Composition for neutralizing chemical and biological toxic agents
The composition is intended for neutralization of chemical and biological agents, especially chemical warfare agents, and biological resources that have an adverse effect on health. The inventive composition contains at least two solubilizing component, one of which is a cationic surface-active agent, for example, Quaternary ammonium salt, a concentration in the range of approximately 0.1-10 wt.%, and the other cationic hydrotropes substance, at least one reactive component, which may be oxidizing or nucleophilic compound or their mixture, and water for the formation water compositions. The composition is non-toxic and non-corroding cast and can be applied in different ways and in different phases. The composition is capable of destroying up to 99,99999% of bacterial spores within one hour of processing. 4 N. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 21 ill.
This application is related to patent application U.S. under No. 09/109,235, filed June 30, 1989 and is currently withdrawn, and with the preliminary application number No. 60/146,432, filed on July 29, 1999.
This application was made with support of the rights of the TWT has certain rights in this invention.
Background of the invention
This invention is dedicated tools designed to neutralize chemical and biological substances or agents, in particular components of chemical and biological weapons, as well as the method of obtaining these funds. In particular, this invention is devoted to the means containing solubilizing compounds and reactive compounds that can be supplied in the form of a foaming composition, sprayable compositions, liquids, fogging compositions and aerosols to increase the speed of neutralization reactions of chemical compounds and other additives. These tools are designed to neutralize or reduce the influence of some biological compounds or agents (S).
Terrorist threats, potentially using weapons of mass destruction, increasing both in the United States and abroad. The use and threat of use of chemical and biological S as weapons of mass destruction are of paramount importance for national defence in General and to the municipal authorities.
Some active ingredients of chemical weapons (CW) used by terrorists as a threat, have himicheskomu and Tabun (G-agents) are examples of compounds containing phosphorus, which, changing chemically, can lose their toxicity. Mustard gas, as an example of N-agents and VX, as an example of V-agents, can also be modified chemically and become safe. In addition, some of the known active components of biological weapons (BW), including botulinum toxin, Bacillus anthrax and other spore-forming bacteria, vegetative bacteria, including bacteria plague and various viruses, may also be subjected to chemical decontamination.
Use HO or BO may be accompanied by a local or wide dispersion S that threaten the population. Because deployment flexibility substances HO and BO (CBW), the victim can be affected in a variety of physical States, in most cases in the form of aerosols and vapors.
For the restoration of civilian facilities in the event of a domestic terrorist attack requires an effective, fast and safe (non-toxic and non corrosive) technology for the disinfection. In the ideal case, such technology should be used in different situations, such as disinfection of open, semi-open or closed, and chuvstvitelnosti, include stadium (outdoor), underground station (semi-open), and a large airport or office building (closed).
Decontamination of chemical compounds primarily focused on combat chemical warfare agents, in particular for nerve agents (such as G-agents and V-agents), and substances for skin and blister agents actions (such as mustard gas or simply mustard). Reactions involved in the detoxification of chemicals can be divided into substitution reactions and oxidation reactions. Decontamination of biological S primarily focused on bacterial disputes (e.g., disputes anthrax), which considered all of the microorganisms is the most difficult to destroy.
Hydrolysis chemical substances can be done with water, hydroxyl ions, or other nucleophilic reagents. The rate of hydrolysis of mustard gas and the nature of the products formed in the first place depends on the solubility of the agent in water and the pH of the solution. When detoxification of mustard gas, for example, the molecule forms a first circular sulfanilyl cation which reacts with nucleophilic reagents (Yang (Yang), 1995). Dominius the secondary intermediate product.
In alkaline conditions, hydrolysis of sarin (GB) and soman (GD) is fast and gives the corresponding O-alkyl-methylphosphonous acid. In contrast, the hydrolysis of VX ions of HE-- a more complex process. In addition, to replace thioalkyl group (i.e., rupture of the P-S bond), replaced the O-ethyl group (i.e., the gap of the P-O bond), forming a toxic product, known as EA-2192 (Yang and others(Yang et al.), 1997). Nucleophilic reagents are part of the molecules and separate the intermediate product from the apical position. Electronegative groups, such as the RO group, preferably occupy the apical positions and the groups that are bulky or electron donors, such as RS groups occupy Equatorial positions. The structure of the final product will depend on the balance between picopilot and reactivity of the leaving group. As a result, the gap P-S communication is stimulated by breaking the P-O connection about 5 times. On the other hand, it was found that peroxyketals using ion UN-in an alkaline environment provides quantitative gap P-S communication 30-40 times faster than when using ions of HE-. Such selectivity was associated with a relative alkalinity of any the shares of substitution. An example of such a reagent is o-iodobenzoate (IB). An example that illustrates the catalytic reaction involving this connection, lead moss (Moss) and Zhang (Zhang )(1993). In this example, the IB is converted to iodoxybenzoic (OBI) by oxidation and further in this form is involved in the reaction with S.
In order to give an active group of surface-active properties in the molecule IBA were introduced functional group (moss and others(Moss et al.), 1986). Were also obtained complexes of metal ions with amines having surface-active properties, which, as has been shown, showed catalytic activity in the reactions of substitution. It was also shown that enzymes, such as anhydrous organophosphorus acid, accelerate substitution reactions at G and VX agents.
Methods for oxidizing decontamination can be successfully used for mustard gas and VX (Yang, 1995). Previously, as an oxidising agent used potassium permanganate. Recently it has been proposed mixture KHS5, KHS4and K2SO4. It was shown that some of peroxide compounds (e.g., perborate, peracetic acid, m-chloro-peroxybenzoate acid, monoperoxyphthalic magnesium and benzoyl peroxide) also oxidize chemical to interact bicarbonate ion and hydrogen peroxide, effectively oxidize mustard gas and VX. Polyoxometallate catalyze the oxidation of chemicals at room temperature, however, as is well known, the rate of such reactions is low. Some of these compounds in the interaction with chemical warfare agents change color, indicating the presence of chemical warfare agents.
The threat of BO may be more serious than the threat HO. This is partly due to the high toxicity of agents BO, ease of acquisition and production, and the complexity of their discovery. There are hundreds of biological warfare means available to terrorists. They can be grouped in the following categories: spore-forming bacteria (e.g., anthrax), vegetative bacteria (e.g., plague, cholera), viruses (e.g., smallpox, yellow fever) and bacterial toxins (e.g., botulism, ricin). Believe that all microorganisms are the most difficult to destroy bacterial spores.
Bacterial spores is extremely resistant structures that are formed by some gram-positive bacteria, usually in response to stressful environmental conditions. The most important spore-forming are representatives of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Debate is much more complex images which is a dense layer of insoluble proteins, usually contains a large number of disulfide bonds. The crust consists of peptidoglycan, primary structure of the polymer constructed from cross-linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. The core of disputes contains normal (vegetative) cellular structures, such as ribosomes and nucleoid.
Since their discovery, much research has been conducted to develop methods for the destruction of bacterial spores. Typically, the spores are highly resistant to many common physical and chemical influences, but some antibacterial substances are sporicide. The most powerful bactericidal substances can only suppress the germination and development of the dispute, i.e. are spacestationsim, but not sporicidal. Examples sporicidin reagents used in relatively high concentrations, include glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, oxygen acids of iodine and chlorine, peroxyacids and ethylene oxide. Basically, all these substances are toxic.
There are several ways to destroy spores. These methods can be applied separately or simultaneously. One method involves dissolving or chemical destruction of the outer shell disputes ), 1970) shows that rich S-S (disulfide) bonds the protein shell disputes forms a structure that successfully masks the sites capable of reacting with the oxidant. The chemicals that Deplete the hydrogen and S-S links, increase the sensitivity of spores to oxidants.
Peptidoglycan that is less crosslinked and electronegative, is the bark of disputes. According to another method, cationic interaction between a disinfectant and peptidoglycans can cause collapse of the cortex and loss of stability.
Peptidoglycan spore-forming bacteria contains resemble teichoic acid (i.e polymers of glycerol or ribitol associated phosphate groups). In another mechanism, the polymer of resemble teichoic acids can cause defects in the structure peptidoglycan and thereby make disputes more susceptible to attack.
In addition, some surfactants can increase the potential wettability shell disputes to such an extent that as a result will increase the penetration of oxidants inside the spores.
There is a variety of materials that can be used for disinfection of larger or smaller number of fine chemical or biological weapons. Historically, abyssaria attention was paid to the restoration and reuse of instruments and equipment. It was believed that these tools are irreplaceable and must be replaced in case of application as HO and BO. Thus most of the disinfecting compositions currently used are highly toxic and highly corrosive. In addition, the most used disinfectant materials directed to chemical or biological AGENTS, but not both, and often S subclass HO or BO.
Neutralization of military chemical warfare began with the use of chloride of lime for neutralization of mustard gas. In the future, was created composition, supertropical bleach, a mixture of 93% of calcium hypochlorite and 7% of sodium hydroxide, which is more stable during prolonged storage than bleach and more easily sprayed. Mustard gas reacts with chloride of lime, and the sulfide is oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfon, and dehydrochlorinating formed compounds such as O2S(CHCH2)2. As a result of hydrolysis of G-agents are converted to corresponding postname acid, the latter form of hypochlorite anion with catalytic activity. In acidic solutions VX-agents quickly oxidized bleach at the sulfur atom and dissolve due to proprotionally nitrogen is oxidized, which leads to the absorption of large amounts of chlorine than the stoichiometric amount.
Non-aqueous liquid consisting of 70% of Diethylenetriamine, 28% nanometrology ether of ethylene glycol and 2% of sodium hydroxide, designated as a Disinfecting Liquid No. 2 (DS2), is a highly effective disinfectant agent for chemical warfare. Onomatology ether of ethylene glycol caused in mice tetragonal, therefore, it was proposed to replace the specified ether monometallism ether of propylene glycol, which produced a new composition, designated as DS2P. In addition, DS2 effect on paint, plastic and leather materials. To solve this problem, the duration of contact with DS2, usually abbreviated to 30 minutes and then the object is rinsed with plenty of water. Requires that personnel working with DS2, wore respirators protective glasses for the eyes, and chemical protective gloves. The reaction DS2 and mustard gas are accompanied by elimination of Hcl. Nerve substances react with the formation of DS2 dicterow, which further decompose to form the corresponding phosphonic acid. DS2 is not very strong substance for the destruction of spores. In the case of Bacillus subtilis only 1-log killed (90%) of tetrachlorethylene, 8% of calcium hypochlorite and 1% of a mixture of anionic surfactants, contributes to the dissolution of S, while maintaining the toxicity and corrosive ability (Ford and Newton (Ford and Newton), 1989). In addition, the mixture is unstable and splits.
