The method of curing the surface of the raw stuff emulsion sausage products by ultrasonic treatment
The invention relates to the production of sausages without casings. The method involves significant degassing of the semifinished product, the implementation of direct contact of the product with the surface of one or more ultrasonic transducers to obtain uniformly denatured layer and the formation of a thin, tight, stabilizing the shape of the Autonomous coagulated membrane on the surface of the product. The invention provides the necessary conditions prevent the sticking of the product undesirable way to the means of processing. 6 C.p. f-crystals.
The technical field
The invention relates to a method of hardening the surface of the semi-sausage emulsion (stuff emulsion sausage casings) of ultrasonic processing.
The level of technology
To date the sausage emulsion was stuffed into sausage casings, and then to stabilize heated, if necessary, simultaneously, smoked or were directly placed in a hot water bath.
For semifinished products, thus treated, characterized by an appreciable production loss inter alia probstat secondary pollution is half cooked goods. To extend the preservation of products in shipping containers or packings for retail sale must often be subjected to additional filtering.
In patent DD 200970 describes a method of forming gaskets boxes for bezobolochnoe sausages, providing for the elimination of air pockets in the sausage emulsion, water in this state, during the filling or packing tapes. In the cartridge emulsion is administered according to known rules potrjahivanie movements, while States that are preferred vibrations in the ultrasonic range.
In German laid application DE 2950384 A1 describes a method and apparatus for processing food energy at ultrasonic frequency. In particular, it suggests that the process of boiling of prepared material is based on the decomposition of the fibrous structure and the destruction of the enzymes specified material and, in this regard, the mechanical process of preparation, which is based on heat due to friction in the material subject to boiling. Also explained that the impact of ultrasonic energy modifies the specified material from the viewpoint of coagulation. However, in ecessa boiling in addition to handling a purely thermal energy should be treated with ultrasound. In this context, the boiling means that the whole subject boiling material must be fully subjected to proper processing. In this proposal are not proposed any steps for the formation of the Autonomous membrane, stabilizing the shape of the individual semi-finished goods, by exposure to ultrasonic energy, in particular, with the aim of increasing intermediate stability half of the prepared product.
Given the above-mentioned task, which is aimed invention is to develop a method of hardening the surface of the semi-sausage emulsion, for example of semi-finished sausage with a scalded-emulsion, semi-finished sausages with boiled meat or semi-finished emulsion, designed to obtain semi-finished sausages, using ultrasonic treatment, and in the specified method of treatment is to stabilize the form of individual prefabricated goods and simultaneously provides a necessary condition for preventing adhesion of semi-finished product undesirable way to the means of processing.
Through this way on the surface is, for example, prefabricated sausages eliminated the need for the use of casings and the product can then be subjected to final processing (drying). Furthermore, the method should provide a preliminary stabilization for those products, which are further subjected to heat treatment or the treatment of high blood pressure.
The solution of the stated problem is achieved using a method defined in the first claim. While the dependent claims represent at least expedient embodiments of and improvements to the basic method.
According to the invention the semi-sausage emulsion prepared in the usual way, first subjected to a degassing treatment using, for example, pumping air. Then, in addition, carry out direct contact semifinished product with the surface of one or more ultrasonic emitters, at least one of them is heated, i.e., its own temperature exceeds the temperature resulting from thermal process associated with the irradiation process.
In the context of continuous processing, it is preferable application of the tubular floors is required by the product form. They operate on the surface may have a microstructure, which reduces the adherence to a minimum.
Ultrasonic energy is applied to the semifinished product has a low frequency but high amplitude, while it is preferable to use a frequency interval 16-50 kHz at an amplitude of ultrasonic oscillations in the interval essentially of 5-50 microns.
In molecules of semi-finished product is subjected to ultrasonic energy, such processing is commenced their normal vibrational mode, which produces frictional heat. As a result, the protein on the surface of the product coagulates, forming the desired continuous Autonomous shell. Unlike any other conventional methods, the combined treatment with the use of heated ultrasonic transducer can provide the desired effect in an optimal way without having to use very high ultrasonic capacities of the order of kilowatts.
For subject treatment material composed of a mixture of protein, fat, water, salt and spices depth of penetration of the ultrasonic waves is small, so that unwanted relevant processing directly in the volume of Matera is lemou ultrasonic vibrations and acting as an ultrasonic transducer, on the surface of the sausage emulsion is initiated by denaturation of the protein, in this case, in addition to self-heating that occurs during this operation, the uniformity of the formation of stabilizing standalone shell is improved by the application of sausage emulsion, essentially containing no air inclusions, and heated ultrasonic emitters above the temperature to which they are heated in the process of radiation.
Input ultrasonic transducer to the surface of the sausage emulsion by, for example, annular nozzle can apply the liquid to impart taste or color. Ultrasound is a thin and uniform distribution of the liquid coagulating boundary layer. By such means it is possible to do without further processing, designed to give a taste (e.g. Smoking) or dyeing, or to optimize the impact of such processing.
