Device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft

 

The invention relates to an aircraft, in particular to the field of integrated control of key sensors navigation information of the aircraft. The technical result is to increase the reliability of detection of the failure of the sensors. The device consists of an adder, a comparator, two differentiation and three amplifiers with which the comparator compares the converted dynamically similar signals from the sensor pitch and gauge of an angle of attack. Failure of one of the sensors similarity is violated, there is a triggering of the comparator and the device detects the failure. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of aeronautical engineering, in particular to systems integrated control of the main sensors of the navigation information of the aircraft (LA), namely the flight control sensor pitch (artificial horizon, girovertikal, inertial cursortype, channel calculation pitch strapdown inertial navigation system with their indicators and sensor angle of attack (angle sensor attacks and overloads, channel definition of angle of attack air signals (SV the rata. These sensors angular orientation inform the pilot about the angular movement of LA in the vertical plane and to the greatest extent determine the safe piloting of the aircraft in all flight modes [1, S. 141-170; 2, S. 31-33; 3, S. 18].

The known device control gyroscopic sensor pitch angle according to the supply voltage nominal values [4, S. 26, 42]. The controlled device is considered healthy if you feed it voltage or currents in the phases do not go beyond the bounds of tolerance. This control is implemented in different gyro system using threshold elements, relays or motor with spring return, included in the supply circuit of the scanned device. The most common use on aircraft has found a device that controls the voltage drop, continuity in circuits of AC and DC, called detector voltage (DPR). The advantage of this sort of control devices are: simplicity, reliability, low weight, size and cost. Their disadvantages include: the inability of the failure detection signal, corrective, and other low-voltage circuits and, more importantly, indirect control, in which the accuracy of the scanned device is of rizontal [5, S. 205], including the unit of comparison signals rolls and pitch two identical Aviagorodok first and second pilots. When the failure of one of Aviagorodok is the error tracking system, which includes the selsyns sensors pitch. The failure is fixed relay amplifier servo system that performs the function of the comparator. The device has a relatively low reliability of the control, due to the presence of Electromechanical servo systems. It requires an excessive number of identical sensor controlled pitch, which affects the weight, dimensions and cost parameters of the equipment of the aircraft.

Known integrated flight control Builder vertical [6], consisting of a measuring sensor pitch, pointer and angular velocity sensors. The device contains three mutually orthogonal sensor of angular velocities, respectively, transverse, and normal to the longitudinal axes of the associated coordinate system, three differentiator outputs Builder vertical proportional to the sine and cosine of the pitch, roll, eight multipliers, three adders, three comparator, and a diagram OR. The relationship of the elements of the device allow to determine the projection of the absolute of the coordinate system, defined by the sensor signals and Builder. When the difference between the estimates derived change projections along the axes of the associated coordinate system obtained on the output signals Builder vertical and measurements of angular velocity sensors, indicated by the failure of the Builder vertically. The device does not contain an excess of similar devices, but it assumes the presence of angular velocity sensors included in the automatic control system (ACS) of the aircraft. The control accuracy here is determined by the sensitivity threshold of the sensor of angular velocity and accuracy of the computation of the derivatives of trigonometric functions of the angles of pitch and roll. Slow dam Builder vertical probe pitch with speed, lower threshold and the error in the calculation of the derivative, the device is not detected. The device is not capable of controlling the steering angle of attack of the aircraft.

A device for complex control sensor pitch - girovertikal and angular rate sensor pitch [7, S. 270], contains one United correcting filter and the comparator. The yield of the latter is a signal output device. The device has two options for wiring diagrams of the correction filter and ECTR - the integrator, and its input is connected to the output of the sensor of angular velocity of the pitch. If the second input of the comparator connected to the output of the sensor of angular velocity of the pitch, the corrective filter differentiator, and its input is connected to the output of the sensor pitch girovertikal. The unit is simple to implement, has a high reliability control sensor pitch. The disadvantage of the first variant of the device associated with the accumulation of errors at the output of the integrator over time. The second version of the device cannot control the slow rubble girovertikal with an angular velocity less than the operating threshold of the comparator and the sensitivity of the angular rate sensor pitch. The device has a minimum weight, size, cost, but just as in the previous analogy, suggests the presence of angular velocity sensors SAU aircraft. It is also not able to control the steering angle of attack of the aircraft.