There are a variety of compositions, which are currently used for decontamination of personnel in the event of an attack HO. These songs were first used by U.S. troops and, as a rule, in civil society, they do not apply. One song, M - set for disinfection of the skin, is an imitation of the Soviet set found in Egyptian tanks inKiparski war (Yom Kippur war). The set consists of two packages: package I contains towel, pre-moistened with phenol, ethanol, sodium hydroxide, ammonia and water. Package II contains a towel, soaked in bleach, and a sealed glass ampoule filled with a solution of zinc chloride. Ampoule package II break, and towel moistened with water immediately prior to use. Contained in a solution of zinc chloride maintains the pH value of an aqueous solution of chloramine-In within 5-6, which otherwise would've jumped to 9.5.
Another song is from the skin and consists of non-woven fibre pillows, filled with a mixture of resin. Resin made of absorptive material based on styrene/divinylbenzene, and carbonated macrostate resin of styrene/divinylbenzene. This resin, having a large surface area, has a cation exchange (sulfonylurea group) parts and anion-exchange groups of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide) areas. Absorptive resin can absorb liquid agents, and reactive resins are designed to stimulate hydrolysis. However, according to recent studies of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or VX agent or simulator mustard gas is not subjected to hydrolysis on the surface of the XE-555 resin for the first 10 days (Leslie and drew (Leslie et al.), 1991). GD-agent was subjected to a slow hydrolysis, with a period of half-transformation approximately 30 hours. In the field rapid disinfection agent is its removal from the skin this way. It turned out that this resin mixture is less corrosive to the skin, than the system M.
The majority of the compositions used for disinfecting biological S both military and civilian agencies, contain hypochlorite anion (i.e., bleach or chlorine-containing solutions). It was shown that solutions containing chlorine from the biological S is a set of hypochlorite solutions, including 2-6% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach), 7% aqueous suspension or solid calcium hypochlorite (NTN), 7-70% aqueous suspension of calcium hypochlorite and calcium oxide (sugar bleach, STB), a solid mixture of calcium hypochlorite and magnesium oxide, with a 0.5% aqueous solution of calcium hypochlorite, superyoung the sodium dihydrophosphate and detergent and 0.5% aqueous solution of calcium hypochlorite, superyoung sodium. While all of these solutions are capable of varying effectiveness to destroy spores, each of them, however, is highly corrosive to equipment and toxic to personnel.
Compositions that were created to detoxify S chemical and biological weapons were used in various ways, including liquids. foams, mists and aerosols. A stable aqueous foam is used in various ways, including fire fighting and combating crime (such as, for example, a prison riot). However, such foam is obtained using anionic surfactants and anionic or nonionic polymers. Unfortunately, such foam is not effective for the chemical decomposition and neutralization of the most IMPRESSIVE combat chemical and biological is active to destroy or neutralize bacteria, viruses and spores, which to a greater or lesser degree associated with biological S.
Draws attention to the possibility of using gaseous reagents as a detoxifying funds if such gas to meet the environmental requirements. The advantage of gaseous disinfecting substances is their ability to penetrate (diffuse), which makes them a necessary complement to other methods of disinfection. Ozone, chlorine dioxide and paraformaldehyde - they were all examined for disinfection. It is known that these reagents are effective against biological RC. The efficiency of ozone to destroy the spores are well established (Raber and drew (Raber et al.), 1998). Although ozone is a promising disinfectant means, experiments Adebusola chemical biological center (EHBS) (Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC)) show, however, that it is inefficient in the case of GD-agents, and in the case of VX agent it leads to the formation of toxic products by splitting R-O relation (Jovanic (Hovanic), 1998).
The necessary decontamination officers, environmentally safe for people and their property, which effectively decontaminated combat chemical and biological S and exert their activity n the a variety of media such as foam, gels, mists, aerosols) that meet the various performance objectives.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
Fig. 1 shows the relevant part of the claimed invention the chemical structures of some chemical warfare agents.
Fig. 2 shows how the components of the foam according to this invention form micelles.
Fig. 3 shows the mechanism of micellar catalysis according to the invention.
Fig. 4 shows the expansion rate and the stability of the foam formed without hydrogen peroxide, according to the exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 shows the degree of expansion and stability of the foam formed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
Fig. 6 shows the results of neutralization of living organisms on paper samples.
Fig. 7 shows the results of sampling conducted G imitating agent (diphenylphosphino).
Fig. 8 shows the results for G imitating agent on a variety of surfaces.
Fig. 9 shows the results of applying foam at different temperatures.
Fig. 10 shows the neutralization of the Century globigii in liquid samples.
Fig. 11 shows the neutralization of the Century globigii in the surface samples.
Fig. 12 shows the neutralization of E. herbicola in plant cells, realizatio dispute Century anthracis in liquid samples.
Fig. 15 shows the neutralization of the dispute Century anthracis in the surface samples.
Fig. 16 shows the neutralization of surrogate for anthrax, B. globigii.
Fig. 17 is a graph showing the results of neutralization, obtained by the action of the foam according to this invention on diphenylchlorophosphine (simulator of chemical warfare agents).
Fig. 18 is a graph showing the results of neutralization, obtained by the action of the foam according to this invention on Malathion (simulator of chemical warfare agents).
Fig. 19 is a graph showing the results of neutralization, obtained by the action of the foam obtained according to this invention papercity gas (mustard gas simulant).
Fig. 20 is a graph showing the results of neutralization dispute Century globigii using foam obtained according to this invention.
Fig. 21 is a graph showing the effects of the foam obtained according to this invention, on the E. herbicola.
A DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION
The purpose of this invention is the creation of a single composition, which will neutralize the adverse effects of chemical and biological poisons, where a poison is any chemical is or biological effects on life processes can cause death, temporary disability or have permanent adverse effects on humans and animals. These poisons include all chemical and biological AGENTS, regardless of their origin or method of obtaining and regardless of where they are produced, to see whether they are in munitions or elsewhere. Neutralization is defined as migration, detoxification, neutralization, or other destruction of poisons to such an extent that the poisons become unable to provide acute adverse effects on humans and animals.
The essence of the present invention is that the composition for neutralizing at least one S contains
at least two solubilizing component, where one of solubilizing component is a cationic surface-active agent, the specified cationic surfactant is a Quaternary ammonium salt;
at least one of solubilizing component is a cationic hydrotropes substance; one reactive component selected from nucleophilic and oxidizing compounds, and water for the formation water compositions;
the Quaternary ammonium salt has a concentration in the range of approximately 0.1-10 wt.% from the aq is a first component, when mixed with water and applied by at least one infected S surface, neutralize the specified at least one S.
At least one S is a biological or chemical warfare agents. These chemical warfare agents selected from the group: o-alkyl-phosphonofluoridate, o-alkyl-phosphoramidocyanidates, o-alkyl,s-2-dialkyl-amino-ethyl-alkylphosphocholine and corresponding alkylated and protonirovanie salt, 2-chlorethylchlormethylsulfide, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, bis(2-chloroethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-propane, 1,4-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-butane, 1,5-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-pentane, bis(2-chloroethylthiomethyl)ether, bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl)ether. Luisita, saxitoxin, ricin, alkyl-phosphonyldifluorides, alkyl-phosphonites, chlorosarin, Hartman, Amiton, 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1 propene, 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate, methylphosphonyl-dichloride, dimethyl-methylphosphonate, dihalogenide dialkyl-phosphoramidon, dialkyl-phosphoramidate, arsenic of trichloride, diphenyl-hydroxyestra acid, quinuclidinyl-3-ol, dialkyl-amino-ethyl-2-chlorides, dialkyl-aminoethan-2-Ola, dialkyl-aminoethane-2-thiols, thiodiglycol, pinacolone alcohols, phosgene, Harlan, hydrocyanic acid, chlorpicrin, phosphorus oxychloride, trichloric the equipment, where these biological S selected from bacterial spores, vegetative bacterial cells and viruses.
The composition additionally contains a water-soluble polymer with a concentration in the range between 0 and 10% of the aqueous composition, it is preferable that the water-soluble polymer selected from polyvinyl alcohol, the guar resin, cation chloride politically-dimethyl-ammonium, non-ionic chloride politically-dimethyl-ammonium and polyacrylamide, and preferably further includes a corrosion inhibitor and, more preferably, the corrosion inhibitor was selected from dimethyl-ethanolamine, triethanolamine, and mixtures ethanolamine salts of C9, 10 and 12 dibasic acids, nitrite dicyclohexylamine and N,N-dibenzylamine.
The composition further comprises a fatty alcohol with 10 to 16 carbon atoms in the molecule with a concentration in the range between 0 and 1% of the aqueous composition, and preferably, the composition was additionally included the catalyst may be selected from iodobenzoate and copper-amine complexes.
Reactive component of the composition may be selected from hydrogen peroxide, urea-hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyalkyl, oximato, alkoxides, aryloxides, aldehydes, pili includes water to produce the aqueous composition, capable of neutralizing chemical and biological agents.
The composition is a set of components that can be binary package including a pre-mixed components, at least two solubilizing substances, water-soluble polymer and a fatty alcohol component consisting of a reactive compound that by mixing with water can be used to neutralize at least one S and more preferably.
The kit can is a ternary package including a first pre-mixed component, an aqueous mixture of Quaternary ammonium salts and cationic hydrotropes substance, the second component may be hydrogen peroxide, and the third component is a salt of bicarbonate.
the pH of the composition is in the range between 8 and 11, for use for decontamination preferably, the pH of the composition was equal to 9.
The composition used in the form of foam, mist, gel, aerosol, liquid as a disinfectant. The foam has an expansion ratio in the range between 20 and 125, which after treatment with the composition of more than 99.99% of the spores Century globigii die within one hour. More than 99,9999% dispute Century globigii die in teeniealice of Tetramethylammonium, bromide of triacetylcellulose and tetrabutylammonium bromide, with a concentration in the range between 0.1 and 10% of the aqueous composition.
The composition, where the cationic surface-active agent is a Quaternary ammonium salt, with a concentration in the range between 0.1 and 10 wt.% the water in the composition. The Quaternary ammonium salt selected from bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium, benzalkonium chloride, chloride benzene, chloride of cetylpyridinium, tetrabutylammonium bromide and polymeric Quaternary compounds.
Composition for neutralizing chemical toxic substances includes at least two solubilizing component, where one of solubilizing component is Quaternary ammonium salt and one of solubilizing component is a cationic hydrotropes substance, and a water-soluble polymer; and one reactive component is selected from nucleophilic and oxidizing compounds and water in the liquid phase, where the specified at least two solubilizing component and one reactive component when mixed with specified water in the liquid phase to form a composition that neutralizes toxic chemical substances.
