchanger 39 to the tank 10. The electromagnet 40 of the distributor 28 Parking brake 30 is connected with the positive current-conducting wire 35 of the power source through conductors 41, which has a normally closed contact 42 of the relay 43. The entrance and exit located in the conductors 44 of the coil 45 of relay 43 are connected respectively with the positive conductors 35 and the coil 33 is I switch 47 Parking brake 30.
The power to the starter 31 is a current conducting wire 48 through the trailing through the retractor coil 49 to the contact 50. Current to the retractor spool 49 is fed by conductors 51 through the normally open contact 52 of the relay 32 starter.
For signaling includes provisions Parking brake 30 is provided for the lamp 53 installed in the conductors 54.
Parking brake 30 is a normally closed dvukhchastotnyi brake pads 55 which is opened by a hydraulic cylinder 29. Closed state of the brake 30 is provided by a spring 56 and a hydraulic cylinder 29. The brake drum 57 Parking brake 30 is installed on is connected to the shaft 58 of the motor 4, the input shaft 59 of the gear 60. The output shaft 61 of the gear 60 kinematically connected through a gear drive axle 62 with the drive wheels 6 and 7.
The tool works as follows.
To start the engine press the button switch 47 Parking brake 30. In conductors 44 receive current: coil 45 is opened, the contact 42 in the current-conducting wire 41 is supplied to the coil 40 of the distributor 28 Parking brake 30. Along with this appears the current in the conductors 54 and accordingly the optical signal to the light bulb 53, signalised contact 34 and receive the current in the coil 33 of relay 32 starter. This closes the contact 52 and receive the current in the conductors 51 and retractor reel 49, under the action of which closes the contact 50. The conductors 48 appears current, providing start starter 30 and, therefore, the engine 1, which actuates the pump 3 and the auxiliary pump 8. The latter delivers the working fluid in the system recharge and pump control 3 and control Parking brake 30. In this case, the working fluid is supplied through the valve 28 in the rod cavity 36 of the hydraulic cylinder 37, under the action of which spring 56 is secured closed state of the Parking brake 30. With proper work volume hydraulic transmission in the initial position of the distributor 18 inclined washer 26 of the pump 3 is in the zero position and the working fluid is not supplied to the hydraulic motor 4.
In case of violation of the zero install the inclined washer 26 by the pump 3 will be supplied to the working fluid, for example, in hydroline 1 and the hydraulic motor 4, the shaft of which is connected to the input shaft 59 of the gear 60. Due to the fact that the Parking brake 30 is closed under the action of the spring 56 and the pressure of the working fluid in the rod end 36 of the cylinder 29, the rotation of the shaft 58 of the motor 4 and motion machine is impossible. Ledue is there is no way, because in this case the conductors of the power coil 33 of relay 32 of the starter 31 is broken, ie is blocking the starting of the engine 5. This prevents the possibility of starting the engine 5 by improper operator actions.
Before starting to open the contact 47 of switch Parking brake 30 - conductors 54 and 44 will be broken and, consequently, will turn off the optical signal lamp 53 and closes the contact 42 of the relay 43 through which power is supplied to the electromagnet 40 of the distributor 28. The last switch in the upper position, and the working fluid will flow into the piston cavity 36 of the hydraulic cylinder 29, and rod 37 through the discharge pipe 38 and the heat exchanger 39 is in the tank 10. Under the action of fluid pressure, the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder 29 moves against the force of the spring, and opens pads 55 Parking brake 30. In this case, the rotation of the shaft 58 of the motor 4 can be transmitted through the reduction gear 60 and gear mechanisms driving axle 62 to the drive wheels 6 and 7.
The positive results of the proposed technical solutions: improving the reliability and efficiency of the Parking brake through the use of normally closed by a spring and a hydraulic cylinder of the brake mechanism; aliates off the brake and, secondly, the possibility of inadvertent movement of the machine when the violation of the zero-installation of the pump and the control system failure performance of the pump. This increases the safety of operation of the machine with volumetric transfer.
Presents positive results were confirmed conducted at JSC “Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant” production and testing self-propelled machines with volumetric hydraulic transmission made according to the claims.
SOURCES of INFORMATION
1. Inventor's certificate SU 1414665 A1, CL 60 To 17/10, 1987
2. Inventor's certificate SU 1491746 A1, CL 60 To 17/10, 1987
Self-propelled machine with hydrostatic transmission containing communicated between a power hose adjustable hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor, kinematically connected respectively to the engine and driven wheels, the auxiliary hydraulic pump, the inlet of which is a filter inlet communicated with the tank, the output of the hydraulic pump is connected via a valve to the pressure cavity of the pump housing and through check valves - with a power hose, between which there is pressure valves, hydraulically operated switching lapel and cylinder control normally closed Parking brake, kinematically connected with the motor, the starting system of the engine, includes starter, starter relay, the coil of which is made with possibility of connection through switch ignition lock with the positive conductors, characterized in that the cylinder of the Parking brake is made with the possibility of a double-acting, two-position valve actuator brakes - four electrically operated, the first line which is connected to the pressure line of the auxiliary pump, the second hydraulic tank, the third and the fourth with the piston rod and the cylinder cavities brakes, moreover, in the initial position of the valve piston and the rod end of the cylinder is communicated respectively with the tank and the pressure line of the auxiliary pump, the solenoid valve actuator brake is connected with the positive conductors of the power source through normally closed contacts of the relay, the input and output coils which are connected, respectively, plus a current conducting wire and coil starter relay that is connected to the minus conductors through performed with mechanical detent position switch Parking brake.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.