A device for monitoring a sensor of angular deviations LA relatively stabilized platform type sine-cosine transformer [8, S. 370, 376]. For control, use the adder, two schemes of calculation modules signals sine, cosine windings of the transformer and the circuit traveline to be less than the nominal output voltage sine-cosine transformer is not more than the tolerance. The device is able to control widespread sine-cosine transformers angular orientation sensors: sensor pitch, such as inertial cursortheme ICV-72, platform gyroscopic PG-1V, compact girovertikal MEGAWATTS-1 [8, S. 360, 371], sensor angle of attack of the directional type, such as sensor aerodynamic angle DAU-85 [9, S. 115]. To determine the serviceability of only sine-cosine transformer, electromagnetic system, but not devices in General. The correct operation of the sensor pitch and fragile attacks, their accuracy, it does not control.

A known machine of angles of attack and overload (OWASP) measuring and providing signals proportional to the angle of attack, the critical angle of attack and vertical strain [8, S. 189]. To determine its operability provided an episodic built-in test control, where instead of a sensor of the angle of attack for takeoff mode with an additional potentiometer is fed test voltage proportional to the takeoff angle of attack. The pointer of the gauge of an angle of attack should just work out this test signal. The control is carried out only for system testing of angle of attack, it is checked amplifier-rectifier circuit and wtwo detect failure of the air data signals, using the measurements of pressure on the fore part of the fuselage of the aircraft into the holes located on concentric circles [10]. The angle of attack of LA is obtained by the processing algorithm of the linearized measurement of pressure with the initial values of the flight parameters. Evaluation of angle of attack consistently obtained in the iterative calculation process. To control operation applies the definition of residuals between redundant measurements in all holes and predicted values of pressure. Assuming that the distribution of these residuals is subject to Gaussian distribution, uses the criterion of2constant checking of which is in the process of calculation of angle of attack and gives information about the health of the system and determine the correct angle of attack. The algorithm and its implementation requires a large amount of complex calculations in real-time measurement of angle of attack. The testing reliability and accuracy characteristics are not defined. This is largely connected with the possibility of divergence of the algorithm when determining the angle of attack and the correctness of its determination. The device is not able to control the sensor pitch.

The known device controlof attack), containing the quorum-element [3, S. 38; 7, S. 284; 8]. They also contain the majority of the circuit and the comparator, which compares the output signals of each of the three sensors of the angular orientation of LA with average signal of all three sensors. The probability of detecting exactly refusal sensors - accuracy control [11, S. 87], here for three sensors pitch type inertial cursortheme ICV-72 and device control type control unit roll BCA-18 is. Similar control three sensors are fragile attack type sensor of the angle of attack and sideslip control AC-64 second separate BCA-18 is held with certainty. The combined use of two quorum-elements to control the three sensors of the pitch and three sensors of angle of attack are possible with certaintythat corresponds to an average time reliable control. Weight g1and overall1the quality indicators as relations consequently weight and dimensions required for the control apparatus to the weight and dimensions of the scanned devices, for device control with the quorum-elementarity control equipment more than twice the weight and size of scanned devices. This is very bad for hardware LA. The algorithmic implementation of the same principle of control in a computer, for example of the type CVM-401, yields significantly better performance reliability control AQI 72 and IDEAS-64:that corresponds to an average time reliable control of all sensorshours. However, in this embodiment, the monitoring device with the quorum-element weightand overallthe quality indicators are relatively high.