The composition in the form of foam for neutralization of chemical toxic substances, where a is between about 0.1 and about 10 wt.% the water in the composition. Cationic hydrotropes substance selected from bromide of Tetramethylammonium, bromide of triacetylcellulose and tetrabutylammonium bromide, with a concentration in the range between 0.1 and 10 wt.% the water in the composition, and a water-soluble polymer selected from polyvinyl alcohol, the guar resin, cation chloride polydiallyldimethyl, nonionic chloride polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium, and polyacrylamide.
Composition for neutralizing biological toxic agents includes one solubilizers component selected from Quaternary ammonium salts, cationic hydrotropes substances or fatty alcohol, and one reactive component. Reactive component is an oxidizing agent selected from hydrogen peroxide, urea - hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyalkyl, and preferably an alcohol having 2-6 carbon atoms. After processing the composition more than 99.99% of the spores Century globigii die within approximately one hour.
The method of obtaining water foamable compositions for neutralizing at least one toxic agent that includes the following stages:- the solubilization of cationic hydrotropes substances, at least one alcohol compound with a short chain and water is e, one fatty alcohol; adding a reactive component, the specified reactive component is selected from hydrogen peroxide, urea - hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyalkyl, oximato, alkoxides, aryloxides, aldehydes, peroxymonosulfate, Fenton's reagent, and sodium hypochlorite;
Preferably, the concentration of cationic hydrotropes substances were in the range between 0.1 and 10 wt.%, the concentration of the Quaternary ammonium salt is between 0.1 and 10 wt.%, the concentration of one alcohol compound with a short chain between 0 and 4 wt.%, the concentration of water-soluble polymer is between 0 and 10 wt.%, the concentration of one fatty alcohol is between 0 and 1 wt.% and the concentration of the reactive component is between 0.1 and 10 wt.%.
Compositions and described versions of the present invention can neutralize the infection, but they do not cause a significant adverse impact on the health of humans and animals. This invention is directed to an important subset of chemical and biological compounds. which covers combat chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. However, the present invention also aims to toxic substances that can potentially be detrimental and fatal outcomes. In addition, this invention is directed to satisfy the needs of such a composition, which itself is not toxic and corrosive and can be used by different means and in different types.
Basically the most dangerous chemical and biological compounds, in which case it will be necessary for application of the present invention are chemical and biological S. It turned out that the composition described in this invention, successfully neutralize or detoxify chemical and/or biological ECONOMICAL and can be applied in the case of less hazardous chemical and biological S. Some of the known chemical warfare agents that can be used by terrorists, chemically similar in the sense that they are compounds containing phosphorus and may be modified as the result of nucleophilic attack or oxidation process. These substances include sarin (O-isopropyl-methylphosphonofluoridate), soman (O-pinacolyl-methylphosphonofluoridate), Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) and VX (O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl-methylphosphonothiolate). The chemical structure of these compounds is shown in Fig.1. If used chemical warfare contains phosphorus and himif. These nerve S little soluble in water.
In Fig.1 shows the chemical structure of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide). Mustard gas is chemically much different from the above other chemical warfare agents the fact that he does not have a group containing phosphorus. However, it contains chlorine atoms associated with carbon atoms at both ends of the molecule. These bonds between atoms of carbon and chlorine can also be subjected to hydrolysis, and the Central sulfur atom may be oxidized to the sulfone and sulfoxide, thus making it non-toxic chemical warfare agents. Similarly, nerve S mustard gas, too little is soluble in water.
The mechanism by which the composition of the present invention eliminates or neutralizes a biological WARFARE has not yet been elucidated. In the case of vegetative bacterial cells and viruses the mechanism of destruction, apparently, is the oxidizing influence of oxidizing reagents such as hydrogen peroxide (Russell (Russell, 1990). Typically the hydrogen peroxide in concentrations of 10-20% is used for the destruction of spores (Russell, 1990). It is known that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (4% and below), are not able to destroy bacterial spores. For disinfection Starovoitova destruction of spore-forming agent it must be destroyed.
In the present invention the composition comprises at least one solvent component, which makes chemical and biological toxic agents, especially chemical and biological AGENTS, are more susceptible to the effects of antidotes, and at least one reactive component that affects toxic substances and neutralizes them. At least one reactive component may be oxidizing compound, a nucleophilic compound or their mixture; the connection may be oxidizing and nucleophilic. In the case of chemical warfare agents and is similar to the structure of chemical compounds solvent component is used for the dissolution of poorly soluble chemical warfare agents and activation of nucleophilic/oxidizing compounds in close proximity to chemical warfare agents. This is achieved due to the fact that the nucleophilic compounds are negatively charged, and the solvent component can be cationic surface-active substance which forms a positively charged micelles, thereby arousing nucleophilic reagents, such as hydroxyl ions, hydroperoxide ions, or hidroparkinnovation ions. In the case of biological S solvent component services more accessible to the reactive component and thereby stimulates the ability of the compositions to kill or neutralize.
Despite the fact that the composition described in this invention, has a certain similarity with commercially available detergents and shampoos containing cationic surfactants for the formation of the micellar solutions (see, for example, Unaa (Juneja), U.S. patent No. 4,824,602); these solutions do not contain reactive compound, which according to this invention could neutralize toxic compounds. In addition, the composition proposed by Juneja (Juneja), do not contain cationic surfactants and cationic girotropnye substances; songs of Unaa (Juneja) contain anionic girotropnye substances.
Fig.2 shows an example of cationic micelles, which are formed with the use of a composition of the present invention. In the aquatic environment 25 hydrolyzable or oxidize chemical toxic substance (e.g., chemical warfare agents) 5, localized inside the micelle 10, containing an aggregate of surfactant molecules with hydrophobic tails 15, which form the inner core of the micelle and the hydrophilic heads 20, are concentrated on the surface of the micelle. As indicated above, these positively charged heads attract nucleophilic compounds, resulting in the reaction rate at which differs from the situation, observed in aqueous compositions containing anionic surfactants, where the micelles are negatively charged and repel hydroxyl ions.
Fig.3 shows the mechanism of the catalyzed nucleophilic agent typical reaction, consistent with the principles of the present invention. This figure shows a portion of the toxic substances 35, which is subjected to nucleophilic attack. In this example, attacked the ordinary covalent bond is a connection 40 between the phosphorus atoms and fluorine. Due to the nature of the double bond between the phosphorus atoms and oxygen according to well-known chemists of the phenomenon of partial charges shown in the drawing, the phosphorus atom is a carrier of positive partial charge and therefore attracts nucleophilic group such as a hydroxyl group. The reaction occurs, where as the nucleophilic agent is a hydroxyl group in the molecule toxic substances fluorine substituted hydroxyl group and is hydrofluoric acid
It should be noted that this mechanism of nucleophilic attack decontamination of such toxic substances as chemical warfare agents can function in the presence of the x groups, which in this invention is able to perform this function. In addition, this mechanism of disinfection and neutralization may function primarily in cases where a toxic substance is a carrier of a chemical group containing phosphorus, and vulnerable to nucleophilic attack. For example, a similar reaction occurs in instances where a cyanic group (as in the case of Tabun) associated with phosphorus instead of the above-mentioned fluorine. Similarly (as in VX-agents), due to similar nucleophilic attack and hydrolysis can be removed and larger chemical group, resulting in a substance loses its toxicity. In the specific case of VX agent gidroksilnye ion is not the preferred nucleophilic agent, as it is not specific in the decomposition of P-S communication; it also splits and P-O bond. This is undesirable because the product of this reaction also has a high toxicity. Therefore, to detoxify VX agent it is better to use other nucleophilic reagents. An example of a nucleophilic reagent that specifically cleave the P-S bond is hydropeaking anion.
Hydrolysis occurs also in the case of mustard gas, although the mechanism of nucleophilic attack is not the same in accuracy is that mechanism, is
The hydrolysis is only one of the mechanisms by which such toxic substances as chemical warfare agents, can be decontaminated. As the next example shows, the oxidation leads to the decontamination of chemical warfare agents and other chemical compounds in accordance with the principles of the present invention
One of the ways of making the composition of the present invention will neutralize toxic substances such as chemical and biological AGENTS, and contains solubilizing compounds that include both cationic surfactant and cationic hydrotropes substance, and at least one reactive compound, where the reactive compound may be either a nucleophilic substance, or oxidizing agent (oxidant), or their mixture. Although the use of a composition according to this invention is focused on chemical and biological AGENTS, this composition can be used for disinfecting other toxic substances, both chemical and biological, which can be subjected to hydrolysis or oxidation composition described in this invention. Compositeactivity substances. For neutralization of soluble toxic compounds it solubilizated cationic surface-active agent and to it is added a cationic hydrotropes substance - similar surface-active ionic material with a short hydrocarbon segments in order to increase the solubility of toxic substances in the aquatic environment and a corresponding increase of the rate of reaction between reactive component and toxic substance. In the manufacture of detergents to solubilize surfactants and soil are typically used anionic girotropnye compounds, such as surface-active compositions of the sodium-xylene; however, in the context of the present invention to achieve compatibility with cationic surfactants are cationic girotropnye substances. To further enhance the solubility and bulk viscosity, you can choose to add water-soluble polymer. Cationic hydrotropic reagent significantly increases the rate of hydrolysis of toxic substances. Used for neutralization of biological S solubilizers agent may be cationic surface-active agent, an alcohol such as a fatty alcohol series, or cationic hydreka toxic agents, and act as bactericides and algaecides. Among these surfactants are Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride, chloride of cetylpyridinium and bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium. Cationic surfactants, fatty alcohols and cationic girotropnye substances are designed to make DNA biological OPTIONS available for reacting compounds. Therefore, a mixture of cationic surfactants and cationic hydrotropes connection consists of the desired set solubilizing agents that make toxic compounds, especially chemical and biological AGENTS, is available for reacting compounds. After solubilizers connection will make available a toxic agent for reactive compounds, the latter reacts with the toxic agent by oxidation or by reaction of hydrolysis, which leads to the neutralization of the toxic agent. Depending on the concentrations of the various components that are used in the compositions of this invention, about an hour neutralized more than 99,999%, and often 99,99999% of the biological S.
For the purposes of this invention, cationic surface-active Veselie benzalkonium, and polymeric Quaternary compounds. Examples of relevant hydrotropic components include the bromide of Tetramethylammonium, bromide of triacetylcellulose, tetrabutylammonium bromide and other relevant Examples of the water-soluble polymers include polyvinyl alcohol, guar gum, (cationic and nonionic) chloride of polydiallyldimethyl, polyacrylamides and other
Fatty alcohols can contain from 10 to 16 carbon atoms. (Usually, the term "fatty alcohol" means a primary alcohol with a straight chain containing 8 to 20 carbon atoms). Joint function of the polymer and the fatty alcohol is increasing bulk and surface viscosity of the leafs foam and increase the stability of the foam relative to the drainage and destruction of bubbles. Other substances that may be added to the composition include alcohols, short-chain (at a concentration of about 0-4 wt.%), used to solubilize, and ether glycol, which is also used to solubilize fatty alcohols.
