High temperature heat pipe
The invention is intended for use in heat technology, namely devices for heat transfer. High temperature heat pipe contains partially filled with fluid sealed body with zones of evaporation and condensation, is made of a dielectric material with a tightly fitted to the outside of the protective metal casing; a cap attached to the housing with the end of the evaporation zone, which inside fixed the heater in the form of a pair of electrodes made of plates made of electroresistance material and installed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the housing; a power electrode, made with alternating current; a carrier made of electrically conductive material; the housing end face in the condensation zone is installed sealing tube, on the end of which is fixed container with a getter, moreover, as the dielectric material selected ceramics, on the inner surface which is in contact with the fluid, caused by a layer of refractory metal, for example tungsten, is compatible with pairs of fluid, a sealed enclosure filled with fluid in the solid state, the electrodes are installed in theplanetary bound by the ratio h/H is 0.65-0.75. In addition, a heat pipe is provided with a level sensor coolant in the housing, for example, in the form of a resistance sensor current between the electrodes and the system of automatic control of the heat and work heat pipe. The claimed invention allows to create a highly efficient device for transferring heat by increasing reliability and service life of the heat pipe and to provide the ability to control the start of the heat pipe and control its operation. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.
The invention relates to heat engineering, namely, devices for heat transfer.
Known heat pipe (EN 2095717, F 28 D 15/02, 1997), containing partially filled with liquid conductive fluid sealed body with zones of evaporation and condensation and the getter container in the zone of condensation inside the enclosure. The housing end in the evaporation zone is equipped with a mounting base on which the inside fixed the heater in the form of a pair of electrodes. The carrier is made of electrically conductive material. The electrodes are designed in the form of plates of electroresistance material and are mounted parallel to each other perpendicular to the axis of the housing, the power electrode protective metal casing, the heat pipe is configured to seal her in the process of degassing from the end face in the condensation zone of the sealing tube, on the end of which is fixed container with a getter.
The disadvantage of a heat pipe is the lack of information about the location of the electrodes and their connection with the fill level of the coolant in the housing. In addition, the lack of information about the heating heat pipe operating temperature complicates its operation.
The objective of the invention is to provide a highly efficient device for transferring heat by increasing reliability and service life of the heat pipe and the ability to control the start of the heat pipe and control its operation.
The invention consists in the following. The inventive high-temperature heat pipe includes a sealed body with zones of evaporation and condensation, partially filled with fluid; and the body is made of a dielectric material with a tightly fitted to the outside of the protective metal casing. A cap fixed to the body from the end of the evaporation zone; on the base inside the housing fixed the heater in the form of a pair of electrodes; the electrodes are made in the form of plates of electroresistance mA alternating current. The carrier is made of electrically conductive material. High temperature heat pipe is configured to seal her in the process of degassing from the end face in the condensation zone of the sealing tube. At the end of the sealing tube is fixed container with a getter. Unlike the prototype as a dielectric material selected ceramics; on the inner surface of the ceramic in contact with the fluid, caused by a layer of refractory metal, for example tungsten, is compatible with pairs of the carrier; the sealed enclosure filled with fluid in the solid state; the electrodes are mounted in the carrier; the depth of the upper electrode “h” in the coolant and the level of fill of liquid coolant “H” in the case related by the ratio h/H=0,65-0,75; sensor fluid level in the casing is in the form of a resistance sensor current between the electrodes. The device is equipped with a system of automatic control of the heat and work heat pipe.