The closest one of the known technical solutions is a device for control of the Builder of vertical probe pitch and gauge of speed of the aircraft [12], containing the first multiplier, the inputs of which are connected respectively to the sine output of the tilt sensor Builder vertical and cosine output of the sensor pitch Builder vertical, connected in series sensor projection of velocity vector on the longitudinal axis of the associated coordinate system, the second multiplier, an adder and a comparator whose output is signal output device, the third, h is the input of the second multiplier, sensor vertical velocity, the output of which is connected with the second subtractive input of the adder, the sensor projection of velocity vector on the transverse axis of the associated coordinate system, the output of which is connected to the first input of the third multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the first multiplier and the output of the third subtractive input of the adder, the roll sensor Builder vertical cosine output of which is connected to the first input of the fourth multiplier, a second input connected to the cosine output of the sensor pitch Builder vertical, and the output to the first input of the fifth multiplier, the output of which, in turn, connected to the fourth summing input of the adder. When this sensor projection of velocity vector on the transverse axis of the associated coordinate system contains connected in series angle sensor slide apparatus, the first functional inverter, the sixth multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the second functional Converter connected to the output of the sensor of the angle of attack of the apparatus, the seventh multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the sensor projection of velocity vector on the longitudinal axis of the associated coordinate system. The sensor projection vector Ki apparatus, the third functional Converter, the inverter and the eighth multiplier, a second input connected to the output of the sensor projection of velocity vector on the longitudinal axis of the associated coordinate system.

A disadvantage of the known device the prototype is the low reliability of the sensors of the angular orientation LA - sensor pitch and sensor fragile attacks. The implementation of such a monitoring device on Board LA can be difficult due to the lack of sensors glide angle and vertical speed. The weight and dimensions of the quality of this device is relatively large.

The reason that prevent obtaining the specified lower technical result when using the known device the prototype, is the use of the sensor projection of velocity vector on the longitudinal axis of the associated coordinate system, the sensor vertical velocity and angle sensor slip, reducing the reliability of the device control prototype, and as a result, the accuracy of failure detection. The dimensions and weight of these sensors, especially sensor projection of velocity vector on the longitudinal axis and sensor vertical velocity, significantly affect the weight and dimensions of the controller. Precision control in most the main task, we address the claimed device object to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft, is to increase the reliability and accuracy of the sensors pitch and angle of attack, with the smallest weight and size of the hardware.

This technical result is achieved in that in a device for controlling the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft, containing the sensor angle of attack, the sensor pitch, connected in series adder and a comparator whose output is the signal output device is introduced first and the second differentiator, first, second and third amplifiers, the inputs of the first amplifier and a first differentiator connected to the output of the sensor of the angle of attack, and the outputs from the first and second subtractive inputs of the adder, the third and fourth summing the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the second amplifier and the second differentiator, the inputs of which is connected to the output of the third amplifier, connected to the output of the sensor pitch.

The essential features of the invention: first, second differentiator, the first, second, third amplifier and the connections between the blocks ensures the achievement of the technical result to apparatus. While the invention consists in the formation of the mapping dynamically and statically similar signals in the device output signals of the sensor pitch and gauge of an angle of attack with regard to their temporal lags and large-scale changes relative to each other at different phases of flight of the aircraft. In the event of a malfunction of the sensor pitch or angle sensor attack this dynamic and static similarity is broken and the device detects the failure.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology found that analogs characterized by the sets of characteristics is identical for all features of the claimed device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft, are not available, therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of “novelty.”

Search results known technical solution in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed invention, have shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art.

Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known impact provided the essential features of the claimed invention conversions the private device similar to any known part, attached to it according to certain rules, to achieve a technical result, in respect of which it is the effect of this Supplement;

- the replacement of any part of the device is similar to another well-known part to achieve a technical result, in respect of which it is the effect of such additions;

- the exclusion of any part of the device is similar to the while excluding, due to its functions and the achievement of the usual result of such exclusion;

increasing the number of identical elements to enhance the technical result due to the presence in the device is of such elements;

- the execution of the known device is analog or part of a known material to achieve a technical result due to the known properties of the material;

- a device consisting of known parts, the choice of which and the relationship between them is carried out on the basis of known rules and achievable technical result is due only to the known properties of the parts of this device and connections between them;

- the change of the quantitative characteristic (s) of the device and providing the same, the practical result and new values for these characteristics or their relationship could be obtained, proceeding from the known dependencies, therefore, the claimed invention meets the “inventive step”.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the structural diagram of the device for controlling the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft. The following notation:

1 - sensor angle of attack;

2 - sensor pitch;

3 - adder;

4 comparator;

5-1, 5-2 first, second differentiator;

6-1, 6-2, 6-3 first, second, and third amplifiers.