A reactive component that should be added, may be oxidizing agent (oxidant) such as a peroxide, such as hydrogen peroxide, urea complex with hydrogen peroxide and percarbonate added Air of potassium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate, when the oxidant is a peroxide compound such as hydrogen peroxide leads to the formation of gidroperekisi carbonate, which is particularly vigorously reacts with biological toxic agents and neutralize them.
Other substances that can be used instead of carbonate compounds include borate, molybdate, sulfate and tungstate. In one implementation of this invention, the hydrogen peroxide is the main reactive reagent and to the composition is added bicarbonate connection. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen peroxide can be activated by bicarbonate education hydropeaking carbonate groups (HCO-4), with high reactivity (Richardson (Richardson et al.), 1998; Wagner and Yang (Wagner and Yang), 1998). Further research showed that the oxidation of sulfides (e.g., mustard gas) hydrogen peroxide significantly accelerated in the presence of bicarbonate ion, as hydropeaking bicarbonate is an energetic oxidizer (Drago et (Drago et al.), 1997). In the case of mustard gas Gidropress bicarbonate oxidizes the Central sulfur atom to a sulfone and/or sulfoxide. Other reactive compounds are nucleophilic Socie as methoxide and ethoxide, and aryloxides, such as arylsubstituted benzosulfimide.
By neutralizing the biological S was found that the synergistic effect between cationic surfactants and hydrogen peroxide/bicarbonate (i.e., getoperationname carbonate groups) causes a high sporontocidal activity, which manifests itself in the influence of composition on disputes. Possible mechanism of destruction of the dispute is that the cationic surfactant softens and destroys the membrane of the spores, forming gaps in it, through which the hydrogen peroxide can penetrate and affect disputes DNA. This Energeticheskiy effect was confirmed by the experimental results. Other oxidizing compounds that can be used to neutralize the dispute, include aldehydes, such as glutaric aldehyde concentrations (1-4%), peroxymonosulfate (1-4%), Fenton's reagent (a mixture of iron and peroxide), and sodium hypochlorite.
The following table is a list of the components of the composition of one mode of implementing the present invention. Given the limits of concentrations, effectively neutralizing chemical and biological AGENTS, where as the carrier of ispolzovaniya, described in this invention include o-alkyl-phosphonofluoridates, such as sarin and soman, o-alkyl-phosphoramidocyanidates, such as Tabun, o-alkyl, S-2-dialkyl-amino-ethyl-alkylphosphocholine and corresponding alkylated or protonirovanie salts such as VX, connection type mustard gas, including 2-chlorethylchlormethylsulfide, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, bis(2-chloroethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-propane, 1,4-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-butane, 1,5-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-pentane, bis(2-chloroethylthiomethyl)ether and bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl)ether. Luisita, including 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine, bis-(2-vinyl chloride)chloroarsine, Tris(2-vinyl chloride)arsine, bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine and bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine, saxitoxin, ricin, alkyl-phosphonyldifluorides, alkyl-phosphonites, chlorosarin, Hartman, Amiton, 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene, 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate, methylphosphonyl-dichloride, dimethyl-methylphosphonate, dialkyl-phosphoramidate dihalide, dialkyl-phosphoramidate, arsenic trichloride, diphenylhydrazine acid, quinuclidin-3-ol, dialkyl-amino-ethyl-2-chlorides, dialkyl-aminoethan-2-Ola, dialkyl-aminoethane-2-thiols, thiodiglycol, pinacolone alcohols, phosgene, Harlan, hydrocyanic acid, chlorpicrin, ACS is sulfur and thionyl-chloride and other These and other chemical compounds can be neutralized (e.g., detoksicirutuyu) nucleophilic and oxidizing compositions described in this invention.
In addition, the compositions of the present invention to increase the reaction rate were successfully included catalysts. For example, were used iodobenzoate and copper-amine complexes, and found that they increase the reaction rate. To promote other reactions (e.g. oxidation) with S in the song, you can add other substances. We should expect that such additives will allow specialists to adapt to the existing requirements without conducting unnecessary experiments and adhering to the principles and objectives of this application and the attached claims.
One advantage of this invention is that the reactive compound and the carrier (usually water) can be stored separately from other components of the composition prior to its application. The Department responds connections from other components of the composition it is necessary to increase the storage stability. As usually, water is available for areas requiring decontamination, it is not necessary to pre-mix with water other sostavleno time to mix with water. This helps to reduce transport costs. Therefore, the composition of the present invention is best used in the form of a package.
In another implementation of the proposed composition, which is mainly used for neutralization of toxic chemical agents, such as chemical warfare agents. This composition contains a solubilizing substances, such as cationic surfactants and cationic girotropnye connection, and at least one reactive component, where the reactive component may be a nucleophilic compound, oxidizing the compound (oxidizing agent) or their mixture. Optionally, you can also add a water-soluble polymer. This composition is added to such media as water in the liquid phase for application to chemical toxic compound. After solubilizers connection will increase the availability of toxic agent for the reactive component, the latter mainly mild oxidant such as peroxide compound, reacts with the toxic agent by oxidation or by reaction of hydrolysis, which leads to the neutralization of the toxic agent.
In the following implementation of the proposed composition, which is mainly used to neutralize bi the IDT-active substances, cationic hydrotropes compounds and fatty alcohol and at least one reactive component, where the reactive component may be a nucleophilic compound, oxidizing the compound (oxidizing agent) or their mixture. This composition is added to such media as water in the liquid phase for treatment of the affected biological DINING area. After solubilizers connection will increase the availability of biological RH reactive component, the latter reacts with it by oxidation or by reaction of hydrolysis, which leads to neutralization of the RC. Mainly as a reactive component is hyperoxygenate connection, which is formed in the interaction hydroperoxides connection with bicarbonate compound, for example, with potassium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate.
One of the ways of making the composition of this invention consists of the following components.
In addition, if desired, can also be soluble polymer is in the range of concentrations of 0-10 wt.%. This composition is particularly effective for neutralization of toxic biological agents. The composition can be easily applied or dispersing in the and as camillejimene-bromide. Fatty alcohols can contain from 10 to 16 carbon atoms. Examples of relevant hydrotropic substances can serve tetraphenylarsonium-bromide, triacetylcellulose-bromide and tetrabutylammonium-bromide. The combination of bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide forms oxidant (hydroperoxidation group with high reactivity), which is the actual shredder dispute.
This composition is not toxic for humans and animals, mainly is not corrosive and can be used for neutralizing both chemical and biological S. Composition allows you to disinfect populated areas and places with sensitive equipment. The composition is particularly effective for neutralization of biological AGENTS, such as anthrax. When 1-hour treatment of spores of Bacillus anthracis (i.e., anthrax spores) the solution is non-toxic and necrosing composition (described below), mortality dispute amounted to 7-log. (99,99999%).
To achieve the desired degree of detoxification (decontamination) the composition described in this invention can be applied to the infected areas in different ways and in different forms. Effective form for application of the composition is a foam. As an integral part of this by stability for quick neutralization of toxic agents, especially chemical and biological S. Foaming composition is based on a surfactant system, with hydrotropism components to solubilize poorly soluble toxic agents and to increase the rate of reaction with nucleophilic reagents. The composition also includes a mild oxidizing compounds for neutralization of biological AGENTS, as well as fatty alcohols and water-soluble polymers to increase the physical stability of the foam.
This technique of neutralization for some reasons, attractive both for civilian and for military application, including 1) you can use one neutralizing solution for chemical and biological AGENTS, 2) the composition is to be applied quickly, 3) the composition can be used in the form of a powder, aerosol, or vapor, 4) the harm caused to health and related negative factors minimum, 5) requires minimal logistical support, 6) consumes the minimum amount of liquid and has no long-term environmental impacts; and (7) the composition is relatively cheap. This foaming composition of this invention can be applied by various methods. One of the effective methods is based is arienne space. It turned out that the foam obtained by this method have a maximum degree of expansion of approximately 60-100:1 and, depending on environmental conditions (temperature, wind, relative humidity) stable for approximately 1-4 hours. The foam can be formed also by systems compressed air - foam composition, where the air is directly injected into the liquid foam. Formed by this method, the foam usually has a degree of expansion of approximately 20 to 60:1 and stable for 1-4 hours.
Foam can be applied to different devices depending on its volume. To do this successfully used similar to a fire extinguisher manual machines, and large-scale foaming apparatus. It was shown that using these devices can be successfully used to decontaminate chemical and biological S and their analogues. When chemical warfare tests on living creatures were conducted with GD-agent (soman), VX agent, and HD agent (mustard gas). Half-time for the decontamination of these agents in the system foam is 2-20 minutes. In the case of biological S mortality of anthrax spores 7-log. (99,99999%) was achieved with the 1-hour exposure in the foam. In another study on the biological S was p the
In the compositions of this invention used the principles of cationic micellar catalysis and solubilisers the ability of cationic hydrotropic substances to dissolve poorly soluble by other toxic agents. The compositions described in this invention can be applied in the form of foam by using well-known specialists pantoprozole technology. For the purposes of the present invention is particularly suitable foaming machine, which used the principles of the Venturi, where through the blowing nozzle air is blown preferably from the contaminated environment, and not from another source. This is caused by direct contact between infected air and the constituent ingredients of the foam. This significantly increases the efficiency of neutralization of S.
Using the foaming compositions of this invention in combination with a mechanical foaming apparatus, well known to experts, you can achieve this quickly obtain a large number of aerosol and vapor to neutralize warfare agents. If you use pantoprozole the equipment used during injection of the surrounding contaminated air contained in the air toxic ability of the composition, described in this invention.
Foam is a neutralizing composition, which can be used for two General purposes: (1) in the case of chemical or biological attack to ensure that affected the ability of quick response and willingness to deal with the potential consequences of the application of S; and (2) to fully restore the equipment after the attack.
For the affected object is extremely important decontamination of buildings and equipment at an appropriate level and in a very short time so that the causes of infection were isolated and fixed. During recovery time is less important than the accompanying destruction, public opinion and subsequent recovery (i.e., full decontamination), which are more important. Requires basic composition effective against all chemical and biological AGENTS, which are suitable for use in various building materials commonly used in civil objects. The composition should be applied in large quantities, while being relatively harmless to people and their property. In addition, it should neutralize chemical and biological S at the time of the invention meets these goals. Foaming composition of this invention is effective for neutralization of chemical and biological S. It is environmentally friendly to people and their property, effective on the surfaces of almost all materials and can be incorporated into a variety of media (foam, gel, mist, aerosol), which together satisfy a wide variety of performance targets.
