The composition of the welding wire

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used for welding and surfacing of products from high-carbon steels operating at high alternating loads, in particular for the recovery of components and parts of railway rolling stock. Welding wire contains, wt%: carbon 0,04-0,10, silicon 0.2 to 0.8, manganese 0,9-1,6, vanadium 0.1 to 0.6, calcium 0,0012-0,002, copper not greater than 0.25, chromium not more than 0.25 molybdenum, not more than 0.08, sulfur does not exceed 0.025, phosphorus not more than 0,030, iron - rest. The ratio of carbon content to the total content of molybdenum and vanadium should be 0,15-0,22. The ratio of sulfur to the total content of calcium and magnesium should be within 0,016-0,028. The composition provides obtaining the optimum combination of high values of strength, ductility and resistance of the deposited metal to brittle fracture.

The invention relates to welding and for the composition of welding wire for welding and surfacing of products from high-carbon steels operating at high alternating loads, and can be used mainly when restoring components and parts of railway rolling stock.

Known with whom, the who introduced the calcium in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,06-0,10

Chrome Is 0.9-1.2

Silicon 0,4-0,7

Manganese 1,55-1,8

Molybdenum 0,5-0,7

Vanadium 0,2-0,45

Sera Of 0.025 To 0.04)

Phosphorus Of 0.025-0,030

Calcium 0,05-0,2

Iron Rest

the ratio of carbon content to the total content of molybdenum and vanadium should be of 0.066-0,087, and the ratio of sulfur to the total content of calcium and magnesium should be within 0,015-0,020 (see RF patent № 2104138, CL 23 To 35/30, publ. 1998).

The disadvantages of this structure can be attributed to the unstable flickering of the arc, as well as the possibility of formation of hot cracks and comparative fragility of the weld.

The closest known by its technical essence and the achieved result is chosen as the prototype of the composition of the welding wire containing carbon, chromium, silicon, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus and iron (see RF patent № 2167037, CL 23 To 35/30, publ.2001).

The disadvantages of the prototype can also be attributed to the unstable flickering of the arc, which may lead to its extinction, and taleemul of the invention is expressed in essential features, sufficient to achieve provided by the invention technical result, which is expressed in obtaining optimal physical and mechanical properties of the weld metal when welding high-carbon steels, namely: the optimal combination of high values of strength, ductility, resistance to brittle fracture by providing stable uniformly distributed fine patterns with high corrosion hardness and toughness of the weld metal.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the composition of the welding wire containing carbon, chromium, silicon, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, iron, put the copper in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,04-0,10

Silicon 0,2-0,8

Manganese 0,9-1,6

Vanadium 0.1 To 0.6

Calcium 0,0012-0,002

Copper Not more than 0,25

Chromium Not more than 0,25

Molybdenum is Not more than 0.08

Sulfur does Not exceed 0.025

Phosphorus Not more than 0,030

Iron Rest

the ratio of carbon content to the total content of molybdenum and vanadium should be 0,15-0,22, and the ratio of sulfur to commaraderie the limits included in the welding wire as complex carbidopa and modifiers.

With the introduction of vanadium is less than 0.1 wt.% the vanadium carbides are formed in the weld metal in small quantities, resulting in grain growth during welding and, as consequence, to decrease in toughness and strength of the weld metal.

The increase in the concentration of vanadium above 0.6 wt.% leads to excessive tension is particularly grain boundaries, resulting in reduced toughness and cracking, mainly in the heat-affected zone of the weld.

Molybdenum and vanadium, are introduced in the proposed limits, when welding high-manganese steel weld metal in the weld zone to form fine carbides form.

Introduction to the composition of copper as a stabilizing component, the magnetic component of the electric arc and plasticizer process provides improved resistance to hot cracking and brittle fracture, viscosity combined with high corrosion hardness and strength of the weld, which improves the efficiency and technology of welding and surfacing products from high-carbon steels, with increased content of copper leads to deterioration of technical and economic characteristics of the composition and neopren the Leno, the ratio of the carbon content and the total content of molybdenum and vanadium, which allows to obtain optimal stable structure and high surface quality of the weld metal when welding high-carbon steels with uniformly distributed fine carbides must meet the following dependencies:

C:(Mo+V)=0,15-0,22,

where, V, Mo - carbon, vanadium, molybdenum, wt.%.