Device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft contains the sensor 1 angle of attack sensor 2 pitch, connected in series adder 3 and the comparator 4, the output of which is signal output device. It also contains differentiator 5-1, 5-2 and amplifiers 6-1, 6-2, 6-3 so that the inputs of the amplifier 6-1 and differentiator 5-1 is connected to the output of the sensor 1 angle of attack, and the outputs from the first and second subtractive inputs of the adder 3, the third and fourth summing input of which is connected to the outputs of the amplifier 6-2 and differentiator 5-2, the inputs of which is connected to the output of the amplifier 6-3, connected to the output of the sensor 2 of the pitch.

The practical implementation of the inventive monitoring device preferred penii so, the adder 3, differentiator 5-1, 5-2 and amplifiers 6-1, 6-2, 6-3 are based on chip type KWD [14, S. 270-272, 286], the comparator 4, the chip type 52.SA or SA [14, S. 310].

Controlled by sensors 1 angle of attack can be, for example, sensors of the type: remote control AC-64, DN as-133, remote control, AC-9, DAU-72, DAU-85, etc. and sensors 2 pitch - for example ICV-72, MGV-1, MGV-4, PG-1V, AGB-3, ICV-802 and others [9, S. 78, 115].

The structure of the device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft is obtained from the differential equation of longitudinal motion of the plane normal to the trajectory in the velocity coordinate system [15, C. 19]

mV=sin+Y-G cos+YIn; (1)

=-, (2)

where m is the mass of the LA;

V - speed of flight;

- the angle of trajectory;

R - engine thrust;

- the angle of attack;

Y - the lifting force;

G - force of gravity (weight) LA;

YIn- perturbing force on LA;

- the pitch angle.

Considering the unsettled movement by small increments variables:,,... you can write:

V=V0+V;=0+;=0+;=0+; R=R0+R... , (3)

(4)

=-, (5)

where V0,0,0,0, R0,... - permanent, steady-state values of the motion parameters LA; g - acceleration of gravity:- the partial derivative of the lifting force on the angle of attack at the steady state motion of the aircraft. After Postnov the rder="0">+1=, (6)

where(7)

or in operator form, given that R=p(0+)=R

(8)

The increment of angle of attack; in the left part (8) is due to the full value of this anglein General, the following relationship

=p/k(R+2) (9)

After substituting (9) into (8) and conversion to finally obtain the relation, put in a basis of work of the claimed device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft:

F=cu+k2-R-10 control function (10), for all,at the stage of steady-state motion of the aircraft. [16 S. 30 7, 895].

Device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft operates as follows. The signal proportional to the angle of attack of LA, from the output of the sensor 1 of the angle of attack is fed to the input of differentiator 5-1 and amplifier 6-1 Output signals of the amplifier 6-1 and differentiator 5-1, respectively proportional to1and Rarrive at the first and second subtractive inputs of the adder 3, where they are summed with the output signal of the amplifier 6-2. and differentiator 5-2, respectively proportional to k2and krcoming into his third and fourth summing inputs. The output signal of the sensor 2 pitch proportional to the pitch angle, is fed to the input of the amplifier 6-3. From the output of the amplifier 6-3 signal proportional to kgoes to the input of differentiator 5-2 and amplifier 6-2, the outputs of which are connected gages on the output of the adder 3 no signal and the output signal of the comparator 4, an output signal of zero. In that case, if there is a failure or sensor 1 angle of attack, or sensor 2 pitch, at the output of the adder. 3 you receive the error signal exceeding the threshold comparator. This leads to the triggering of the comparator 4, which outputs a signal about the refusal of controlled devices LA.