In addition, the composition of this invention was able to neutralize a large part of the toxic substances in the form of spray and steam and can be used in a variety of options for decontamination equipment, open areas, facilities and buildings. The composition of the present research can be applied also when disinfection of animals and inanimate objects.
Foaming composition of this invention is based on the cationic surface-active system with cationic hydrotropes substances to enhance solubilization of chemical agents and reactive abilities with nucleophilic reagents. To foam is also a low concentration of a mild oxidizing agent (peroxide compound such as hydrogen peroxide). The hydrogen peroxide reacts with the bicarbonate in the data ingredients composition also contains a water-soluble cationic polymer to increase the bulk viscosity of the solution and fatty alcohols to increase the surface viscosity of the composition.
It is necessary to mix the components of the foam according to the defined procedure to dissolve the key ingredients, such as polymer and fatty alcohols. Water and cationic hydrotropic component are mixed in a container. Further to this mixture is added an alcoholic component, or mixture of alcohol compounds. Water-soluble polymer is added slowly to avoid the formation of solid particles, and dissolved. The polymer is not a required component, and is added to increase the viscosity of the mixture and formation of a more stable foam. To increase the solubility of the polymer can be adjusted pH. After that add the cationic surfactant. To increase the surface tension and stability of the foam type fatty alcohol such as dodecanol. As a solvent for fatty alcohols usually used monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol or other similar solvent. The solution can be stored for later use. The process of preparing a composition for a single implementation method described in example 3. After this, the solution can be mixed with a reactive component, such as a peroxide compound. Usually for practical use solution pre is Yes, is added to the composition immediately before use, as the reactivity decreases. It should be noted that the hydrogen peroxide can be added to the foam in the form of a solid substance (urea peroxide), which is considered safe for shipping and handling. This eliminates the need to use highly concentrated liquid hydrogen peroxide.
Most types of foams can be stored and used in the form of concentrates. Available typical foam to extinguish the fire have a concentration of 0.1%-6%. In other words, in the case of 0.1% concentrate per 100 gallons of foam prepared from a 0.1 gallon dilution and 99.9 gallons of water. In the case of 6% of concentrate per 100 gallons of foam prepared from 6 gallons of solution concentrate and 94 gallons of water. Foaming composition of this invention was prepared in the form of a concentrate. Were created by 14%-25% of the compositions (i.e., if 25% of concentrate per 100 gallons of foam prepared from 25 gallons of solution concentrate and 75 gallons of water). One example of the composition of foam concentrate described in example 4. Foamable concentrate does not contain the peroxide and bicarbonate. These composite Koya.
A useful attribute of the foam described in this invention is that the composition is very stable and has a medium or high degree of expansion. The degree of expansion of the foam is determined by the ratio between the volume of the resulting foam and the original liquid volume. This property is important because the higher the degree of expansion allows you to use less water in the case of disinfection. However, if the expansion is too great, the wording may not be enough water for effective decontamination. In addition, with a high degree of expansion (above 60) it is difficult to receive a stream of foam, which can be directed in different directions (i.e., the foam just falls straight down as soon as leaves blowing nozzle). However, the foam with a high expansion rate (approximately 80-120) extremely effective to fill the volume of space and to cover large surfaces. On the other hand, foam with an average degree of expansion (approximately 20-60) very effective for covering special purposes, for covering vertical surfaces and lower sides of the horizontal surfaces. The composition described in this invention can be applied to obtain a foam with an average corresponding generating foam nozzle and regulation of the bulk viscosity of the composition. After the release of the composition from foaming nozzle bulk viscosity of the composition determines the degree of its expansion, which allows fluid to direct a cone nozzles at the appropriate location to form a foam. All the blowing nozzles are designed for use with liquid compositions, specific volume, the viscosity of which varies within certain limits. Water-soluble polymer was added in the appropriate concentration to achieve the desired bulk viscosity, suitable for used foaming nozzle. In the foaming system with compressed air, the degree of expansion is controlled by changing the volume of air injected into the liquid flow.
An important physical property of foam is its stability. The stability of the foam is measured by the time of its palutena, which is defined as the time required for the foam to lose half of its initial liquid volume. For example, if 1 l of a solution used for the formation of foam, then his palutena is defined as the time required to foam glass 500 ml. This property is very important as a stable foam leads to a longer contact between the composition and chemical or biological O is velichenie surface activity of the liquid can be controlled drainage of liquid from the film. The higher surface viscosity, the greater the stability of the foam. Fatty alcohols increase surface viscosity due to their location between the surface molecules and increase resistance. Thus, the composition flows in the liquid film, forming a more stable bubbles. Foaming composition of this invention forms a foam with a time of palutena lasting several hours.
Fig.4 shows the expansion rate and the stability of the foam one method of implementing the present invention in which the foam is formed without hydrogen peroxide in the case of a foam with suction air. The compositions of the degree of extension 125 and the time palutena approximately 3 hours. In Fig.5 shows the same data for the complete foaming of the composition (i.e., hydrogen peroxide). In this case, the degree of expansion is 87, and the time of palutena 2.25 hours.
Studies have been conducted with the use of a composition of the present invention to determine the effectiveness of the neutralization of chemical and biological S. Working with chemical warfare agents has focused on two General classes of S - nerve S and S skin blister agent actions. Examples of nerve agents vkluchenie was conducted with simulated chemical warfare agents. In the case of G-agents as a simulator was used diphenylchlorophosphine. In the case of the VX simulant was Malathion (O,S-diethylphenyl-phosphonothioate). In the case of mustard gas imitators were papercity gas (2-heoretically) and semi-2-chloroethylthiomethyl.
Tests on animals were conducted in Illinois Institute Institute Tehnologichnih research (Elite) (Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (I1TRI)) and Egbuson chemical biological center (EHBS) (Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) at Aberdeen test center of the U.S. armed forces in Maryland. (U. S. Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD). A number of surface testing was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the foam. The General Protocol on the surface of the test below.
Method of surface testing
1. Vaccinated test coupon with a known mass of chemical warfare agents or simulator.
2. Wait 15 minutes.
3. Lather on the test coupon.
4. Wait a specified period of time.
5. Extraservice ariagiovanni S (or simulator) acetonitrile.
6. Analyze the extract by gas chromatography to determine the mass of unreacted S.
7. In the case of G-agents and mustard gas all the tests are performed during maataram.
Fig.6 shows the results of the decontamination of living organisms on paper samples. Extremely rapid decontamination is achieved for soman and VX. Decontamination of mustard gas has been slower, but still very effective. Research13P NMR of VX simulant O-ethyl-S-ethyl-phenylphosphonite using foam of the present invention showed an exclusive cleavage of the P-S connection. Therefore, a toxic product, which usually is formed by the cleavage of P-O communication VX, should not result in the neutralization of foam.
Foaming composition was effective for neutralization, in this case for decontamination of surfaces of various substrates such as wood, plastic, carpet lining, concrete). The results of tests conducted with the simulator G-agent (diphenyl-chlorophosphate), shown in Fig.7. The exposure time of the foam is 15 minutes.
The composition was also effective against imitators substances hub. Below are the results for simulator G-agent on a variety of surfaces (Fig.8). The simulator was concentrated by 5% To 125 polymer (Rohm & Haas, Inc.). R125 is an organic polymer. Polymers are often added to rastonirovali the impact of environmental conditions (i.e., sun, wind, rain) and to make the matter more effective.
Similar studies have been conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the efficiency of neutralization of foam. Neutralization of VX simulator (Oh,S-diethylphenyl-phosphonothioate) was evaluated at 4 and 23° C (room temperature). The results, shown in Fig.9, show that the foam is effective (though not to the same extent) even at low temperatures.
Tests on animals have been conducted in the EEAS. Two types of living organisms were subjected to kinetic (speed of reaction) tests and tests on the risk of contact. Were used the following testing methods.
Methodology EEAS to test the speed of response
1. All tests were conducted on the substances CASARM-classification (Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material - Standard analytical reference chemicals ).
2. To test solutions to neutralize the hydrogen peroxide was added on the day of the test.
3. All tests were conducted in stir reaction vessel equipped with a thermal shirt, at 25° C.
4. Neutralizing solution (100 ml) was placed in a reaction vessel and stirred for a period sufficient to achieve ravnovesie the beam foam test for GD and HD were conducted at pH 8. Tests for VX were conducted at pH of 10.5 (regulated 3 N NaOH).
6. At the beginning of the test, 2 ml of the agent were placed in the reaction vessel.
7. Intervals (10 minutes or 1 hour), the samples were removed from the reaction vessel. The samples were added to the solvent and analyzed on a gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to determine the unreacted agent.
8. All the samples were analyzed three times.
Methodology EEAS testing the risk of contact
1. All substances were CASARM classification. All experiments were performed at room temperature (23° C).
2. Applied the following test coupons:
a. Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) - MIL-C-53039A, Polyurethane Topcoat with Primer MIL-P-53022B epoxy.
b. Navy Non-Skid Paint - MIL-C-24667A.
c. Aircraft (AC) Topcoat MIL - PRF-85285C.
d. Navy Alkyd Paint DOD-E-24634, color 26270 (grey mist).
3. All test coupons boundary was marked in black in bold pencil.
4. Each test coupon (placed horizontally) was contaminated with 2 dropsl VX TGD (hub GD), or HD with density (concentration) of 1 mg/cm2.
5. S was covered with a glass cover for 1 hour to prevent evaporation.
6. Fresh neutralizing to the of n of 1 mg of neutralizing substances within 15 minutes (in the case of foam - the test was performed with a foaming liquid, and not with foamed material).
8. After 15 minutes neutralizuoja substance was washed with contaminated coupons (front and rear) deionized/distilled water (37 ml) using a laboratory pump. Pump filed 30 ml/min
9. The coupons were dried in air for 2 minutes, then 20 cm2a piece of dental braces were placed on the contaminated area. Top dental props pomedli a weight of 1 kg
10. After contact with a duration of 15 minutes from dental struts S was extracted 18 ml of chloroform for 15 minutes.
11. Not vstupivshie in the reaction of S extracted solvent was analyzed by GC (gas chromotography).
The results of testing the speed of reaction, showing the weight percent of the neutralized chemical warfare below. The results were compared with DS2.