The choice of the dielectric material of the ceramic body provides long-term operation of the inventive heat pipe at elevated temperatures without failure. In addition, it simplifies the technology of izgotovleni with coolant, a layer of refractory metal, for example tungsten, is compatible with pairs of fluid, eliminates the direct chemical interaction of the ceramic body heat pipes at high temperature with the coolant and greatly increases the life of the pipe. Filling the hermetic casing of the heat pipe under normal conditions the fluid in the solid state, for example lithium, sodium, lead, and others, significantly extends the operating temperature range of the heat pipe as compared with the liquid coolant, for example water. The establishment of the electrodes in the coolant provides the opportunity for intensive heating to a liquid state by evaporation and boiling, and also reduces the startup time of the heat pipes and the possibility of regulation passed by the pipe of the heat flux over a wide range. The decrease in the ratio h/H<0,65 (where “h” is the depth of the upper electrode in the carrier, “H” - level of fill of the liquid coolant in the housing does not provide in some cases achieve a desired vapor pressure of the fluid in the housing. There is a necessity of additional time and energy to warm up with the launch of the heat pipe due to oganisee level of fill of the coolant in the housing, what complicates the arrangement of the electrodes in the housing parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the housing. On the other hand, when the level increases, the fill fluid “H” and increase the depth of the upper electrode “h” in the coolant increases thermal resistance of the heat transfer in the evaporation zone, increases the time and the energy consumption on heating up with the launch of the heat pipe. The presence sensor fluid level in the housing, for example in the form of a resistance sensor current between the electrodes, allows the startup control heat pipe and its operation when immersed in the liquid coolant electrodes, and allows you to control the possibility of seal failure heat pipe coolant leakage. A system of automatic control of heat and work heat pipe provides a smooth transition from the process of the heat pipe to the heat transfer process pipe in the system, as well as in a timely manner to stop the supply of heat to the evaporation zone of the heat pipe is controlled by sensor resistance current between the electrodes.
The claimed invention is illustrated in the drawing, which presents the appearance of the claimed viscotemp 1 evaporation zones 2 and condenser 3; protective metal casing 4; the cap 5 with the heater 6 in the form of electrodes 7 and 8, made of wafers; sealing the tube 9; container 10 with getter; the resistance sensor current 11 between the electrodes with the automatic control system; AC 12; coolant 13 in contact with the layer of refractory metal 14 on the body surface.
Before working heat pipe is carried out by warming up when the AC power source 12. When electric current flows between the electrodes 7 and 8 of the heater 6, is fixed on the base 5, the housing 1 is heated heat carrier 13 with its melting and evaporation in zone 2. Forming a pair of fluid fill the entire volume of the housing 1 with the condensation zone 3, from the interaction with the case protects the layer of refractory metal 14. When changing the level of the coolant 13 in the process of evaporation changes the resistance of the current between the electrodes 7 and 8, which is controlled by the resistance sensor current 11 and when the preset value of the automatic control system is disconnecting the AC power source 12. Metal case 4 protects the ceramic body 1 from damage. Formed in the process th obce 9. After heating heat pipe is carried out her work with the transformation of heat from the evaporation zone 2 in the condensation zone 3 while cooling the outer surface of the housing 1 with the protective metal casing 4.
1. High temperature heat pipe containing partially filled with fluid sealed body with zones of evaporation and condensation, is made of a dielectric material with a tightly fitted to the outside of the protective metal casing; a cap attached to the housing with the end of the evaporation zone, which inside fixed the heater in the form of a pair of electrodes made of plates made of electroresistance material and installed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of the housing; a power electrode, made with alternating current; a carrier made of electrically conductive material; the housing end face in the condensation zone is installed sealing tube, at the end of which is fixed container with a getter, characterized in that the dielectric material is selected ceramics, on the inner surface which is in contact with the fluid, caused by a layer of refractory metal is enom condition, the electrodes are installed in the coolant, the depth of the upper electrode h in the coolant and the level of fill of liquid coolant H in the casing connected by the relation h/H=0,65-0,75.
2. High temperature heat pipe under item 1, characterized in that it is provided with a level sensor in the coolant housing, for example in the form of a resistance sensor current between the electrodes and the system of automatic control of the heat and work heat pipe.
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.
EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.
22 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.
EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.
EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.
14 dwg, 18 cl
FIELD: applicable for heat abstraction in various media.
SUBSTANCE: the heat transferring device has a sealed pipe with condensation and evaporation zones filled up with a heat-transfer agent with pockets provided on the inner surface, the pockets used for inhibition of draining condensate are located in the evaporation zone and made annular or formed by the sections of the helical surface adjoining the pipe inner wall with its lower edge at an acute angle, which are separated from one another by radial partitions, the annular pocket is formed by the side surface of the truncated cone, adjoining the inner wall of the mentioned pipe with the larger base. Besides, at least some of the pockets located one above other are positioned at such a distance that a capillary effect occurs between the surfaces facing one the other.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat transfer due to the increase of the pipe surface wettable by the heat-transfer agent, as well as simplified structure an facilitated actuation of the device.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: chemical and oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.
SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.
EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.
FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.
EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.