However, it is also possible, in which the flow of sausage emulsion, curing so cool and Packed at the output of ultrasonic emitters or, alternatively, subjected to further treatment or processing, for example, smoke fluid, similar taste the acquisition of sausage emulsion can also fill in removable form, which is exposed to mechanical vibrations using the coupled ultrasonic transducers.
After the surface treatment is completed as stated above, can be carried out, as indicated, for further processing. In this case, it becomes possible storage of semi-finished products for a certain period of time in a frozen state or the carrying out of the final heat treatment and/or high pressure processing immediately after ultrasonic treatment. In contrast to the known method with the lower inevitable loss of protein, fat, flavouring substances, etc. and the quality of the product increases. At the same time, in continuous production can be reduced cycle time, so that in the technological aspect is also achieved lower prices. In the described method eliminates the risk of secondary pollution caused by packaging manipulation after pasteurization. By using these shaped ultrasonic emitters becomes possible to obtain products with any possible configuration or form. When emulsions of prefabricated bratwurst (sausages from pork and veal) give, etc.
As a result of processing the surface of the semi-sausage emulsion is possible to do without necessary in other respects, casings, roll form, which improves the manufacturability of the process while maintaining the possibility of subsequent final processing.
Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
In more detail, the invention is described with reference to the following example.
Sosososo emulsion were removed from the cutting machine at a temperature close to 8°C, and for further degassing pass through stuffing a meat grinder. Then the feed stream array emulsion pass through coaxial tubular hollow ultrasonic emitters directly connected to the stuffing horn of the transport system. By regulating the feed stream in the hollow tube ultrasonic transducer, you can set the pressure, showing that, as it increases the transfer of ultrasonic energy to the semifinished product is increased.
Heating of one of the hollow ultrasonic emitters improves the homogeneity of the formation of a standalone shell on the surface facing the array emultatore penetrated into the sausage emulsion to a value of approximately 1 mm from the surface.
Then thread the sausage emulsion was divided transversely, while the cut section was transferred to the perforated sheet. Unwanted adhesion of the divided stream of the sausage emulsion to a plastic or metal surfaces was not observed. Located next to each other sausages in the absence of subsequent adhesion placed in plastic bags under reduced pressure and heated to 78°C.
Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated that it is possible to treat utverzhdenii the surface of the sausage emulsion jets of liquid smoke and you can get brown (brown color).
In one embodiment of the hollow ultrasonic emitters outer volume was surrounded by a heated Mat. When this was recorded surface temperature in the region of approximately 140°C. Uniform formation of Autonomous membrane occurred even at low ultrasonic power, close to 200 watts. When the feed speed of approximately 100 l/h, the input energy required for the formation of the Autonomous shell is essentially 7 kJ/kg ultrasonic energy and 9 kJ/kg of heat energy.
Contrary to expectations off of ultrasound during the process is mulshi not led, as it was expected, immediate adhesion of the protein to the inner surface of these emitters.
This unexpected finding can be concluded that during the heating process ultrasonic effect in the first place prevents premature inevitable adhesion to the hot inner surface of the ultrasonic transducer. From these data it can be concluded that ultrasound, especially during the initial phase, serves to reduce the frictional resistance on the inner surface heated ultrasonic emitters and stationary adhesion process reduce or completely prevent the incoming fats and liquids. If there are interruptions of the production process, the material flow can be re-activated by turning on the ultrasound.
The reduction of frictional resistance minimizes adhesion of the microstructures on the inner surface of the ultrasonic transducer may further minimize the use of ultrasound, more precisely, as in the aspect of time, and in the aspect of energy. However, it must be emphasized that, since the tendency of the sausage emulsion to show adhesion heated to a given surface depends on sobrecarga product, representing raw stuff emulsion sausage or prefabricated sausages, ultrasonic treatment, comprising the following steps carried out during a continuous process: significant degassing semifinished product; implementation of direct contact semifinished product with the surface of one or more ultrasonic emitters, at least one of the ultrasonic transducers is heated to a temperature above the temperature to which they are heated in the process of radiation, and which is sufficient for obtaining a uniformly denatured layer, having a thickness, ensuring stabilization of the shape of the semifinished product; forming a thin, tight, roll form, Autonomous coagulated membrane on the surface of the semifinished product by at least temporary effects of ultrasonic energy over a period of time sufficient for the formation of the mentioned shell, in the low-frequency range, but with high vibrational amplitude, and the movement of semi-finished product for further processing or packaging.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that prefabricated.1, characterized in that use shaped ultrasonic emitters.
4. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the semifinished product is subjected to synchronous processing, the smoke fluid or other flavouring substances or means of finishing the outer surface.
5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the semifinished product is subjected to subsequent processing smoke fluid or other flavouring substances or means of finishing the outer surface.
6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that before the ultrasonic treatment of semi-finished product is subjected to degassing by pumping air.
7. The method according to any of paragraphs.2-6, characterized in that the surface of the ultrasonic transducer in contact with the semi-finished product has a microstructure or a structured coating that minimizes adhesion.