The results of these tests clearly show that the foam described in this invention are very effective for neutralizing chemical warfare agents. It is also clear that DS2 is a very effective disinfectant solution, and the reasons to search for his replacement are high toxicity of vozmozhnosti use foam during processing personnel, involved in the decontamination of infected premises. When using foam for decontamination of premises used chemical or biological S likely to be known precisely. In this case, the pH of the composition can be easily adjusted to a value optimal for this RC. This regulation can be accomplished by using pre-normalized packs, in which is placed a base (such as NaOH) together with the solid hydrogen peroxide, and which will be added to the liquid foaming composition immediately before use. The composition will operate at pH values of approximately 5-12. By neutralizing various chemical and biological S using the compositions of the present invention, the optimum value of pH neutralization mainly lies in the range of 8-11. However, for the first smitten concrete applied S is mostly unknown. Therefore, you should choose an intermediate value of pH at which the composition is effective to react with all of the RC. Such an intermediate pH value, due to the need, will be a compromise. Suitable for first affected by the pH was approximately 9. Neutralizing effectiveand S or simulator, neutralized during different exposure times. (Eventually, the neutralization of the tested chemical and biological S can be performed for a period of about 2-60 minutes, depending on the type S).
Work with biological S focused on the most difficult to destroy substances - bacterial disputes (e.g., Bacillus anthracis or anthrax). Numerous tests were conducted with spore-forming bacteria Bacillus globigii (generally recognized simulator anthrax) to determine the efficiency of the foaming compositions of this invention when the destruction of these organisms. Tests were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of foam destruction simulator plague (Erwinia herbicola - vegetative bacterial cells) and simulator smallpox virus (bacteriophage MS-2). In addition, testing with live agents were conducted with Bacillus anthracis ANR-1, at Illinois Institute of Institute of Technological research in Chicago (Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute in Chicago, I1). The foam was effective shredder for all of these organisms.
There were two main types of tests to verify the effectiveness of the foam destruction of biologists is directly in the liquid solution, from which was obtained a foam. After a certain period of time, the microorganisms were separated from solution by centrifugation, washed and inoculated on plates with appropriate biological environment to determine whether they were killed. General test Protocol for testing the solution with the use of spores and vegetative cells below. The tests were used microorganisms Bacillus globigii (ATCC 9372) and Bacillus anthracis ANR-1. In tests on vegetative cells was used microorganism (ATCC 39368). The bacteriophage MS-2 (ATCC V) bacterial host Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) was used to test for inactivation of viruses.
Protocol testing solutions:
1. Prepare a washed suspension of microorganisms in sterile deionized water. The population should be approximately 5× 107microorg./Jr.
2. Place 5 ml of the suspension of microorganisms in each of the 12 test tubes centrifuge. Centrifuge the tubes for 15 minutes to precipitate microbes. Discard the supernatant.
3. Add 5 ml of the test solution in each tube.
4. Resuspendable microorganisms in the test solutions.
5. After exposure for a specified time (15 minutes, 30 minutes, and ECENA 30 minutes for deposition of microorganisms.
6. Discard the supernatant and resuspending microorganisms in 15 ml of sterile deionized water.
7. Repeat the process of rinsing twice. After the final washing cycle resuspendable microorganisms in 5 ml of fresh sterile nutrient broth.
8. Wisata on cups each test solution and the original suspension of microbes in Brain Heart Infusion Agar (Bacillus globigii and Bacillus anthracis) or Nutrient Agar (Erwinia herbicola), serial dilutions of 100-10-7and incubate at 37° C for 48 hours.
9. Count cups to determine the killing efficiency for each of the test solution.
Protocol testing solutions viruses
1. Grow 18-hour culture of E. coli in tripeny soy broth, at 37° C.
2. Do vaccinated fresh trypsinogen soy broth culture of E. coli. Incubate this grafting material for 3-6 hours at 37° C under continuous shaking.
3. Add the original MS-2 the following solutions:
A. to sterile deionized water;
b. to the foamable composition.
4. An hour later dilute the tested solutions tenfold sterile deionized water. Centrifuge and remove the supernatant. Resuspended is zbawienia 100-10-7.
6. In test tubes with a layer of melted agar (tripcony soy broth with 1% agar), add 0.1 ml of the phage suspension and 1 ml culture of E. coli. Mix and pour on a plate with trypsinogen soy agar.
7. After 18-24 hours incubation at 37° To consider units of plague bacteria on plates with trypsinogen soy agar.
Surface tests were conducted only on the destruction of spores (Bacillus globigii and Bacillus anthracis). This Protocol is also listed below.
The Protocol for surface testing
1. Prepare a suspension of washed spores in sterile deionized water, the concentration of approximately 5× 108spores/ml.
2. Evenly spread 0.2 ml of a suspension of spores in nine frosted glass slides (22 × 30 mm) and dry air in a sterile environment within 24 hours.
3. Place six of the glass slides in a separate sterile glass beaker 400 ml
4. Place 100 ml of the following test solutions in a separate sterile glass beaker, 250 ml:
A. foam (without hydrogen peroxide);
b. foam + 4% hydrogen peroxide.
5. For foam skip through the test solution air ultra-high purity in the form of bubbles. Allow the foam to flow in mentor is source. Close the sterile beaker with a lid and wait one hour. Repeat this step until 3 glass slide is placed in the test Solution "a", and three placed in the test Solution "b"
6. After 1-hour exposure sterile remove the glass slide from the beaker 400 ml and place it in the beaker, 250 ml, containing 50 ml of sterile deionized water (i.e., in the rinsing solution) and equipped with a stirrer. Stir for two hours at an average speed. Repeat this step for all of the slides that were placed in the test solution (i.e., for all six slides).
7. Place three untreated glass slide (control) in a beaker of 250 ml containing 50 ml of sterile deionized water and stir for two hours.
8. Immediately collect the solution destroyed the foam from each 400 ml of the test beaker using a sterile pipette 10 ml. Make a note of the volume of the collected solution foam. Place the assembled foam solution in a centrifuge tube and dilute tenfold sterile deionized water. Centrifuge within 30 minutes.
9. Carefully drain the liquid and resuspendable disputes in 15 ml of sterile deionized water. Repeat wash two more retailate on the Cup, on Brain Heart Infusion Agar (or an appropriate environment in the case of anthrax) spores obtained from a solution of the foam after washing step), by series dilution 100-10-7and incubate at 37° C for 48 hours.
11. Wisata on cups, on Brain Heart Infusion Agar (or in an appropriate environment, in the case of anthrax) spores that are in the laundering fluid, by series dilution 100-10-7and incubate at 37° C for 48 hours.
12. Count cups and calculate the total number of received dispute.
13. Wisata on cups, on Brain Heart Infusion Agar (or an appropriate environment in the case of anthrax) initial suspension solution of the dispute by series dilution 100-10-7and incubate at 37° C for 48 hours.
14. Count cups and calculate the total number of spores, initially placed in a glass Cup.
All experiments were performed under aseptic conditions to reduce the possibility of contamination of indigenous microorganisms. Staged control experiments to ensure that the conditions of the experiments were sterile. To a solution of foam peroxide was added immediately before testing. the pH of the final composition (foam + 4% peroxide in rtest (specific as 7 log mortality or mortality 99,99999% of the originally existing biological components) dispute Century globigii and B. anthracis was achieved by a 1-hour exposure in the foam during the test both in solution and on the surface.
- full mortality (7 log) cells of E. herbicola was achieved after 15 minutes when tested in solution.
full decontamination (4 log) of bacteriophage MS-2 was achieved after 60 minutes of exposure in a solution of foam (note: only tested period of time was 60 minutes).
The results of all these tests is shown in Fig.10-15.
In addition to the above tests, the various components of the foam were individually tested for their sporobolus efficiency. In the test solutions spores of Bacillus globigii were investigated regarding the following components of the foamable composition.
Deionized water (control).
Solution of cationic surfactant in deionized water, 3%.
Solution of cationic hydrotropes substance in deionized water, 3.8 per cent.
Alcohol mixture of 2% (Isobutanol 36.4%, and monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol is 56.4% and 1-dodecanol 7,3%) in deionized water.
The peroxide 4% and sodium bicarbonate 4% in deionized water.
Speer is-active substance 3% hydrogen peroxide 4% in deionized water.
Cationic hydrotropes substance 3.8%, the hydrogen peroxide 4% and sodium bicarbonate 4% in deionized water.
Cationic surfactant 3% hydrogen peroxide 4% and sodium bicarbonate 4% in deionized water.
The results of these tests are shown in Fig.16. The results clearly show the synergistic interactions between cationic surface-active agent, hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate, which explains the strong sporoboleae effect foaming compositions of this invention.
To foamable compositions of this invention can add an additional component to inhibit corrosion of the metal, which is subjected to foam. In one implementation method of this invention dimethyl-ethanolamine was added to prevent corrosion of the substrate steel, far from diminishing the detoxification of models of chemical and biological S. In fact, this substance possibly enhanced chemical decontamination, because you know that ethanolamine catalyzes the hydrolysis reaction of some chemical warfare agents, such as G-agents. Limits for adding dimethyl-ethanolamine, 0.1 to 10%. Other potential corrosion inhibitors include triethanolamine, and mixtures of salts ETANA composition of this invention has been successfully applied in small devices such as fire extinguisher, equipped with cartridges of compressed CO2, portable devices, in which the pressure occurs when their accessions to the fire pump and large pumps military type. Each such foaming device uses a foaming nozzle, through which according to the Venturi effect in the foam is blown in the air. There is no need to supply air foam nozzle foam is formed by using air from the room. This is important because the blowing generator to supply air add air in the room where the foam is formed, pushing the existing air, which will cause the movement of chemical and biological S.
The foam also successfully formed foam systems with compressed air. In these systems air is blown directly into the liquid flow before the fluid will leave the blowing nozzle.
Another important issue regarding the application of the foam is its cleaning after carried out the decontamination of chemical and biological S. Although the foam is very stable, it can easily collapse when using commercially available defoamers. After a certain time, sufficient for disinfection AGENTS, foam, after application, you can remove what is in the liquid state.
The composition described in this invention can be applied in other ways. Foam is nothing more than a liquid solution with a gas phase (in this case air). For destruction/neutralization of chemical and biological S effective composition, not foam itself (in other words, chemical and biological S disinfected liquid composition, not air). Therefore, for the same basic composition can be used and alternative application methods such as spray, smoke and fog. The purpose of these alternative methods is to reduce the amount of water that is required for decontamination of affected objects (type of equipment located in the premises), and to facilitate the access of the composition to the objects that are affected by chemical and biological weapons.