With the increase of this ratio is more than 0.22% of the deterioration in the composition of the carbide zone of the weld metal - appear less solid carbide cement type.

By reducing this ratio is less than 0.15% reduces the strength of the weld metal by reducing the amount of carbide phase.

Calcium is entered in the number 0,0012 0.002 wt.% as resiliency component and forms the weld metal oxysulfide globular form. When the calcium content below 0,0012 wt.% deteriorating the morphology of sulfides, acquiring a needle shape, which causes a sharp decrease in the resistance of the weld metal to brittle fracture.

Excess calcium higher than 0.002 wt.% selects oxysulfides at the grain boundaries and reduce the resistance of the weld metal to brittle rasvasusega to obtain a high surface quality of the weld metal with a minimum content of non-metallic inclusions at the grain boundaries, and with small oxysulfide globular form, was determined experimentally and meets the following dependencies:

S:(+n)=0,016-0,028,

where S, Sa, MP - sulfur, calcium, manganese, wt.%.

When increasing this ratio by more than 0,028 wt.% reduced plastic properties of weld metal due to the selection of welding high-carbon steel weld metal sulphides of manganese needle shape, resulting in lower resistance, as well as to the formation of cracks and subsequent brittle fracture of the weld.

The decrease of this ratio less than 0,016 wt.% can lead to the selection of oxysulfides at the grain boundaries and reduce the resistance of the weld metal to brittle fracture.

As shown by experimental data, the proposed welding wire with the simultaneous combination of optimal relationships With:(Mo+V)=0.15 to 0.22 and S:(CA+MP)=0,016-0,028, and when the other four of these components in the proposed range allows you to get a good range of physical and mechanical properties of the weld metal, namely the optimal combination of high values of strength, ductility, resistance to brittle fracture.

Taco is as well as the presence of uniformly distributed fine carbides, which contribute to the formation of fine grains in the weld metal.

On the basis of JSC Electrostal, Moscow region were made several variants of welding wires of different composition. Custom welding wire with a diameter of 3 mm was produced by the welding wheel steel of the following composition, wt.%: With 0,04-0,10; Si 0,5; Mn 1,1; V 0,2; Sa 0,0015; C 0,2; 0,2 Cr; Mo 0,06; S 0,02; P 0,03; Fe - rest.

Welding mode: ISt=320±20 A, USt=29±2V, VSt=20 m/h

The heating temperature of 160°C.

After welding carved standard, the samples were subjected to visual inspection and mechanical testing.

Along with the test samples welded offer welding wire quality assessment were subjected samples of weld metals, welded wire HIMPE (prototype).

Welding mode is the same as in the case with the proposed welding wire, but even when the preheating temperature of 180°C in the weld metal, welded wire prototype, there are small hairline cracks in size from 1 mm over the entire length,

Metallographic analysis showed that the weld metal has numerous sulfides of manganese needle shape. Poluchennyh data can be set, to obtain the stable structure of weld metal and high physical-mechanical properties for welding high-carbon steels it is necessary to use welding wire of the proposed structure with the proposed ratios.

The results of the research on the strength and toughness confirmed the previously obtained results on a qualitative assessment of the hard samples for hot and cold cracks. In addition, the presence of cracks on the natural samples coincides with the presence of cracks in the samples.

The composition of the welding wire containing carbon, chromium, silicon, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, iron, characterized in that it additionally contains copper in the following ratio, wt.%:

Carbon 0,04-0,10

Silicon 0,2-0,8

Manganese 0,9-1,6

Vanadium 0.1 To 0.6

Calcium 0,0012-0,002

Copper Not more than 0,25

Chromium Not more than 0,25

Molybdenum is Not more than 0.08

Sulfur does Not exceed 0.025

Phosphorus Not more than 0,030

Iron Rest

the ratio of carbon content to the total content of molybdenum and vanadium should be 0,15-0,22, and against

 

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