The proposed device has a high efficiency continuous automatic flight control sensors navigation information LA. The reliability of control [11, S. 87], as the probability of a failure is detected, it is a gauge of an angle of attack sensor pitch, not computer computers 80-4-01 which implemented the proposed algorithm is comparable with similar (BCA-18) and the prototype (U.S. Pat. RF 2187141) with sensors ICV-72 n DUES-64, is much higher and amounts to RD. 3(500)=0,9587,which corresponds to the average} time accurate control of TD. 3=11855 hours. Similar indicator of the prototype PD. 2(500)=0,7211, TD. 2=152.9 hours. Time accurate control with prototype 7.8 times less. Weight g3and overall3the performance of the claimed device and lowest amount, g3=0,305; v3=0,29, which is less than FR, the AK as the difference between weight and overall performance is obtained. Accuracy assessment of control for the inventive device, to the greatest extent, is determined by the accuracy of the controlled sensor pitch and sensor angle of attack and is approximately. Control in the inventive device is in a non-redundant version of the airborne equipment, which is important for light, maneuverable AIRCRAFT. The device is part of an integrated complex of the General system of control of the airplane with the expertise of health and adaptation to failures. It allows you to reduce operating costs aircraft maintenance and universal application to various types of controlled equipment. Software implementation of the device includes simple mathematical operations, sparingly uses the computing resources of the computer, and solves the problem of monitoring sensors in parallel with the tasks of LA, in which relevant information of the sensor pitch and gauge of an angle of attack. Has full control of sensors - from input to output signal used by consumers without threshold estimation of intermediate signals of their internal structure. This opens vosmogo control of the intermediate signals in the scanned devices, which may have neochanna a wide range of variation in actual flight.

Thus, the above findings suggest that when implementing the claimed invention, the following conditions are true:

- a means of embodying the invention in its implementation, is intended for use in integrated control of the main sensors of the navigation information, namely in the device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft;

for the claimed invention in the form as it is described in the independent claim, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the described or other known prior to the filing date of the funds;

- a means of embodying the claimed invention in its implementation, is able to provide specified technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability “industrial applicability”.

Sources of information

1. Sklansky F. I. flight Dynamics and handling heavy jet aircraft. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1976, S. 208.

2. Djupin With. Why falling aircraft - Kommersant Vlast, No. 3, 29.01.02, S. 28-34.

3. Aralov, The 4. Altuhov C. Y., Stadnik centuries Gyroscopic devices, automatic onboard control systems of aircraft and their maintenance. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1991, S. 160.

5. Bondarchuk I. E., Kharin Century. And. Aviation and avionics of aircraft YAK-40. - M.: Transport, 1982, S. 180.

6. Pat. 2106006 of the Russian Federation. MCI G 05 B 23/02. Device for controlling Builder vertical and angular velocity sensors /C. Y. Chernov //BI-1998, No. 6.

7. Belgorod S. L. automation control and landing of aircraft. - M.: Transport, 1972, S. 352.

8. Sparrows Century BC, deaf centuries, Karsaev I. K., Aircraft devices, information-measuring systems and complexes. - M.: Transport, 1992, S. 399.

9. Avionics Russia: an Encyclopedic reference book /Ed. by S. D. Bodrunova. SPb.: National Association of avionics producers. 1999, S. 780.

10. Whitmore, S., Moes So, Leondes C. Failure detection and fault management: techniques flush airdata sensing systems. “AIAA Pap”, №263, 1992, 1-21.

11. Grinkevich T. A. evaluate the reliability of electronic equipment. - M.: Owls. radio, 1969, S. 176.

12. Pat. 2187141 RF, MKI G 05 B 23/00. Device for controlling Builder vertical and speed sensors of the aircraft. /C. Y. Chernov//BI 2002, No. 22 (prototype).

13. Abstract journal. Air transport, No. 12, 1990, S. 14.

14. Analog is amended C. C. Jakubowski, 2nd ed. - M.: Radio and communication, 1984, S. 432.

15. Bodner Century A. control System aircraft. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1973, S. 506.

16. Buscarse C. K., Popov, E. P., theory of automatic control systems. - M.: Nauka, 1966, S. 992.

Claims

Device to control the sensors of the angular orientation of the aircraft, containing the sensor angle of attack, the sensor pitch, connected in series adder and a comparator whose output is signal output device, characterized in that it introduced the first and second differentiator, first, second and third amplifiers, the inputs of the first amplifier and a first differentiator connected to the output of the sensor of the angle of attack, and the outputs from the first and second subtractive inputs of the adder, the third and fourth summing the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the second amplifier and the second differentiator, the inputs of which is connected to the output of the third amplifier, connected to the output of the sensor pitch.



 

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