These alternative methods of application may have several advantages over the use of foam. For example, the fog can be used for effective decontamination of those areas, decontamination foam which is difficult or impossible. As an example, we give the interior of the tubes for air conditioning. Fog can be produced in the valves and other openings in the tube; however, he will move a significant distance DNAs is on the potential application of S can be installed relatively automated decontamination system. To completely deactivate the building, remotely operated aerosol fog generators can be placed inside the building, and periodically switched at intervals of time. This method significantly reduced the likelihood that occupied by decontamination personnel will be exposed to chemical and/or biological weapons.
In one method of carrying out the invention the basis of the composition is water and the composition is capable of deploying in the form of a mist (i.e., in the form of an aerosol with particle sizes in the range of 1-30 microns), for rapid neutralization of chemical warfare and biological S. The composition is characterized by low corrosion activity and weak toxic properties and can be deployed commercially available aerosol generators. The composition contains a cationic surfactant and cationic girotropnye agents in combination with low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate salts (e.g. sodium bicarbonate, potassium or ammonium). Outstanding disinfectant composition for the destruction of chemical and biological S use of toxic and/or corrosive chemical compounds that damisa in circulation compositions requires disinfection of large quantities of water.
The composition comprises similar components as the water foaming composition. However, foaming of the composition removed various components that are necessary for the formation of foam. The composition of fogging compositions based on water, the following
Typically, cationic surfactants are Quaternary ammonium salts, such as setitimer-ammonium bromide. Other examples of cationic surfactants include polymeric Quaternary compounds. Examples of suitable hydrotropic substances include tetraphenyl-ammonium bromide, triacetyl-methyl-ammonium bromide and tetrabutyl-ammonium bromide. The combination of bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide forms oxidant (hydroperoxidation group having a high reactivity, which makes a significant contribution to the neutralization of chemical and biological S.
In one trial to demonstrate neutralization of chemical warfare agents 25 microlitres (-20 mg) of chemical warfare simulator (diphenylol-phosphate) were placed on the test coupon (protective layer, metal, wood, and so on). The coupon was placed inside the test chamber, which is then b is the limits between 1-20 microns). The same simulator was placed on identical test coupons, which served as control specimens. An hour later the control and experimental test coupons were placed in a solution of acetonitrile for one hour in order to extract unreacted simulator. Then a solution of acetonitrile was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the weight entered in the response of the simulator. In the 1-hour exposure in the test chamber with fog was achieved more than 99% neutralization simulator G-agent (diphenylol-phosphate) on all tested surfaces and complete neutralization for all surfaces after four subsequent treatment mist (with 1-hour interval between each treatment). After four consecutive treatments fog was achieved neutralization simulator VX (O-ethyl-S-ethyl-phenyl-phosphonothioate) in the range 70-99% and neutralization of mustard gas simulant (chloroethyl-metilsulfate) in the range of 30-85%. After four consecutive treatments fog was reached 7 log mortality simulator anthrax (spores Century globigii).
One of the differences between this composition and the existing fogging solutions for disinfection Himicheskaya solutions for decontamination of chemical and biological S are organic liquids. This composition is characterized by low toxicity and low corrosive properties. This allows to use it in environments where contact with people, animals or equipment may be necessary or appropriate.
The following two examples describe how to prepare two foaming compositions according to this invention. After that presents the test results obtained using the foam prepared according to this invention. Although the sequence of steps shown in examples 1 and 2, represents the preferred methods of the invention described here, the sequence is optional for the purposes of the present invention.
Example 1. Mix the following in 100 ml of water:
WITKO ADOGEN 477(50%) - Cationic hydrotropes substance of 3.84 wt.%.
Alcohol blend 2.0 wt% (Isobutanol of 36.4 wt.%, monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol is 56.4 wt.%, the dodecanol /tetradecanol,12-14to 7.3 wt.%) fatty alcohol, long chain. JAGUAR 8000TMthe polymer is a water - soluble polymer of 0.2 wt.%. Hydrochloric acid (for pH regulation within about a 6.5, to increase the solubility of the polymer).
Example 2.Mix the following in 100 ml of water in the decree Alcohol blend 2.0 wt% (Isobutanol of 36.4 wt.%, monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol is 56.4 wt.%, the dodecanol to 7.3 wt.%) fatty alcohol, long chain.
JAGUAR 8000TMthe polymer is a water - soluble polymer of 0.2 wt.%. Hydrochloric acid (for pH regulation within about 6,5) - to activate the polymer and achievements in a mixture of the desired viscosity.
Cationic surfactant WITCO VARIQUAT TM 80 MS 3 wt.%, to solubilize (dissolve) chemical agents. A mixture of dodecanol and monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol 1:1, 1.5 wt.%, to stabilize the foam. The peroxide 2.0 wt%.
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 2.0 wt%. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate together play the role of a strong nucleophilic agent.
The following generalization of results and data are based on tests conducted using a standard simulated chemical and biological S. Because of the high toxicity of natural S are chosen such simulators that mimic their chemical and physical properties. So, for example, diphenyl-chlorophosphate is a liquid soluble in water compound that is chemically similar to the G-agents. Malathion is another simulator, which often replace the VX-agents in laboratory tests.
Simulators chemical warfare
1. The Protocol tested and which had been applied to the surface of plain paper for printing and sodium-calcium-silicate glass), the sample was applied to the foam (the foam height was 12 cm). After some time the sample was removed. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile or carbon tetrachloride. In the case of the use of acetonitrile is possible to trace the formation of polar products by gas chromatography (GC) or gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which cannot be done when using carbon tetrachloride. After the destruction of the foam and the liquid residue, 15 ml, the latter was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Analysis was performed on the instrument Hewlett Packard (Hewlett PackardTMHP-6890 GC with Flame detector Photometric (Flame PhotometricTM) (6% CNPRPH siloxane), the sample for injection 1 µl, slot 1:100, the temperature of the injection, 250° C, detector temperature 250° C, the temperature of the column (thermostat) was increased from 100 to 250° C for 9.5 minutes, the flow rate of helium, 2 ml/min To determine the catalytic effect on the foam were performed control experiments using the system water + additives.
2. The results:
Diphenyl-chlorophosphate. Fig.17 shows a comparison of the effects of disinfection, obtained using the foam described in this izobreteniya with the results obtained in the system of foam plus peroxide/bicarbonate (Diwaniya 25 mg diphenyl-chlorophosphate 25 cm2ordinary printing paper (half-time of approximately 2 minutes). The results show that it is additive in the water inefficient, however, in the foam with the addition, there is an increasing effect of synergy. The same results were obtained in the case of surfaces of the soda-lime glass.
Malathion. Fig.18 shows the comparison of the results of decontamination of Malathion on paper, using the foam of the present invention and using water. On glass (frosted microscope slides, 1× 3 inches), we observed that some amount of Malathion physically washed off from the glass in the liquid foam. Similar observations were also made in the control experiments, but only with water. To do this, in the case of Malathion we analyzed both the surface and the residual liquid, and folded to determine the total amount of unreacted Malathion. It turned out that the results on glass were comparable with the results on paper.
The results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that likely is P-S cleavage than P-O cleavage, more desirable.
2-Chloroethyl-ethylsulfate (papercity gas). If poportional gas cannot proine were modified conducted experiments in a closed container using 500 mg poportional gas and 100 ml of foam. The results of this test are shown on figure 19.
Unlike 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfate, 2-chloroethyl-persulfide evaporates slowly and it can be used for surface testing. However, it was noted that its reactivity is much lower than mustard gas. The results of the NMR analysis showed that the foam reacts to this rather inert material.
Simulators biological S.
1. Surface tests with spores of Bacillus globigii:
Bacillus globigii (ATCC 9372 were used as a surrogate of Bacillus anthracis in all trials. Bacteria were cultured on medium oblique agar Tryptic Soy Agar slants for three days. Bacteria in aseptic conditions endured on the sloped agar, Endospore agar (Nutrient Agar, enriched 0,002% nl2·4H20), and incubated at 37° With 17-20 days. The process of sporulation (formation of spores) were observed using the method of colouring according to Schaeffer-Fulton (malachite green).
Tests for the destruction of spores was carried out as in the solution of the foam (in test tubes) and in expanded foam with glutaraldehyde (3%) as an additive (surface test).
The procedure for surface tests:
Disputes Century globigii suspended in sterile definitially air under sterile conditions and were treated foam foam additive for 0.5 hours at 25° C. thereafter, the glass surface was removed from the foam and washed with a sterile solution of salt, stirring them within 2 hours. The foam solution, detergent solution and the original spore suspension were tested on disputes Century globigii by sowing dispute on cups, on Brain Heart Infusion Agar, no series dilution 100-10-7and counted after 48 hours.
Fig.20 shows the results obtained according to the above procedure. Experiments were started with 107dispute and surviving spores was observed after 30 minutes of contact with the foam. There were also experiments with a solution, which confirmed the effectiveness of the foam.
2. Test solution with Erwina herbicola
We also showed complete destruction (7-log mortality) Erwina herbicola (ATCC 39368) in solution foam for 15 minutes. Experimental method for the destruction of spores, which was held this experience described above with the difference that instead of Brain Heart Infusion Agar bacteria were cultivated on trypsinogen soy agar. Fig.21 shows that according to the data processing foam described in this invention, causes the death of all bacteria.
Example 3. The procedure for preparation of foam
In the following examples, Variquat BOMC is a mixture of chloride benzyl-proximately ether of guar resin.
1. Pour in 18 liters of deionized water in a large braided bottle, supplied with possibly a great mixer.
2. Add 691,2 g Adogen 477 (Witco) [hydrotropes connection]. Rinse your beaker to braided bottles to measure 477 w / H2Oh, and drain the solution used for rinsing, back in the braided bottle.
3. Add 360 g Alcohol mixture 1 (Isobutanol 36,4%; DEGMBE of 56.4%; dodecanol 7,3%). Check the pH and continue to measure the pH during the entire procedure.
4. Add 36 g Jaguar 8000 [water-soluble polymer]. Add Jaguar 8000 slowly to avoid the formation of solid particles; slightly knock the container with a spatula. After adding Jaguar 8000 stir for 15 minutes. As dissolution Jaguar 8000 pH should be increased. Note: This slightly polymer increases the viscosity of water, forming a more stable foam.
5. Carefully adjust the pH of the solution by adding dropwise a 10% model HC1. Bring the pH to 6.5; this requires adding just a few millilitres. Stir for 1 hour. Reduce pH to dissolve the polymer, % Hcl: 53,5 ml Hcl (37,4%)+146,5 ml dH2O.
6. Carefully add 540 g Variquat 80 MS [Surfactant]. Monitor the pH should not rise). Polozhitelbnyj for rinsing, back in the braided bottle. Take samples for determination of pH and close the bottle. Stir for 2 hours.
7. Add 270 g of dodecanol and DEGMBE 1:1 (wt.%), monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol. Add dropwise within 1 hour. Stir for 1 hour. Note the final pH-value of the foam. DEGMBE used as a solvent for dodecanol. The dodecanol is used to increase the surface tension system w / double-layer laminar wall foam. Increased surface tension provides a higher stability of the foam, as the liquid layer between the laminar walls will not be so quick to isostasy.
8. Pour the solution into the bottle for storage.
Example 4. Preparation 25% of foam concentrate
1. Add polymer Jaguar 8000 (2.6 g) and deionized water (280 g). The polymer should be added carefully, for approximately 5-10 minutes so as to not form solid particles. However, if the polymer is added too slowly, when the ratio of polymer and water can form a gel. Stir the solution for 2 hours.
2. Mix Adogen (with 76.8 g) and Alcohol mixture 1 (40,0); add it to the polymer solution. Bring the pH to 6.5 using 10% Hcl. Cover and peremeshivaemogo (DEGMBE) of 56.4% and dodecanol 7,3%.
3. Add Variquat 80 MS (60,0 g) and stir for more than1/2hours.
4. Add a Mixture of fatty alcohols (for 93.4 g). Cover and stir for more than 1 hour. Note: Mixture of fatty alcohols contains DEGMBE 69%, dodecanol 15%. 1-tridecanol 6% and 1-tetradecanol 10%.
Example 5. Field demonstration (demonstration) foaming composition
To determine the effectiveness of the destruction of the foaming composition of bacterial spores in the premises an experiment was conducted at the test site U.S. army of Dagua Proving Grounds in Utah (U. S. Army Dugway Proving Grounds, UT). Were installed and tested six test panels(16"× 16"). The test panel consisted of ceiling tiles, painted cladding sheet, carpet, painted metal, office dividers and concrete. Panel (except concrete) were installed vertically. The panels were sprayed with a suspension of spores of Bacillus globigii and left overnight to dry. Then samples were taken to determine the initial concentration of spores. The concentration of the composition, which was treated panel was approximately 100 ml per square meter of surface. Foaming composition (pH 8.0) sprayed on the surface of the tested panels and left but the dispute. The tests were repeated every day for the next four days.
The results of the daily tests the source (i.e., contaminated) and end (i.e., disinfected samples show that in all cases, there are good data on the destruction of the dispute (between minimum 4 log and a maximum of 7 log mortality).
Example 6. Detoxification dispute
The following material describes the experiment for the destruction of spores. 1 ml of test solution is placed in a sterile tube and add 0.1 ml of a suspension of spores Century globigii. After one hour the solution is diluted ten-fold with sterile deionized water and centrifuged within 30 minutes. The supernatant (liquid) is separated in a sterile environment, and on the bottom of the tube remain disputes in the form of sediment. Disputes resuspended in 5 ml of sterile deionized water and centrifuged again for 30 minutes. The supernatant is again separated and the disputes resuspended in 5 ml of sterile deionized water. The solution is again centrifuged and the Supernatant again separated. Disputes resuspended in 5 ml of sterile DI water and this solution was plated on medium Brain Heart Infusion Agar, using serial dilutions EO-10E-7 on sterile Petri dishes. Petri dishes are incubated at 37° With those who horned anthrax, Century globigii, one hour after exposure in solution 1) one of deionized water (control), 2) one cationic surfactants (without hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate), 3) one fatty alcohol (without hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate), 4) one cationic hydrotropes substances (without hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate), 5) hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate in deionized water (without cationic surfactants or fatty alcohol or cationic hydrotropes substances, 6) cationic surfactants with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate, 7) fatty alcohol with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate and 8) cationic hydrotropes substances with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. All experiments were conducted at pH 8.0.
From the preceding description of a qualified technician can easily set the essential features of the invention, as defined in this description and the attached formula, and, adhering to the principles of this invention may offer various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various implementation methods and conditions. Such changes and modifications obvious to a qualified professional, must be the Oia
1. Composition for neutralizing at least one toxic substance (S) which contains at least two solubilizing component, where at least one of solubilizing component is a cationic surface-active agent, the specified cationic surfactant is a Quaternary ammonium salt, and at least one of solubilizing component is a cationic hydrotropes substance, and at least one reactive component selected from nucleophilic and oxidizing compounds, and water for the formation water compositions, Quaternary ammonium salt has a concentration of about 0.1-10 wt.% the water in the composition, where at least two of these solubilizing component and at least one reactive component, when mixed with water and applied by at least one infected S surface is neutralized at least one specified by S, where the aforementioned at least one S selected from biological and chemical warfare agents, it is preferable that these chemical warfare agents selected from the group: o-alkyl-phosphonofluoridate, o-alkyl-phosphoramidocyanidates, o-alkyl, s-2-dialkyl-amino-ethyl-alkylphosphocholine choosing the Locatelli)methane, 1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-propane, 1,4-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-butane, 1,5-bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-pentane, bis(2-chloroethylthiomethyl)ether, bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl)ether, Luisita, saxitoxin, ricin, alkyl-phosphonyldifluorides, alkyl-phosphonites, chlorosarin, Hartman, Amiton, 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-propan, 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate, methylphosphonyl-dichloride, dimethyl-methylphosphonate, dihalogenide dialkyl-phosphoramidon, dialkyl-phosphoramidate, arsenic of trichloride, diphenyl-hydroxyestra acid, quinuclidinyl-3-ol, dialkyl-amino-ethyl-2-chlorides, dialkyl-aminoethan-2-Ola, dialkyl-aminoethane-2-thiols, thiodiglycol, pinacolone alcohols, phosgene, Harlan, hydrocyanic acid, chlorpicrin, phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus trichloride, Piatigorsky phosphorus, alkylphosphate, odnogolosy sulfur, Duhlata sulfur, and thionyl chloride, and most preferably, where these biological S selected from bacterial spores, vegetative bacterial cells and viruses.
2. The composition according to p. 1, additionally containing a water-soluble polymer with a concentration of 0-10% of the aqueous composition, it is preferable that the water-soluble polymer selected from polyvinyl alcohol, the guar resin, cation chloride politically-e includes a corrosion inhibitor, more preferably, the corrosion inhibitor selected from dimethyl-ethanolamine, triethanolamine, and mixtures ethanolamine salts of C9, C10 and C12 dibasic acids, nitrate dicyclohexylamine and N,N-dibenzylamine.
3. The composition according to p. 2, further comprising a fatty alcohol with 10 to 16 carbon atoms in the molecule with a concentration of 0 and 1% of the aqueous composition, and preferably additionally comprising a catalyst selected from iodobenzoate and copper-amine complexes.
4. The composition according to p. 1, where the reactive component is selected from hydrogen peroxide, urea - hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyalkyl, oximato, alkoxides, aryloxides, aldehydes, peroxymonosulfate, Fenton's reagent, and sodium hypochlorite, and preferably further includes water as a carrier medium for a specified composition, with the purpose of obtaining water composition capable of neutralizing chemical and biological agents, and preferably, where the composition is a set, and more preferably, the kit is a binary package including a pre-mixed component including at least two solubilizing substances, water-soluble polymer and a fatty alcohol component comprising at least one S and more preferably, that kit is a ternary package including a first pre-mixed component, an aqueous mixture of Quaternary ammonium salts and cationic hydrotropes substance, the second component comprising a peroxide, and a third component comprising a salt of bicarbonate.
5. The composition according to p. 4, where the pH of the composition is 8 to 11, and preferably, where the pH of the composition is approximately equal to 9, and where the composition is optionally used for decontamination.
6. The composition according to p. 4, where the composition is in the form of foam, or fog, or gel, or aerosol, or liquid and, if necessary, is used as a disinfectant, and it is preferable that the foam has an expansion ratio 20-125, and preferably, when more than 99.99% of the spores of B. globigii die within approximately 1 h after the treatment composition, and more preferably, when more than 99,9999 spores of B. globigii die within approximately 1 h after treatment with the composition, and it is preferable that the cationic hydrotropes substance selected from bromide of Tetramethylammonium, bromide of triacetylcellulose and tetrabutylammonium bromide with a concentration of 0.1-10% of the aqueous composition.
7. The composition according to p. 1 wherein the cationic surface-act is sustained fashion, where the Quaternary ammonium salt selected from bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium, benzalkonium chloride, chloride benzene, chloride of cetylpyridinium, tetrabutylammonium bromide and polymeric Quaternary compounds.
8. Composition for neutralizing toxic chemical substances comprising at least two solubilizing component, where at least one of solubilizing component is a cationic surface-active agent, and at least one of solubilizing component is a cationic hydrotropes substance, a water-soluble polymer, at least one reactive component, the specified reactive component selected from nucleophilic and oxidizing compounds, and water in the liquid phase, where the specified at least two solubilizing component and at least one reactive component, when mixed with the specified water in the liquid phase to form a composition, that neutralizes the toxic chemical substances, and preferably, where the composition is a foam, and preferably, where the cationic surface-active agent is a Quaternary ammonium salt, which has a concentration of about 0.1 to about 10 wt.% from aqueous compositions, Katia tetrabutylammonium concentration of 0.1-10 wt.% the water in the composition, and a water-soluble polymer selected from polyvinyl alcohol, the guar resin, cation chloride polydiallyldimethyl, non-ionic chloride polydiallyldimethyl, and polyacrylamide.
9. Composition for neutralizing biological toxic agents, including at least one solubilizers component selected from Quaternary ammonium salts, cationic hydrotropes substances or fatty alcohol, and at least one reactive component, where the specified at least one reactive component is an oxidizing agent selected from hydrogen peroxide, urea hydrogen peroxide, and hydroperoxyalkyl, and preferably further comprising an alcohol having 2-6 carbon atoms, and preferably, when more than 99.99% of the spores of B. globigii die within approximately 1 h after treatment with composition.
10. The method of obtaining water foamable compositions for neutralizing at least one toxic agent includes the following stages: the solubilization of cationic hydrotropes substance of at least one alcohol compound with a short chain and a water-soluble polymer in water, adding Quaternary ammonium salts, and adding at least one girn of hydrogen peroxide, urea - hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyalkyl, oximato, alkoxides, aryloxides, aldehydes, peroxymonosulfate, Fenton's reagent, and sodium hypochlorite, and preferably where the concentration of cationic hydrotropes substances is 0.1-10 wt.%, the concentration of the Quaternary ammonium salt is 0.1-10 wt.%, the concentration of the at least one alcohol compound with a short chain - 0-4 wt.%, the concentration of water-soluble polymer - 0-10 wt.%, the concentration of the at least one fatty alcohol - 0-1 wt.% and the concentration of the reactive component is 0.1 to 10 wt.%.